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Preface to the Second Edition | p. xi |
Acknowledgments | p. xv |
Preface to the First Edition | p. xvii |
Geographic Information Analysis and Spatial Data | p. 1 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 2 |
Spatial Data Types | p. 5 |
Some Complications | p. 10 |
Scales for Attribute Description | p. 18 |
GIS and Spatial Data Manipulation | p. 24 |
The Road Ahead | p. 28 |
Chapter Review | p. 29 |
References | p. 29 |
The Pitfalls and Potential of Spatial Data | p. 33 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 33 |
Introduction | p. 33 |
The Bad News: The Pitfalls of Spatial Data | p. 34 |
The Good News: The Potential of Spatial Data | p. 41 |
Chapter Review | p. 52 |
References | p. 53 |
Fundamentals-Mapping It Out | p. 55 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 55 |
Introduction: The Cartographic Tradition | p. 56 |
Geovisualization and Analysis | p. 58 |
The Graphic Variables of Jacques Bertin | p. 60 |
New Graphic Variables | p. 63 |
Issues in Geovisualization | p. 65 |
Mapping and Exploring Points | p. 66 |
Mapping and Exploring Areas | p. 72 |
Mapping and Exploring Fields | p. 80 |
The Spatialization of Nonspatial Data | p. 84 |
Conclusion | p. 86 |
Chapter Review | p. 87 |
References | p. 87 |
Fundamentals-Maps as Outcomes of Processes | p. 93 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 93 |
Introduction: Maps and Processes | p. 94 |
Processes and the Patterns They Make | p. 95 |
Predicting the Pattern Generated by a Process | p. 100 |
More Definitions | p. 106 |
Stochastic Processes in Lines, Areas, and Fields | p. 108 |
Conclusions | p. 116 |
Chapter Review | p. 117 |
References | p. 118 |
Point Pattern Analysis | p. 121 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 121 |
Introduction | p. 121 |
Describing a Point Pattern | p. 123 |
Assessing Point Patterns Statistically | p. 139 |
Monte Carlo Testing | p. 148 |
Conclusions | p. 152 |
Chapter Review | p. 154 |
References | p. 154 |
Practical Point Pattern Analysis | p. 157 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 157 |
Introduction: Problems of Spatial Statistical Analysis | p. 158 |
Alternatives to Classical Statistical Inference | p. 161 |
Alternatives to IRP/CSR | p. 162 |
Point Pattern Analysis in the Real World | p. 166 |
Dealing with Inhomogeneity | p. 168 |
Focused Approaches | p. 172 |
Cluster Detection: Scan Statistics | p. 173 |
Using Density and Distance: Proximity Polygons | p. 177 |
A Note on Distance Matrices and Point Pattern Analysis | p. 180 |
Chapter Review | p. 182 |
References | p. 183 |
Area Objects and Spatial Autocorrelation | p. 187 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 187 |
Introduction: Area Objects Revisited | p. 188 |
Types of Area Objects | p. 188 |
Geometric Properties of Areas | p. 191 |
Measuring Spatial Autocorrelation | p. 199 |
An Example: Tuberculosis in Auckland, 2001-2006 | p. 206 |
Other Approaches | p. 210 |
Chapter Review | p. 212 |
References | p. 213 |
Local Statistics | p. 215 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 215 |
Introduction: Think Geographically, Measure Locally | p. 216 |
Defining the Local: Spatial Structure (Again) | p. 218 |
An Example: The Getis-Ord G_{i} and G_{i* Statistics} | p. 219 |
Inference with Local Statistics | p. 223 |
Other Local Statistics | p. 226 |
Conclusions: Seeing the World Locally | p. 234 |
Chapter Review | p. 235 |
References | p. 236 |
Describing and Analyzing Fields | p. 239 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 239 |
Introduction: Scalar and Vector Fields Revisited | p. 240 |
Modeling and Storing Field Data | p. 243 |
Spatial Interpolation | p. 250 |
Derived Measures on Surfaces | p. 263 |
Map Algebra | p. 270 |
Conclusions | p. 273 |
Chapter Review | p. 274 |
References | p. 275 |
Knowing the Unknowable: The Statistics of Fields | p. 277 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 277 |
Introduction | p. 278 |
Regression on Spatial Coordinates: Trend Surface Analysis | p. 279 |
The Square Root Differences Cloud and the (Semi-) Variogram | p. 287 |
A Statistical Approach to Interpolation: Kriging | p. 293 |
Conclusions | p. 311 |
Chapter Review | p. 312 |
References | p. 313 |
Putting Maps Together-Map Overlay | p. 315 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 315 |
Introduction | p. 316 |
Boolean Map Overlay and Sieve Mapping | p. 319 |
A General Model for Alternatives to Boolean Overlay | p. 326 |
Indexed Overlay and Weighted Linear Combination | p. 328 |
Weights of Evidence | p. 331 |
Model-Driven Overlay Using Regression | p. 334 |
Conclusions | p. 336 |
Chapter Review | p. 337 |
References | p. 337 |
New Approaches to Spatial Analysis | p. 341 |
Chapter Objectives | p. 341 |
The Changing Technological Environment | p. 342 |
The Changing Scientific Environment | p. 345 |
Geocomputation | p. 346 |
Spatial Models | p. 355 |
The Grid and the Cloud: Supercomputing for Dummies | p. 363 |
Conclusions: Neogeographic Information Analysis? | p. 365 |
Chapter Review | p. 367 |
References | p. 368 |
Notation, Matrices, and Matrix Mathematics | p. 373 |
Introduction | p. 373 |
Some Preliminary Notes on Notation | p. 373 |
Matrix Basics and Notation | p. 376 |
Simple Matrix Mathematics | p. 379 |
Solving Simultaneous Equations Using Matrices | p. 384 |
Matrices, Vectors, and Geometry | p. 389 |
Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues | p. 391 |
Reference | p. 393 |
Index | p. 395 |
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