9780199335619

Gendered Worlds

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780199335619

  • ISBN10:

    0199335613

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/15/2014
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

In Gendered Worlds, Third Edition, authors Judy Root Aulette and Judith Wittner use the sociological imagination to explore gender relations throughout the world. They look at how concrete forms of gender, race, class, and sexual inequality operate transnationally; examine the impact of globalization on local and everyday life experiences; and identify how local actors re-imagine social possibilities, resist injustice, and work toward change. Integrating theory with empirical studies that are of particular interest to college students--including research on violence, sports, and sexuality--the authors make gender concepts genuinely interesting and accessible. They also demonstrate how students can think critically about gender, both within and beyond the classroom.

Author Biography


Judy Root Aulette is Professor in the Department of Sociology and the Women's and Gender Studies Program at UNC-Charlotte. She is author of Changing American Families, Third Edition (2010), and coauthor, with Anna Aulette-Root and Floretta Boonzaier, of South African Women Living with HIV: Global Lessons from Local Voices (2013).

Judith Wittner is Professor in the Department of Sociology at Loyola University Chicago. She is coeditor, with R. Stephen Warner, of Gatherings In Diaspora: Religious Communities and the New Immigration (1998).

Table of Contents


Boxes
Preface
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1: Introduction
A Few More Inconvenient Truths
Some Ground Rules for Studying Gender
Social Life Is Socially Based and Politically Structured
Gender Is Part of a Network of Social Inequalities
Scholarship Is Political
The Overarching Theory of Intersectionality
Hegemonic Masculinities and Emphasized Femininities
Making History
Feminist Scholars Seeking Answers
Feminism in the Universities
Women's Movements: A Broad Look
Chapter 2: Bodies and Genders
The Standard Story
The Interplay of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
Chromosomes, Hormones, and Genes
Sexed Bodies in Other Times and Other Places
Metaphors about Bodies in the New World
How Many Genders Are There? The Evidence from Other Cultures
Sexuality and Sexual Orientation: Gendering Desire
The Basis of Sexuality Is Not "Either-Or" but "Both-And"
Sexuality Is Socially Scripted
Bodies Are Produced within Society
Erotic Relations Are Historical Relations
Sexuality Is Racialized, Race Is Sexualized
Intersex and Transgender Bodies
Intersexuality and Ambiguity
Embodiment and Intersexuality
A Brief History of Intersex
Intersex as Lived Reality
Intersex Activism
The Umbrella of Transgender
Gender Matters
Chapter 3: Socialization and the Social Construction of Gender
The Gender Lenses of Androcentrism, Gender Polarization, and Essentialism
Individual-Level Theories: Social Roles and Social Learning
Interactionist Theories: Doing Gender
The Social Implications of Doing Gender
Props and Resources for Doing Gender
Structuralist Theories: Rosabeth Moss Kanter
Opportunity Structures
Power Structures
Relative Numbers
Gendered Organizations: Joan Acker
Institutional Theories
Integrating Socialization, Interaction, and Institutions
Explaining Bad Boys in the Language of Socialization
The Interactional Construction of Bad Boys and Disciplinarian Teachers
Explaining How Institutions Create Bad Boys
Gender Matters
Chapter 4: Sexualities
Comparing Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Around the Globe
Changing Attitudes Toward Sexuality in the United States
Calling, Dating, and Hooking Up
The Cult of the Virgin
Sexual Rights
The Racial Subtext of the Sexual Double Standard
Sexualized Images of Black Men
Racialized Images of Women's Sexuality
Social Class and Sexuality
What Is Your Sexuality?
Lesbian or Bisexual Chic
Men Who Have Sex with Men
Homophobia
Heterosexism
Competing Perspectives on Gendered Sexuality
Biology
Sexual Scripts
How to Be a Heterosexual
Queer Theory
Sex for Sale
Pornography
Gendered Porn
The Feminist Censorship Debate
Sex Workers
Legal Prostitution
The Feminist Prostitution Debate
Globalization and Sex Trafficking
Gender Matters
Chapter 5: Education
Gender in the K-12 Classroom
What Difference Does Differential Treatment in Schools Make?
Taming Warriors in the Kindergarten Classroom
Medicalizing and Medicating Boys in Schools
Teaching Materials
Bullying
High School
Counting Gender Differences in High School
Math and Science and Gender
Vocational Education
Title IX, No Child Left Behind, and Single-Sex Schools
SAT Scores
International Comparisons on Standardized Tests
Higher Education and Gender
Women and Higher Education in the United States
What About the Boys?
Global Issues in Education
Unexpected Connections between Water and Education
Gender and Teachers
Evaluating Professors
The Correspondence Principle
Gender Matters
Chapter 6: Gender and the Global Economy
Paid Work
Who Is In the Paid Workplace?
Emotional Labor
Equal Pay?
Unequal Opportunity: The Glass Ceiling, the Glass Escalator, and the Sticky Floor
Why Is There a Wage Gap between Women and Men?
Discrimination
Human Capital
Organization of Jobs
Gender Segregation of the Labor Market
Climbing the Ladder of Success
Bringing Politics into the Picture
How Can the Gender Gap in Promotion Be Closed?
Comparable Worth Policies
Success Stories
Success Stories in Engineering
Retirement
When Work Disappears: Masculinity and Homeless Men
The Feminization of Poverty
Unpaid Work through the Life Cycle
Why Is Women's Work Invisible?
Children and Housework
What's Behind the Way People Divide Up Housework?
Socialization Theory
Rational Choice Theory
Feminist Theory
Globalization and Gender
WID, WAD, and GAD
Gender Matters
Chapter 7: Families
Marriage
Marriage as a Legal Contract and the Challenge of Gay Rights Activists
History of Marriage in the United States
Marriage Promotion in the United States
Love and Marriage
Widowhood
Parenting and Caregiving
Motherhood Mystique
Work and Family in Latino and African American Families
Working Mothers and the Mommy Wars
Welfare Mothers
Temporary Aid to Needy Families
Parenting by Fathers
Men Balancing Work and Family
The Fatherhood Responsibility Movement
Biology and Parenting $
Another Kind of Family Caregiving: Elder Care
Gendered Styles of Care Work
Grandparents and Care Work
Balancing Work and Family
International Comparisons of Family Support Programs
Divorce
The Gendered Economics of Divorce
Challenges of Divorce for Men
Variation in Divorce Laws in Different Nations
South African Divorce Laws
Repudiation in Muslim Nations
Making Comparisons
Gender Matters
Chapter 8: Violence
The Gendered Continuum of Violence
Some Statistics on Violence
Street Harassment: A Geography of Fear
Men's Personal Safety and Gendered Violence
Rape and Domestic Violence
Recent Decline in Rape Statistics
Accounting for Rape: Evolutionary Theory, Individual Psychology, and Inequality
Evolutionary Theory
Individual Psychology
Power Inequality
Ending Rape
The Discovery of Domestic Violence
Studies of Domestic Violence
From Universality to Intersectionality
Beyond Criminal Justice: Marginalized Battered Women at the Center
State Violence against Men
The Prison-Industrial Complex
Sexual Violence in Men's Prisons
Gendered Violence in Conflict Zones
Guatemala: A Case Study
What Is to Be Done? CEDAW, the International Criminal Court, and Security Council Resolution
Gender Matters
Chapter 9: Gender- and Race-Based Illness: Diseases of the Division of Labor
Health and Illness as Social Issues
Nation and Life Expectancy
Gender and Life Expectancy
Sex, Gender, and Health: The Gendered Division of Labor
The Health Risks and Benefits of Women's Employment in the Global North
Poor Women's Health Risks on the Job in the Global South
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Toxins and Reproductive Risk
Gendered Illness: Believing Is Seeing
Hysteria
Frigidity
Eating Disorders
Men's Body Crises
Masculinity as a Health Risk
Masculinity and Heart Disease
Stratification and Inequality in the Health Care System
Care Work: The Paid or Unpaid, but Often Invisible, Foundation of Health Care
Women's Health Movements
Abortion in the United States
Beyond Roe v. Wade: The Struggle Continues
Women of Color and Sterilization Abuse
The Racism and Classism of Sterilization
Globalizing Sterilization
Gender and the Global AIDS Pandemic
Behavioral and Educational Approaches
Structural Violence and the Women's Epidemic
Reflections on Gender and Health: Fighting Back
Around the World
Gender Matters
Chapter 10: Politics, Prison, and the Military
Politics and the State
Electoral Politics
Voting Rights
The Gender Gap in Voting
Women Elected Officials
What Difference Does It Make?
Why So Few Women?
Gender and Campaigns
Three Models for Reform
Meritocratic Remedies
Affirmative Action Remedies
Radical Remedies
Political Institutions: The Courts and Prisons
Young People in the Criminal Justice System
The War on Drugs
Why Are Men So Much More Likely to Be in Prison?
Political Institutions: The Military
Women in Combat
Women and Men in the Military Today
Gender Harassment in the Military
Why the Hostility against Women in the Military?
Masculinity and Heterosexuality in the Military
Why Are Differences in the Treatment of Women in the Military Important?
Be Careful What You Wish For
Women and Peace
What Is Political?
Gender Matters
Chapter 11: Popular Culture and Media
Mass Media and Gender
Gender on Television
Reality TV and Gender
LGBT on TV
Missing Women in the Television Industry
Symbolic Annihilation
Gender in Advertising
Advertising Masculinity
Men and Beer
Advertising Gender in Three Nations
Gender in U.S. Advertising
Gender in Turkish Advertising
Gender in Japanese Advertising
Gender in Film
Children's Movies
Sexualization of Girls and Women in Media
Gender and the Internet
Media Theory
Resisting Media
Music Videos
Gender Matters
Chapter 12: Sports
Sports and Masculinity
History of Sports and Manliness
Gay Athletes
Initiation Rites and Football
Dangers of Masculinity
Time for a Change?
Mexican Baseball Players Challenge Hegemonic Masculinity in Sports
Sportswomen
Title IX
International Efforts to Bring Women into Sports
Barriers to Bringing Women into Sports
Women Athletes, Homophobia, and Heterosexism
Venus and Mars Play Sports
Assimilation or Reform
Gender Matters
Chapter 13: Religion
Religion as an Institution
Importance of Religion across the Globe
By the Numbers
Religion and Gender: Contested Terrain
Abrahamic Religions
Catholicism
Islam
The Practice of Wearing a Hijab
Women and the Hijab in the United States
Perspectives on Islam in the United Kingdom
Buddhism
Religion and Gender: Fundamentalism
Muslim Fundamentalism
Christian Fundamentalism
Fundamentalist Views of Masculinity
Fundamentalist Fathers
Evangelical Feminists
Hindu Fundamentalism
Women in the Pulpit
The Da Vinci Code and Ancient Religious Views of Women
Religion as a Free Space in Oppressive Cultures
Religion as a Base of Resistance
Women Activists in Sri Lanka
Religion in the American Civil Rights Movement
Challenging Religion from Within
What Difference Would More Gender-Equal Religions Make?
Feminist Theoretical Models
Classical Sociological Theory on Religion
Gender Matters
Chapter 14: Globalizing, Organizing, and Making the World a Better Place
The Development Paradigm
Beyond the Rural: Export Processing Zones
Two More Global Economies
Feminist Political Ecology: Beyond Production
A Provisioning Economy
Local Knowledge
How Will We Change the World?
Glossary
Index

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