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General Chemistry (With General Chemistrynow),9780495011965

General Chemistry (With General Chemistrynow)

by ; ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780495011965

ISBN10:
0495011967
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/16/2006
Publisher(s):
BROOKS COLE
List Price: $377.95

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Summary

The Eighth Edition of CHEMISTRY incorporates a strong molecular reasoning focus, amplified problem-solving exercises, and innovative technological resources. This kind of reasoning helps students think at the molecular level and make connections between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. Molecular reasoning and visualization are emphasized via Molecular-Reasoning icons, chapter objectives, end-of-chapter problems, and new artwork, and are integrated into the accompanying technology, including OWL (online homework management system) and General ChemistryNow? (student assessment program). As in previous editions, thermochemistry is covered mainly in one chapter (Chapter 15) and begins the second half of the course. However, to address the need for more material on thermochemistry earlier in the course, the text now includes information on bond energies in Chapter 7 on Chemical Bonding. The discussion of entropy in Chapter 15 has been expanded to include not only molecular disorder but also the concept of energy dispersal.

Table of Contents

About the Authors xvii
To the Instructor xix
To the Student xxxi
The Foundations of Chemistry
1(46)
Matter and Energy
4(1)
Chemistry---A Molecular View of Matter
5(4)
States of Matter
9(2)
Chemical and Physical Properties
11(1)
Chemical and Physical Changes
12(1)
Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements
13(6)
Chemistry in Use The Resources of the Ocean
14(5)
Measurements in Chemistry
19(1)
Units of Measurement
20(2)
Use of Numbers
22(5)
The Unit Factor Method (Dimensional Analysis)
27(4)
Percentage
31(1)
Density and Specific Gravity
31(3)
Heat and Temperature
34(2)
Heat Transfer and the Measurement of Heat
36(11)
Key Terms
40(1)
Exercises
40(7)
Chemical Formulas and Composition Stoichiometry
47(37)
Chemical Formulas
48(4)
Ions and Ionic Compounds
52(1)
Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds
53(2)
Atomic Weights
55(1)
The Mole
55(5)
Chemistry in Use Avogadro's Number
59(1)
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights, and Moles
60(3)
Percent Composition and Formulas of Compounds
63(3)
Chemistry in Use Names of the Elements
64(2)
Derivation of Formulas from Elemental Composition
66(4)
Determination of Molecular Formulas
70(2)
Some Other Interpretations of Chemical Formulas
72(4)
Purity of Samples
76(8)
Key Terms
77(1)
Exercises
78(6)
Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry
84(32)
Chemical Equations
85(5)
Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
90(4)
The Limiting Reactant (Reagent) Concept
94(3)
Percent Yields from Chemical Reactions
97(1)
Sequential Reactions
98(1)
Concentrations of Solutions
99(5)
Dilution of Solutions
104(1)
Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
105(11)
Key Terms
108(1)
Exercises
108(8)
Some Types of Chemical Reactions
116(50)
The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
117(6)
Chemistry in Use The Discovery of Phosphorus
122(1)
Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction
123(6)
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
129(2)
Oxidation Numbers
131(3)
Naming Some Inorganic Compounds
134(1)
Naming Binary Compounds
134(3)
Naming Ternary Acids and Their Salts
137(2)
Classifying Chemical Reactions
139(1)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: An Introduction
139(3)
Combination Reactions
142(2)
Decomposition Reactions
144(1)
Displacement Reactions
145(5)
Chemistry in Use Troublesome Displacement Reactions
147(3)
Metathesis Reactions
150(5)
Gas-Formation Reactions
155(1)
Summary of Reaction Types
156(10)
Key Terms
158(1)
Exercises
159(7)
The Structure of Atoms
166(52)
Subatomic Particles
167(1)
Fundamental Particles
167(1)
The Discovery of Electrons
168(2)
Canal Rays and Protons
170(1)
Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom
170(2)
Atomic Number
172(1)
Neutrons
173(1)
Mass Number and Isotopes
173(2)
Mass Spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance
175(3)
Chemistry in Use Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis
177(1)
The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic Weights
178(2)
The Electronic Structures of Atoms
180(1)
Electromagnetic Radiation
180(4)
The Photoelectric Effect
184(1)
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Atom
185(6)
Enrichment The Bohr Theory and the Balmer-Rydberg Equation
188(3)
The Wave Nature of the Electron
191(1)
The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Atom
192(2)
Enrichment The Schrodinger Equation
193(1)
Quantum Numbers
194(1)
Atomic Orbitals
195(4)
Electron Configurations
199(6)
Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
205(1)
The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations
206(12)
Key Terms
209(1)
Exercises
210(8)
Chemical Periodicity
218(32)
More About the Periodic Table
219(3)
Chemistry in Use The Periodic Table
220(1)
Chemistry in Use Glenn Seaborg: A Human Side to the Modern Periodic Table
221(1)
Periodic Properties of the Elements
222(1)
Atomic Radii
222(3)
Ionization Energy
225(2)
Electron Affinity
227(2)
Ionic Radii
229(2)
Electronegativity
231(2)
Chemical Reactions and Periodicity
233(1)
Hydrogen and the Hydrides
233(3)
Oxygen and the Oxides
236(14)
Key Terms
244(1)
Exercises
245(5)
Chemical Bonding
250(36)
Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms
251(1)
Ionic Bonding
252(1)
Formation of Ionic Compounds
252(7)
Enrichment Introduction to Energy Relationships in Ionic Bonding
257(2)
Covalent Bonding
259(1)
Formation of Covalent Bonds
259(1)
Bond Lengths and Bond Energies
260(1)
Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions
261(1)
Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule
262(6)
Formal Charges
268(2)
Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the Octet Rule
270(4)
Resonance
274(2)
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
276(1)
Dipole Moments
277(1)
The Continuous Range of Bonding Types
278(8)
Key Terms
279(1)
Exercises
280(6)
Molecular Structure and Covalent Bonding Theories
286(42)
A Preview of the Chapter
287(2)
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
289(2)
Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular Geometry
291(2)
Valence Bond Theory
293(1)
Molecular Shapes and Bonding
293(1)
Linear Electronic Geometry: AB2 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
294(2)
Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
296(2)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
298(5)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species (One Lone Pair of Electrons on A)
303(4)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species (Two Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
307(2)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: ABU3 Species (Three Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
309(1)
Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
309(4)
Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, AB4U2
313(4)
Compounds Containing Double Bonds
317(1)
Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
318(3)
A Summary of Electronic and Molecular Geometries
321(7)
Key Terms
321(1)
Exercises
322(6)
Molecular Orbitals in Chemical Bonding
328(18)
Molecular Orbitals
329(3)
Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams
332(1)
Bond Order and Bond Stability
333(1)
Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
334(3)
Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
337(3)
Delocalization and the Shapes of Molecular Orbitals
340(6)
Key Terms
342(1)
Exercises
342(4)
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases, and Salts
346(27)
Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases
348(1)
The Arrhenius Theory
348(1)
The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion)
349(1)
The Bronsted-Lowry Theory
349(3)
The Autoionization of Water
352(1)
Amphoterism
353(1)
Strengths of Acids
354(3)
Acid-Base Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
357(3)
Chemistry in Use Everyday Salts of Ternary Acids
359(1)
Acidic Salts and Basic Salts
360(2)
The Lewis Theory
362(2)
The Preparation of Acids
364(9)
Key Terms
366(1)
Exercises
367(6)
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions II: Calculations
373(25)
Aqueous Acid-Base Reactions
374(1)
Calculations Involving Molarity
374(4)
Titrations
378(2)
Calculations for Acid-Base Titrations
380(5)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
384(1)
Balancing Redox Equations
385(1)
Adding H+, OH-, or H2O to Balance Oxygen or Hydrogen
386(3)
Calculations for Redox Titrations
389(9)
Key Terms
391(1)
Exercises
392(6)
Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
398(48)
Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases
399(1)
Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases
400(1)
Pressure
401(3)
Chemistry in Use The Greenhouse Effect
402(2)
Boyle's Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship
404(3)
Charles's Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship; The Absolute Temperature Scale
407(2)
Standard Temperature and Pressure
409(1)
The Combined Gas Law Equation
409(2)
Avogadro's Law and the Standard Molar Volume
411(1)
Summary of Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation
412(4)
Determination of Molecular Weights and Molecular Formulas of Gaseous Substances
416(2)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
418(6)
Mass-Volume Relationships in Reactions Involving Gases
424(2)
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
426(5)
Enrichment Kinetic-Molecular Theory, the Ideal Gas Equation, and Molecular Speeds
429(2)
Diffusion and Effusion of Gases
431(2)
Deviations from Ideal Gas Behavior
433(13)
Key Terms
436(1)
Exercises
437(9)
Liquids and Solids
446(54)
Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids
447(1)
Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes
448(7)
The Liquid State
455(1)
Viscosity
455(1)
Surface Tension
456(1)
Capillary Action
457(1)
Evaporation
458(1)
Vapor Pressure
459(2)
Boiling Points and Distillation
461(1)
Heat Transfer Involving Liquids
461(4)
Enrichment The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
464(1)
The Solid State
465(1)
Melting Point
465(1)
Heat Transfer Involving Solids
466(2)
Sublimation and the Vapor Pressure of Solids
468(1)
Phase Diagrams (P versus T)
468(3)
Amorphous Solids and Crystalline Solids
471(3)
Enrichment X-Ray Diffraction
472(2)
Structures of Crystals
474(3)
Bonding in Solids
477(8)
Band Theory of Metals
485(15)
Chemistry in Use Semiconductors
488(2)
Key Terms
490(2)
Exercises
492(8)
Solutions
500(46)
The Dissolution Process
501(1)
Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process
501(2)
Dissolution of Solids in Liquids
503(3)
Dissolution of Liquids in Liquids (Miscibility)
506(1)
Dissolution of Gases in Liquids
507(1)
Rates of Dissolution and Saturation
508(2)
Effect of Temperature on Solubility
510(2)
Effect of Pressure on Solubility
512(1)
Molality and Mole Fraction
512(2)
Colligative Properties of Solutions
514(1)
Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult's Law
514(4)
Fractional Distillation
518(2)
Boiling Point Elevation
520(1)
Freezing Point Depression
521(2)
Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression or Boiling Point Elevation
523(1)
Colligative Properties and Dissociation of Electrolytes
524(3)
Osmotic Pressure
527(6)
Colloids
531(1)
Chemistry in Use Water Purification and Hemodialysis
532(1)
The Tyndall Effect
533(1)
The Adsorption Phenomenon
534(1)
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids
535(11)
Chemistry in Use Why Does Red Wine Go with Red Meat?
538(1)
Key Terms
538(2)
Exercises
540(6)
Chemical Thermodynamics
546(58)
Heat Changes and Thermochemistry
548(1)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
548(2)
Some Thermodynamic Terms
550(1)
Enthalpy Changes
551(1)
Calorimetry
551(2)
Thermochemical Equations
553(3)
Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes
556(1)
Standard Molar Enthalpies of Formation, ΔH0f
557(2)
Hess's Law
559(4)
Bond Energies
563(3)
Changes in Internal Energy, ΔE
566(6)
Relationship Between ΔH and ΔE
572(1)
Spontaneity of Physical and Chemical Changes
573(1)
The Two Aspects of Spontaneity
573(1)
Dispersal of Energy and Matter
574(4)
Entropy, S, and Entropy Change, ΔS
578(6)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
584(2)
Free Energy Change, ΔG, and Spontaneity
586(3)
The Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity
589(15)
Key Terms
593(1)
Exercises
594(10)
Chemical Kinetics
604(55)
The Rate of a Reaction
606(6)
Factors That Affect Reaction Rates
611(1)
Nature of the Reactants
612(1)
Concentrations of Reactants: The Rate-Law Expression
612(7)
Concentration Versus Time: The Integrated Rate Equation
619(11)
Enrichment Calculus Derivation of Integrated Rate Equations
626(1)
Enrichment Using Integrated Rate Equations to Determine Reaction Order
627(3)
Collision Theory of Reaction Rates
630(1)
Transition State Theory
631(3)
Reaction Mechanisms and the Rate-Law Expression
634(3)
Temperature: The Arrhenius Equation
637(4)
Catalysts
641(18)
Chemistry in Use Ozone
646(4)
Key Terms
650(1)
Exercises
651(8)
Chemical Equilibrium
659(43)
Basic Concepts
660(2)
The Equilibrium Constant
662(4)
Variation of Kc with the Form of the Balanced Equation
666(1)
The Reaction Quotient
667(1)
Uses of the Equilibrium Constant, Kc
668(3)
Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Predictions
671(7)
The Haber Process: A Commercial Application of Equilibrium
678(2)
Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations
680(4)
Partial Pressures and the Equilibrium Constant
684(1)
Relationship Between KP and Kc
684(3)
Heterogeneous Equilibria
687(1)
Relationship Between ΔG0rxn and the Equilibrium Constant
688(3)
Evaluation of Equilibrium Constants at Different Temperatures
691(11)
Key Terms
693(1)
Exercises
693(9)
Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases
702(39)
A Review of Strong Electrolytes
703(1)
The Autoionization of Water
704(2)
The pH and pOH Scales
706(3)
Ionization Constants for Weak Monoprotic Acids and Bases
709(13)
Polyprotic Acids
722(3)
Solvolysis
725(1)
Salts of Strong Bases and Strong Acids
726(1)
Salts of Strong Bases and Weak Acids
726(3)
Salts of Weak Bases and Strong Acids
729(1)
Salts of Weak Bases and Weak Acids
730(3)
Chemistry in Use Taming Acids with Harmless Salts
731(2)
Salts That Contain Small, Highly Charged Cations
733(8)
Key Terms
735(1)
Exercises
736(5)
Ionic Equilibria II: Buffers and Titration Curves
741(27)
The Common Ion Effect and Buffer Solutions
742(6)
Buffering Action
748(3)
Preparation of Buffer Solutions
751(4)
Chemistry in Use Fun with Carbonates
754(1)
Acid-Base Indicators
755(2)
Titration Curves
757(1)
Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration Curves
757(3)
Weak Acid/Strong Base Titration Curves
760(2)
Weak Acid/Weak Base Titration Curves
762(1)
Summary of Acid-Base Calculations
763(5)
Key Terms
764(1)
Exercises
764(4)
Ionic Equilibria III: The Solubility Product Principle
768(23)
Solubility Product Constants
769(2)
Determination of Solubility Product Constants
771(2)
Uses of Solubility Product Constants
773(6)
Fractional Precipitation
779(2)
Simultaneous Equilibria Involving Slightly Soluble Compounds
781(3)
Dissolving Precipitates
784(7)
Key Terms
786(1)
Exercises
787(4)
Electrochemistry
791(49)
Electrical Conduction
793(1)
Electrodes
793(1)
Electrolytic Cells
793(1)
The Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride (The Downs Cell)
793(2)
The Electrolysis of Aqueous Sodium Chloride
795(1)
The Electrolysis of Aqueous Sodium Sulfate
796(1)
Counting Electrons: Coulometry and Faraday's Law of Electrolysis
797(2)
Commercial Applications of Electrolytic Cells
799(1)
Voltaic or Galvanic Cells
800(1)
The Construction of Simple Voltaic Cells
800(1)
The Zinc-Copper Cell
801(2)
Chemistry in Use A Spectacular View of One Mole of Electrons
802(1)
The Copper-Silver Cell
803(2)
Standard Electrode Potentials
805(1)
The Standard Hydrogen Electrode
805(1)
The Zinc-SHE Cell
806(1)
The Copper-SHE Cell
807(1)
Standard Electrode Potentials
808(1)
Uses of Standard Electrode Potentials
809(2)
Standard Electrode Potentials for Other Half-Reactions
811(3)
Corrosion
814(1)
Corrosion Protection
815(1)
Effect of Concentrations (or Partial Pressures) on Electrode Potentials
816(1)
The Nernst Equation
816(4)
Using Electrochemical Cells to Determine Concentrations
820(4)
Enrichment Concentration Cells
823(1)
The Relationship of Eocell to ΔG0 and K
824(2)
Primary Voltaic Cells
826(1)
Dry Cells
826(2)
Secondary Voltaic Cells
828(1)
The Lead Storage Battery
828(1)
The Nickel-Cadmium (Nicad) Cell
829(1)
The Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell
830(10)
Key Terms
831(1)
Exercises
832(8)
Metals I: Metallurgy
840(18)
Metals
841(1)
Occurrence of the Metals
841(1)
Metallurgy
841(1)
Pretreatment of Ores
842(2)
Reduction to the Free Metals
844(1)
Refining of Metals
845(2)
Metallurgies of Specific Metals
847(1)
Magnesium
847(1)
Aluminum
848(2)
Iron
850(2)
Copper
852(2)
Gold
854(4)
Key Terms
854(1)
Exercises
855(3)
Metals II: Properties and Reactions
858(20)
The Alkali Metals (Group 1A)
859(1)
Group 1A Metals: Properties and Occurrence
859(1)
Reactions of the Group 1A Metals
860(4)
Chemistry in Use Trace Elements and Life
862(2)
Uses of Group 1A Metals and Their Compounds
864(1)
The Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2A)
865(1)
Group 2A Metals: Properties and Occurrence
865(1)
Reactions of the Group 2A Metals
865(1)
Uses of Group 2A Metals and Their Compounds
866(2)
The Post-Transition Metals
868(1)
Group 3A: Periodic Trends
868(3)
Chemistry in Use The Most Valuable Metal in the World
870(1)
The d-Transition Metals
871(1)
General Properties
871(1)
Oxidation States
872(1)
Chromium Oxides, Oxyanions, and Hydroxides
873(5)
Key Terms
875(1)
Exercises
875(3)
Some Nonmetals and Metalloids
878(28)
The Noble Gases (Group 8A)
879(1)
Occurrence, Uses, and Properties
879(1)
Xenon Compounds
880(1)
The Halogens (Group 7A)
881(1)
Properties
881(1)
Occurrence, Production, and Uses
882(1)
Reactions of the Free Halogens
883(1)
The Hydrogen Halides and Hydrohalic Acids
884(2)
The Oxoacids (Ternary Acids) of the Halogens
886(1)
Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium
887(1)
Occurrence, Properties, and Uses
887(2)
Reactions of Group 6A Elements
889(1)
Hydrides of Group 6A Elements
889(1)
Group 6A Oxides
889(2)
Oxoacids of Sulfur
891(2)
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
892(1)
Occurrence of Nitrogen
893(1)
Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen
894(1)
Nitrogen Oxides
895(2)
Chemistry in Use Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog
897(1)
Some Oxoacids of Nitrogen and Their Salts
897(2)
Phosphorus
899(1)
Silicon
900(1)
Silicon and the Silicates
900(6)
Key Terms
901(1)
Exercises
902(4)
Coordination Compounds
906(27)
Coordination Compounds
907(3)
Ammine Complexes
910(1)
Important Terms
911(2)
Nomenclature
913(1)
Structures
913(2)
Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
915(1)
Structural (Constitutional) Isomers
915(3)
Stereoisomers
918(5)
Bonding in Coordination Compounds
923(1)
Crystal Field Theory
923(2)
Color and the Spectrochemical Series
925(8)
Key Terms
928(1)
Exercises
929(4)
Nuclear Chemistry
933(35)
The Nucleus
935(1)
Neutron-Proton Ratio and Nuclear Stability
935(1)
Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy
936(3)
Radioactive Decay
939(2)
Equations for Nuclear Reactions
941(1)
Neutron-Rich Nuclei (Above the Band of Stability)
941(1)
Neutron-Poor Nuclei (Below the Band of Stability)
941(1)
Nuclei with Atomic Number Greater Than 83
942(1)
Detection of Radiation
943(2)
Rates of Decay and Half-Life
945(2)
Decay Series
947(1)
Uses of Radionuclides
947(6)
Artificial Transmutations of Elements
953(2)
Nuclear Fission
955(2)
Nuclear Fission Reactors
957(4)
Chemistry in Use Managing Nuclear Wastes
960(1)
Nuclear Fusion
961(7)
Key Terms
963(1)
Exercises
964(4)
Organic Chemistry I: Formulas, Names, and Properties
968(65)
Saturated Hydrocarbons
971(1)
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
971(5)
Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons
976(4)
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
980(1)
Alkenes
980(5)
Chemistry in Use Petroleum
981(4)
Alkynes
985(2)
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
987(1)
Benzene
987(2)
Chemistry in Use Nanotechnology
988(1)
Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons
989(2)
Hydrocarbons: A Summary
991(1)
Functional Groups
991(1)
Organic Halides
992(2)
Alcohols and Phenols
994(3)
Ethers
997(1)
Aldehydes and Ketones
998(2)
Amines
1000(2)
Carboxylic Acids
1002(4)
Chemistry in Use The Chemistry of Artists' Pigments
1004(2)
Some Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids
1006(5)
Chemistry in Use Butter, Margarine, and trans Fats
1010(1)
Summary of Functional Groups
1011(1)
Fundamental Classes of Organic Reactions
1012(1)
Substitution Reactions
1012(3)
Addition Reactions
1015(2)
Elimination Reactions
1017(1)
Polymerization Reactions
1018(15)
Key Terms
1023(1)
Exercises
1024(9)
Organic Chemistry II: Shapes, Selected Reactions, and Biopolymers
1033
Shapes of Organic Molecules
1034(1)
Constitutional Isomers
1034(1)
Stereoisomers
1035(4)
Chemistry in Use Developing More Environmentally Friendly Solvents
1038(1)
Conformations
1039(2)
Selected Reactions
1041(1)
Reactions of Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
1041(2)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
1043(5)
Chemistry in Use Chemical Communication
1044(4)
Formation of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
1048(1)
Hydrolysis of Esters
1049(2)
Blopolymers
1050(1)
Carbohydrates
1051(4)
Polypeptides and Proteins
1055(5)
Chemistry in Use The Cells' Drinking Straws
1059(1)
Nucleic Acids
1060
Key Terms
1062(1)
Exercises
1063
Appendix A Some Mathematical Operations 1(4)
Appendix B Electronic Configurations of the Atoms of the Elements 5(3)
Appendix C Common Units, Equivalences, and Conversion Factors 8(3)
Appendix D Physical Constants 11(1)
Appendix E Some Physical Constants for a Few Common Substances 12(2)
Appendix F Ionization Constants for Weak Acids at 25°C 14(1)
Appendix G Ionization Constants for Weak Bases at 25°C 15(1)
Appendix H Solubility Product Constants for Some Inorganic Compounds at 25°C 16(2)
Appendix I Dissociation Constants for Some Complex Ions 18(1)
Appendix J Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25°C 19(3)
Appendix K Selected Thermodynamic Values at 298.15 K 22(2)
Appendix L Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Numerical Exercises 24
Index of Equations 1(1)
Glossary/Index 1


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