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General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780547152813

ISBN10:
0547152817
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/15/2008
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning College
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Summary

GENERAL, ORGANIC, AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY'S clear explanations, engaging and useful visual support, and powerful teaching elements combine to make this book the ideal choice. Author Stephen Stoker wisely revised the biochemistry chapters first and then tailored the general and organic sections to support that presentation. And, Stoker also appropriately restricts the coverage of mathematics to point-of-use as needed.

Table of Contents

General Chemistry
Basic Concepts About Matter
Chemistry: The Study of Matter
Physical States of Matter
Properties of Matter
Changes in Matter
Chemistry At A Glance: Use of the Terms Physical and Chemical
Pure Substances and Mixtures
Elements and Compounds
Chemistry At A Glance: Classes of Matter
Discovery and Abundance of the Elements
Names and Chemical Symbols of the Elements
Atoms and Molecules
Chemical Formulas
Chemical Connections: "Good" Versus "Bad" Properties for a Chemical Substance Elemental Composition of the Human Body
Measurements in Chemistry
Measurement Systems
Metric System Units
Exact and Inexact Numbers
Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures
Chemistry At A Glance: Significant Figures
Significant Figures and Mathematical Operations
Scientific Notation
Conversion Factors
Dimensional Analysis
Chemistry At A Glance: Conversion Factors
Density
Temperature Scales
Heat Energy and Specific Heat
Chemical Connections
Body Density and Percent Body Fat
Normal Human Body Temperature
Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
Internal Structure of an Atom
Atomic Number and Mass Number
Isotopes and Atomic Masses
Chemistry At A Glance: Atomic Structure
The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
Metals and Nonmetals
Electron Arrangements Within Atoms
Chemistry At A Glance: Shell-Subshell-Orbital Interrelationships
Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams
The Electronic Basis for the Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
Classification of the Elements
Chemistry At A Glance: Element Classification Schemes and the Periodic Table
Chemical Connections: Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium
The Three Isotopes of Hydrogen
Metallic Elements and the Human Body
Iron: The Most Abundant Transition Element in the Human Body
Chemical Bonding: The Ionic Bond Model
Chemical Bonds
Valence Electrons and Lewis Symbols
The Octet Rule
The Ionic Bond Model
The Sign and Magnitude of Ionic Charge
Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds
Chemical Formulas for Ionic Compounds
The Structure of Ionic Compounds
Recognizing and Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
Chemistry At A Glance: Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
Polyatomic Ions Chemical Formulas and Names for Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions
Chemistry At A Glance: Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds
Chemical Connections
Fresh Water, Seawater, Hard Water, and Soft Water: A Matter of Ions
Tooth Enamel: A Combination of Monatomic and Polyatomic Ions
Chemical Bonding: The Covalent Bond Model
The Covalent Bond Model
Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds
Single, Double, and Triple Covalent Bonds
Valence Electrons and Number of Covalent Bonds Formed
Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Systematic Procedures for Drawing Lewis Structures
Bonding in Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Present
Molecular Geometry
Chemistry At A Glance: The Geometry of Molecules
Electronegativity
Bond Polarity
Molecular Polarity
Chemistry At A Glance: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Compounds
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
Chemical Connections: Nitric Oxide
A Molecule Whose Bonding Does Not Follow "The Rules"
The Chemical Senses of Smell and Taste
Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations
Formula Masses
The Mole: A Counting Unit for Chemists
The Mass of a Mole
Chemical Formulas and the Mole Concept
The Mole and Chemical Calculations
Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations and the Mole Concept
Chemistry At A Glance: Relationships Involving the Mole Concept
Chemical Calculations Using Chemical Equations
Chemical Connections: Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution: A Case of Combining Ratios Chemical Reactions on an Industrial Scale: Sulfuric Acid
Gases, Liquids, and Solids
The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
Kinetic Molecular Theory and Physical States
Gas Law Variables
Boyle's Law: A Pressure-Volume Relationship
Charles's Law: A Temperature-Volume Relationship
The Combined Gas Law
The Ideal Gas Law
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Chemistry At A Glance: The Gas Laws
Changes of State
Evaporation of Liquids
Vapor Pressure of Liquids
Boiling and Boiling Point
Intermolecular Forces in Liquids
Chemistry At A Glance: Intermolecular Forces
Chemical Connections
The Importance of Gas Densities
Blood Pressure and the Sodium Ion/Potassium Ion Ratio
Hydrogen Bonding and the Density of Water
Solutions
Characteristics of Solutions
Solubility
Solution Formation
Solubility Rules
Solution Concentration Units
Dilution
Chemistry At A Glance: Solutions
Colloidal Dispersions and Suspensions
Colligative Properties of Solutions
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of Colligative Property Terminology
Dialysis
Chemical Connections
Factors Affecting Gas Solubility
Solubility of Vitamins
Controlled-Release Drugs: Regulating Concentration, Rate, and Location of Release
The Artificial Kidney: A Hemodialysis Machine
Chemical Reactions
Types of Chemical Reactions
Redox and Nonredox Chemical Reactions
Chemistry At A Glance: Types of Chemical Reactions
Terminology Associated with Redox Processes
Collision Theory and Chemical Reactions
Exothermic and Endothermic Chemical Reactions
Factors That Influence Chemical Reaction Rates
Chemical Equilibrium
Chemistry At A Glance: Factors That Increase Reaction Rates
Equilibrium Constants
Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Ch?telier's Principle
Chemical Connections: Combustion Reactions, Carbon Dioxide, and Global Warming
"Undesirable" Oxidation-Reduction Processes
Metallic Corrosion
Stratospheric Ozone: An Equilibrium Situation
Acids, Bases, and Salts
Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory
Br?nsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory
Mono-, Di-, and Triprotic Acids
Chemistry At A Glance: Acid-Base Definitions
Strengths of Acids and Bases
Ionization Constants for Acids and Bases
Salts
Acid-Base Neutralization Chemical Reactions
Self-Ionization of Water
The pH Concept
The pKa Method for Expressing Acid Strength
The pH of Aqueous Salt Solutions
Chemistry At A Glance: Acids and Acidic Solutions
Buffers
The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
Chemistry At A Glance: Buffer Systems
Electrolytes
Equivalents and Milliequivalents of Electrolytes
Acid-Base Titrations
Chemical Connections: Excessive Acidity Within the Stomach
Antacids and Acid Inhibitors
Acid Rain: Excess Acidity
Blood Plasma pH and Hydrolysis
Buffering Action in Human Blood
Electrolytes and Body Fluids
Nuclear Chemistry
Stable and Unstable Nuclides
The Nature of Radioactive Emissions
Equations for Radioactive Decay
Rate of Radioactive Decay
Chemistry At A Glance: Radioactive Decay
Transmutation and Bombardment Reactions
Radioactive Decay Series
Chemical Effects of Radiation
Biochemical Effects of Radiation
Detection of Radiation
Sources of Radiation Exposure
Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
Chemistry At A Glance: Characteristics of Nuclear Reactions
Nuclear and Chemical Reactions Compared
Chemical Connections
Tobacco Radioactivity and the Uranium-238 Decay Series
Preserving Food Through Food Irradiation
The Indoor Radon-222 Problem
Organic Chemistry
Saturated Hydrocarbons
Organic and Inorganic Compounds
Bonding Characteristics of the Carbon Atom
Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Derivatives
Alkanes: Acyclic Saturated Hydrocarbons
Structural Formulas
Alkane Isomerism
Conformations of Alkanes
IUPAC Nomenclature for Alkanes
Line-Angle Structural Formulas for Alkanes
Chemistry At A Glance: Structural Representations for Alkane Molecules
Classification of Carbon Atoms
Branched-Chain Alkyl Groups
Cycloalkanes
IUPAC Nomenclature for Cycloalkanes
Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
Sources of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Chemical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Chemistry At A Glance: Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Nomenclature and Properties of Halogenated Alkanes
Chemical Connections
The Occurrence of Methane
The Physiological Effects of Alkanes
Chlorofluorocarbons and the Ozone Layer
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Characteristics of Alkenes and Cycloalkenes
IUPAC Nomenclature for Alkenes and Cycloalkenes
Line-Angle Structural Formulas for Alkenes
Constitutional Isomerism in Alkenes
Cis-Trans Isomerism in Alkenes
Naturally Occurring Alkenes
Physical Properties of Alkenes and Cycloalkenes
Chemical Reactions of Alkenes
Polymerization of Alkenes: Addition Polymers
Alkynes
Chemistry At A Glance: Chemical Reactions of Alkenes 383
Chemistry At A Glance: IUPAC Nomenclature for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Names for Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Physical Properties and Sources
Chemical Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Fused-Ring Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Chemical Connections: Ethene
A Plant Hormone and High-Volume Industrial Chemical
Cis-Trans Isomerism and Vision
Carotenoids: A Source of Color
Fused-Ring Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cancer
Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
Bonding Characteristics of Oxygen Atoms in Organic Compounds
Structural Characteristics of Alcohols
Nomenclature for Alcohols
Isomerism for Alcohols
Important Commonly Encountered Alcohols
Physical Properties of Alcohols
Preparation of Alcohols
Classification of Alcohols
Chemical Reactions of Alcohols
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Alcohols
Polymeric Alcohols
Structural Characteristics of Phenols
Nomenclature for Phenols
Physical and Chemical Properties of Phenols
Occurrence of and Uses for Phenols
Structural Characteristics of Ethers
Nomenclature for Ethers
Isomerism for Ethers
Physical and Chemical Properties of Ethers
Cyclic Ethers
Sulfur Analogs of Alcohols
Sulfur Analogs of Ethers
Chemical Connections: Menthol
A Useful Naturally Occurring Terpene Alcohol
Ethers as General Anesthetics
Marijuana: The Most Commonly Used Illicit Drug
Garlic and Onions: Odiferous Medicinal Plants
Chemistry At A Glance: Alcohols, Thiols, Ethers, and Thioethers
Aldehydes and Ketones
The Carbonyl Group
Compounds Containing a Carbonyl Group
The Aldehyde and Ketone Functional Groups
Nomenclature for Aldehydes
Nomenclature for Ketones
Isomerism for Aldehydes and Ketones
Selected Common Aldehydes and Ketones
Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
Oxidation and Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones with Alcohols
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Aldehydes and Ketones
Formaldehyde-Based Polymers
Sulfur-Containing Carbonyl Groups
Chemical Connections
Lachrymatory Aldehydes and Ketones
Melanin: A Hair and Skin Pigment
Diabetes, Aldehyde Oxidation, and Glucose Testing
Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Other Acid Derivatives
Structure of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
IUPAC Nomenclature for Carboxylic Acids
Common Names for Carboxylic Acids
Polyfunctional Carboxylic Acids
Metabolic Acids
Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic Acid Salts
Structure of Esters
Preparation of Esters
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of the "H Versus R" Relationship for Pairs of Hydrocarbon Derivatives
Nomenclature for Esters
Selected Common Esters
Isomerism for Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Physical Properties of Esters
Chemical Reactions of Esters
Sulfur Analogs of Esters
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Polyesters
Acid Chlorides and Acid Anhydrides
Esters and Anhydrides of Inorganic Acids
Chemical Connections
Nonprescription Pain Relievers Derived from Propanoic Acid Carboxylic Acids and Skin Care
Aspirin
Nitroglycerin: An Inorganic Triester
Amines and Amides
Bonding Characteristics of Nitrogen Atoms in Organic Compounds
Structure and Classifi cation of Amines
Nomenclature for Amines
Isomerism for Amines
Physical Properties of Amines
Basicity of Amines
Amine Salts
Preparation of Amines and Quaternary Ammonium Salts
Heterocyclic Amines
Selected Biochemically Important Amines
Alkaloids
Structure and Classification of Amides
Nomenclature for Amides
Selected Amides and Their Uses
Physical Properties of Amides
Preparation of Amides
Hydrolysis of Amides
Polyamides and Polyurethanes
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of Chemical Reactions Involving Amines and Amides
Chemical Connections
Caffeine: The Most Widely Used Central Nervous System Stimulant
Nicotine Addiction: A Widespread Example of Drug Dependence
Alkaloids Present in Chocolate
Acetaminophen: A Substituted Amide
Biological Chemistry
Carbohydrates
Biochemistry--An Overview
Occurrence and Functions of Carbohydrates
Classifi cation of Carbohydrates
Chirality: Handedness in Molecules
Stereoisomerism: Enantiomers and Diastereomers
Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection Formulas
Chemistry At A Glance: Constitutional Isomers and Stereoisomers
Properties of Enantiomers
Classifi cation of Monosaccharides
Biochemically Important Monosaccharides
Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides
Haworth Projection Formulas
Reactions of Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Chemistry At A Glance: "Sugar Terminology" Associated with Monosaccharides and Their Derivatives
General Characteristics of Polysaccharides
Storage Polysaccharides
Structural Polysaccharides
Chemistry At A Glance: Types of Glycosidic Linkages for Common Glucose-Containing Diand Polysaccharides
Acidic Polysaccharides
Glycolipids and Glycoproteins: Cell Recognition
Dietary Considerations and Carbohydrates
Chemical Connections
Blood Types and Monosaccharides
Lactose Intolerance and Galactosemia
Changing Sugar Patterns: Decreased Sucrose, Increased Fructose
Artificial Sweeteners; "Good and Bad Carbs": The Glycemic Index
Lipids
Structure and Classification of Lipids
Types of Fatty Acids
Physical Properties of Fatty Acids
Energy-Storage Lipids: Triacylglycerols
Dietary Considerations and Triacylglycerols
Chemical Reactions of Triacylglycerols
Chemistry At A Glance: Classification Schemes for Fatty Acid Residues Present in Triacylglycerols
Membrane Lipids: Phospholipids
Membrane Lipids: Sphingoglycolipids
Chemistry At A Glance: Terminology for and Structural Relationships Among Various Types of Fatty-Acid-Containing Lipids
Membrane Lipids: Cholesterol
Cell Membranes
Emulsification Lipids: Bile Acids
Messenger Lipids: Steroid Hormones
Messenger Lipids: Eicosanoids
Protective-Coating Lipids: Biological Waxes
Chemistry At A Glance: Types of Lipids in Terms of How They Function
Chemical Connections
The Fat Content of Tree Nuts and Peanuts
Artificial Fat Substitutes
The Cleansing Action of Soap
Trans Fatty Acids and Blood Cholesterol Levels
Steroid Drugs in Sports
The Mode of Action for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Proteins
Characteristics of Proteins
Amino Acids: The Building Blocks for Proteins
Chirality and Amino Acids
Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids
Cysteine: A Chemically Unique Amino Acid
Peptides
Biochemically Important Small Peptides
General Structural Characteristics of Proteins
Primary Structure of Proteins
Secondary Structure of Proteins
Tertiary Structure of Proteins
Quaternary Structure of Proteins
Protein Classification Based on Shape
Protein Classification Based on Function
Chemistry At A Glance: Protein Structure
Protein Hydrolysis
Protein Denaturation
Glycoproteins
Lipoproteins
Chemical Connections
The Essential Amino Acids
Substitutes for Human Insulin Protein Structure and the Color of Meat
Denaturation and Human Hair
Cyclosporine: An Antirejection Drug
Lipoproteins and Heart Disease Risk
Enzymes and Vitamins
General Characteristics of Enzymes
Enzyme Structure
Nomenclature and Classifi cation of Enzymes
Models of Enzyme Action
Enzyme Specificity
Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity
Chemistry At A Glance: Enzyme Activity
Enzyme Inhibition
Chemistry At A Glance: Enzyme Inhibition
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
Antibiotics That Inhibit Enzyme Activity
Medical Uses of Enzymes
General Characteristics of Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Chemical Connections
H. pylori and Stomach Ulcers
Enzymatic Browning: Discoloration of Fruits and Vegetables
Heart Attacks and Enzyme Analysis
Nucleic Acids
Types of Nucleic Acids
Nucleotides: Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids
Primary Nucleic Acid Structure
Chemistry At A Glance: Nucleic Acid Structure
The DNA Double Helix
Replication of DNA Molecules
Overview of Protein Synthesis
Ribonucleic Acids
Chemistry At A Glance: DNA Replication
Transcription: RNA Synthesis
The Genetic Code
Anticodons and tRNA Molecules
Translation: Protein Synthesis
Mutations
Nucleic Acids and Viruses
Chemistry At A Glance: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation
Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering
The Polymerase Chain Reaction
DNA Sequencing
Chemical Connections
Use of Synthetic Nucleic Acid Bases in Medicine
Antibiotics That Inhibit Bacterial Protein Synthesis
Biochemical Energy Production
Metabolism
Metabolism and Cell Structure
Important Intermediate Compounds in Metabolic Pathways
High-Energy Phosphate Compounds
An Overview of Biochemical Energy Production
The Citric Acid Cycle
Chemistry At A Glance: Simplified Summary of the Four Stages of Biochemical Energy Production
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of the Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle
The Electron Transport Chain
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of the Flow of Electrons Through the Four Complexes of the Electron Transport Chain
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Chemistry At A Glance: Summary of the Common Metabolic Pathway
ATP Production for the Common Metabolic Pathway
The Importance of ATP
Non-ETC Oxygen-Consuming Reactions
Chemical Connections
Cyanide Poisoning
Brown Fat, Newborn Babies, and Hibernating Animals
Flavonoids: An Important Class of Dietary Antioxidants
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Glycolysis
Fates of Pyruvate
ATP Production for the Complete Oxidation of Glucose
Glycogen Synthesis and Degradation
Gluconeogenesis
Terminology for Glucose Metabolic Pathways
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Chemistry At A Glance: Glucose Metabolism
Hormonal Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism
Chemical Connections
Lactate Accumulation
Diabetes Mellitus
Lipid Metabolism
Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
Triacylglycerol Storage and Mobilization
Glycerol Metabolism
Oxidation of Fatty Acids
ATP Production from Fatty Acid Oxidation
Ketone Bodies
Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids: Lipogenesis
Relationships Between Lipogenesis and Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates
Biosynthesis of Cholesterol
Chemistry At A Glance: Interrelationships Between Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
Relationships Between Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism
Chemical Connections
High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Workouts
Statins: Drugs That Lower Plasma Levels of Cholesterol
Protein Metabolism
Protein Digestion and Absorption
Amino Acid Utilization
Transamination and Oxidative Deamination
The Urea Cycle
Amino Acid Carbon Skeletons
Amino Acid Biosynthesis
Hemoglobin Catabolism
Chemistry At A Glance: Interrelationships Among Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism
Interrelationships Among Metabolic Pathways
Chemical Connections: The Chemical Composition of Urine Arginine, Citrulline, and the Chemical Messenger Nitric Oxide
Answers to Selected Exercises A-1
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


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