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In Gendered Worlds, Third Edition, authors Judy Root Aulette and Judith Wittner use the sociological imagination to explore gender relations throughout the world. They look at how concrete forms of gender, race, class, and sexual inequality operate transnationally; examine the impact of globalization on local and everyday life experiences; and identify how local actors re-imagine social possibilities, resist injustice, and work toward change. Integrating theory with empirical studies that are of particular interest to college students--including research on violence, sports, and sexuality--the authors make gender concepts genuinely interesting and accessible. They also demonstrate how students can think critically about gender, both within and beyond the classroom.
Judy Root Aulette is Professor in the Department of Sociology and the Women's and Gender Studies Program at UNC-Charlotte. She is author of Changing American Families, Third Edition (2010), and coauthor, with Anna Aulette-Root and Floretta Boonzaier, of South African Women Living with HIV: GlobalLessons from Local Voices (2013).
Judith Wittner is Professor in the Department of Sociology at Loyola University Chicago. She is coeditor, with R. Stephen Warner, of Gatherings In Diaspora: Religious Communities and the New Immigration (1998).
Table of Contents
Boxes Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1: Introduction A Few More Inconvenient Truths Some Ground Rules for Studying Gender Social Life Is Socially Based and Politically Structured Gender Is Part of a Network of Social Inequalities Scholarship Is Political The Overarching Theory of Intersectionality Hegemonic Masculinities and Emphasized Femininities Making History Feminist Scholars Seeking Answers Feminism in the Universities Women's Movements: A Broad Look Chapter 2: Bodies and Genders The Standard Story The Interplay of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality Chromosomes, Hormones, and Genes Sexed Bodies in Other Times and Other Places Metaphors about Bodies in the New World How Many Genders Are There? The Evidence from Other Cultures Sexuality and Sexual Orientation: Gendering Desire The Basis of Sexuality Is Not "Either-Or" but "Both-And" Sexuality Is Socially Scripted Bodies Are Produced within Society Erotic Relations Are Historical Relations Sexuality Is Racialized, Race Is Sexualized Intersex and Transgender Bodies Intersexuality and Ambiguity Embodiment and Intersexuality A Brief History of Intersex Intersex as Lived Reality Intersex Activism The Umbrella of Transgender Gender Matters Chapter 3: Socialization and the Social Construction of Gender The Gender Lenses of Androcentrism, Gender Polarization, and Essentialism Individual-Level Theories: Social Roles and Social Learning Interactionist Theories: Doing Gender The Social Implications of Doing Gender Props and Resources for Doing Gender Structuralist Theories: Rosabeth Moss Kanter Opportunity Structures Power Structures Relative Numbers Gendered Organizations: Joan Acker Institutional Theories Integrating Socialization, Interaction, and Institutions Explaining Bad Boys in the Language of Socialization The Interactional Construction of Bad Boys and Disciplinarian Teachers Explaining How Institutions Create Bad Boys Gender Matters Chapter 4: Sexualities Comparing Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Around the Globe Changing Attitudes Toward Sexuality in the United States Calling, Dating, and Hooking Up The Cult of the Virgin Sexual Rights The Racial Subtext of the Sexual Double Standard Sexualized Images of Black Men Racialized Images of Women's Sexuality Social Class and Sexuality What Is Your Sexuality? Lesbian or Bisexual Chic Men Who Have Sex with Men Homophobia Heterosexism Competing Perspectives on Gendered Sexuality Biology Sexual Scripts How to Be a Heterosexual Queer Theory Sex for Sale Pornography Gendered Porn The Feminist Censorship Debate Sex Workers Legal Prostitution The Feminist Prostitution Debate Globalization and Sex Trafficking Gender Matters Chapter 5: Education Gender in the K-12 Classroom What Difference Does Differential Treatment in Schools Make? Taming Warriors in the Kindergarten Classroom Medicalizing and Medicating Boys in Schools Teaching Materials Bullying High School Counting Gender Differences in High School Math and Science and Gender Vocational Education Title IX, No Child Left Behind, and Single-Sex Schools SAT Scores International Comparisons on Standardized Tests Higher Education and Gender Women and Higher Education in the United States What About the Boys? Global Issues in Education Unexpected Connections between Water and Education Gender and Teachers Evaluating Professors The Correspondence Principle Gender Matters Chapter 6: Gender and the Global Economy Paid Work Who Is In the Paid Workplace? Emotional Labor Equal Pay? Unequal Opportunity: The Glass Ceiling, the Glass Escalator, and the Sticky Floor Why Is There a Wage Gap between Women and Men? Discrimination Human Capital Organization of Jobs Gender Segregation of the Labor Market Climbing the Ladder of Success Bringing Politics into the Picture How Can the Gender Gap in Promotion Be Closed? Comparable Worth Policies Success Stories Success Stories in Engineering Retirement When Work Disappears: Masculinity and Homeless Men The Feminization of Poverty Unpaid Work through the Life Cycle Why Is Women's Work Invisible? Children and Housework What's Behind the Way People Divide Up Housework? Socialization Theory Rational Choice Theory Feminist Theory Globalization and Gender WID, WAD, and GAD Gender Matters Chapter 7: Families Marriage Marriage as a Legal Contract and the Challenge of Gay Rights Activists History of Marriage in the United States Marriage Promotion in the United States Love and Marriage Widowhood Parenting and Caregiving Motherhood Mystique Work and Family in Latino and African American Families Working Mothers and the Mommy Wars Welfare Mothers Temporary Aid to Needy Families Parenting by Fathers Men Balancing Work and Family The Fatherhood Responsibility Movement Biology and Parenting $ Another Kind of Family Caregiving: Elder Care Gendered Styles of Care Work Grandparents and Care Work Balancing Work and Family International Comparisons of Family Support Programs Divorce The Gendered Economics of Divorce Challenges of Divorce for Men Variation in Divorce Laws in Different Nations South African Divorce Laws Repudiation in Muslim Nations Making Comparisons Gender Matters Chapter 8: Violence The Gendered Continuum of Violence Some Statistics on Violence Street Harassment: A Geography of Fear Men's Personal Safety and Gendered Violence Rape and Domestic Violence Recent Decline in Rape Statistics Accounting for Rape: Evolutionary Theory, Individual Psychology, and Inequality Evolutionary Theory Individual Psychology Power Inequality Ending Rape The Discovery of Domestic Violence Studies of Domestic Violence From Universality to Intersectionality Beyond Criminal Justice: Marginalized Battered Women at the Center State Violence against Men The Prison-Industrial Complex Sexual Violence in Men's Prisons Gendered Violence in Conflict Zones Guatemala: A Case Study What Is to Be Done? CEDAW, the International Criminal Court, and Security Council Resolution Gender Matters Chapter 9: Gender- and Race-Based Illness: Diseases of the Division of Labor Health and Illness as Social Issues Nation and Life Expectancy Gender and Life Expectancy Sex, Gender, and Health: The Gendered Division of Labor The Health Risks and Benefits of Women's Employment in the Global North Poor Women's Health Risks on the Job in the Global South Sexual and Reproductive Health Toxins and Reproductive Risk Gendered Illness: Believing Is Seeing Hysteria Frigidity Eating Disorders Men's Body Crises Masculinity as a Health Risk Masculinity and Heart Disease Stratification and Inequality in the Health Care System Care Work: The Paid or Unpaid, but Often Invisible, Foundation of Health Care Women's Health Movements Abortion in the United States Beyond Roe v. Wade: The Struggle Continues Women of Color and Sterilization Abuse The Racism and Classism of Sterilization Globalizing Sterilization Gender and the Global AIDS Pandemic Behavioral and Educational Approaches Structural Violence and the Women's Epidemic Reflections on Gender and Health: Fighting Back Around the World Gender Matters Chapter 10: Politics, Prison, and the Military Politics and the State Electoral Politics Voting Rights The Gender Gap in Voting Women Elected Officials What Difference Does It Make? Why So Few Women? Gender and Campaigns Three Models for Reform Meritocratic Remedies Affirmative Action Remedies Radical Remedies Political Institutions: The Courts and Prisons Young People in the Criminal Justice System The War on Drugs Why Are Men So Much More Likely to Be in Prison? Political Institutions: The Military Women in Combat Women and Men in the Military Today Gender Harassment in the Military Why the Hostility against Women in the Military? Masculinity and Heterosexuality in the Military Why Are Differences in the Treatment of Women in the Military Important? Be Careful What You Wish For Women and Peace What Is Political? Gender Matters Chapter 11: Popular Culture and Media Mass Media and Gender Gender on Television Reality TV and Gender LGBT on TV Missing Women in the Television Industry Symbolic Annihilation Gender in Advertising Advertising Masculinity Men and Beer Advertising Gender in Three Nations Gender in U.S. Advertising Gender in Turkish Advertising Gender in Japanese Advertising Gender in Film Children's Movies Sexualization of Girls and Women in Media Gender and the Internet Media Theory Resisting Media Music Videos Gender Matters Chapter 12: Sports Sports and Masculinity History of Sports and Manliness Gay Athletes Initiation Rites and Football Dangers of Masculinity Time for a Change? Mexican Baseball Players Challenge Hegemonic Masculinity in Sports Sportswomen Title IX International Efforts to Bring Women into Sports Barriers to Bringing Women into Sports Women Athletes, Homophobia, and Heterosexism Venus and Mars Play Sports Assimilation or Reform Gender Matters Chapter 13: Religion Religion as an Institution Importance of Religion across the Globe By the Numbers Religion and Gender: Contested Terrain Abrahamic Religions Catholicism Islam The Practice of Wearing a Hijab Women and the Hijab in the United States Perspectives on Islam in the United Kingdom Buddhism Religion and Gender: Fundamentalism Muslim Fundamentalism Christian Fundamentalism Fundamentalist Views of Masculinity Fundamentalist Fathers Evangelical Feminists Hindu Fundamentalism Women in the Pulpit The Da Vinci Code and Ancient Religious Views of Women Religion as a Free Space in Oppressive Cultures Religion as a Base of Resistance Women Activists in Sri Lanka Religion in the American Civil Rights Movement Challenging Religion from Within What Difference Would More Gender-Equal Religions Make? Feminist Theoretical Models Classical Sociological Theory on Religion Gender Matters Chapter 14: Globalizing, Organizing, and Making the World a Better Place The Development Paradigm Beyond the Rural: Export Processing Zones Two More Global Economies Feminist Political Ecology: Beyond Production A Provisioning Economy Local Knowledge How Will We Change the World? Glossary Index