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Geology : An Introduction to Physical Geology

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131474642

ISBN10:
0131474642
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/4/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $161.60

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Summary

This book teaches whateveryoneneeds to know about geology and how science and scientists work. Readers will discover a new appreciation for their surroundings, learning how to prepare for any number of geologic and environmental threats and how our Earth can continue providing all of our needs for food, shelter, and material well-being as long as we donrs"t squander these resources.The latest discoveries in the geosciences are covered, including Earth systems interactions, continental tectonics and mountain-building, a vastly expanded treatment of the geologic timescale and the evolution of life, and more. Up-to-the-minute examples of exciting geological processes are presented, such as the most recent volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, floods, and discoveries on Mars and on the Earthrs"s own seafloors.For anyone interested in exploring how physical geology impacts the world around us.

Table of Contents

Preface xviii
To the Student xxiii
PART 1 Forming the Earth
1(288)
A First Look at Planet Earth---Its Origins, Systems, and Tectonic Plates
2(36)
What Is Geology?
6(1)
The Earth as a System
6(4)
The Lithosphere
8(1)
The Hydrosphere
8(1)
The Atmosphere
8(1)
The Biosphere
8(1)
Japan's Mount Usu---An Example of Earth Systems Interactions
8(1)
The Earth Systems' Power Supply
9(1)
A Final Comment About Earth Systems
10(1)
Geologists---How They Do Their Work
10(1)
How the Science of Geology First Developed
10(1)
The Earth in Space
11(10)
The Probable Origin of the Sun and Its Planets
11(1)
Highlight What Killed the Dinosaurs?
12(3)
The Early Days of Planet Earth
15(2)
Thermal Energy in the Earth
17(1)
Cycling Rocks
18(1)
Time and Geology
19(2)
Plate Tectonics---A First Look
21(8)
Plate Tectonics---Its Basic Concepts
22(1)
Moving Plates and Their Dynamic Boundaries
23(6)
In Support of Plate Tectonics---A Theory Develops
29(6)
Alfred Wegener and Continental Drift
29(1)
Geology at a Glance: Plate Boundaries
30(1)
Plate Boundaries
30(4)
The Driving Force Behind Plate Motion
34(1)
The Earth's Plate-Tectonic Future
34(1)
A Preview of Things to Come
35(1)
Chapter 1 Summary
36(2)
Key Terms
37(1)
Questions for Review
37(1)
Learning Actively
37(1)
Online Study Guide
37(1)
Minerals
38(32)
What Is a Mineral?
40(5)
The Structure of Atoms
40(2)
Making Minerals---How Atoms Bond
42(3)
A Mineral's Structure
45(1)
What Controls a Mineral's Composition and Structure?
45(1)
Identifying Minerals
46(8)
In the Field
47(5)
Highlight Diamonds, Diamonds, Diamonds
52(1)
In the Laboratory
53(1)
The Earth's Rock-Forming Minerals
54(7)
The Silicates and Their Structures
55(5)
Highlight The Pros and Cons of Swelling Minerals
60(1)
Nonsilicates
60(1)
Finding and Naming Minerals
61(4)
Geology at a Glance: Rock-forming Silicates
63(1)
Rock Forming Silicates
63(1)
Highlight Martian Minerals, Water, and Life
64(1)
Gemstones---The Earth's Most Valuable Minerals
65(2)
How Gemstones Form
65(1)
Synthetic Gems---Can We Imitate Nature?
66(1)
Highlight The Curse of the Hope Diamond
66(1)
Minerals as Clues to the Past
67(1)
Chapter 2 Summary
68(2)
Key Terms
68(1)
Questions for Review
69(1)
Learning Actively
69(1)
Online Study Guide
69(1)
Igneous Rocks and Processes
70(30)
A Brief Introduction to Igneous Rocks and Processes
72(1)
Melting Rocks and Crystallizing Magma
72(13)
The Creation of Magma
73(2)
Motion of Magma
75(1)
The Crystallization of Magma
76(3)
Igneous Textures
79(3)
Igneous Compositions
82(2)
Geology at a Glance: Igneous Rocks
84(1)
Igneous Rocks
84(1)
Intrusive Rock Formations
85(5)
Tabular Plutons
85(2)
Other Plutons and Batholiths
87(1)
Highlight Tabular Plutons Save the Union
88(2)
Plate Tectonics and Igneous Rock
90(4)
The Origin of Basalts and Gabbros
91(1)
The Origin of Andesites and Diorites
92(1)
Geology at a Glance: Plutons
93(1)
Plutons
93(1)
The Origin of Rhyolites and Granites
94(1)
Igneous Rocks of the Moon
94(2)
The Economic Value of Igneous Rocks
96(1)
Highlight Making Gold in an Active Volcano
97(1)
Chapter 3 Summary
97(3)
Key Terms
98(1)
Questions for Review
98(1)
Learning Actively
99(1)
Online Study Guide
99(1)
Volcanoes and Volcanism
100(42)
Volcanoes and Life
102(1)
The Nature and Origin of Volcanoes
103(3)
The Causes of Volcanism
104(2)
The Products of Volcanism
106(10)
Types of Lava
106(7)
Secondary Volcanic Effects
113(2)
Highlight Hawaii's Dreaded VOG---Coping with ``Natural'' Air Pollution
115(1)
Eruptive Styles and Associated Landforms
116(12)
Effusive Eruptions
116(1)
Highlight Loihi---Growing Pains of the Next Hawaiian Island
117(4)
Pyroclastic Eruptions
121(1)
Highlight Iceland---Where Hot Volcanoes Meet Cold Glaciers
122(6)
Plate Tectonics and Volcanism
128(4)
Highlight The Toba Eruption---A Volcano's Possible Role in Human Evolution
130(1)
Geology at a Glance: Volcanoes and Volcanic Rock
131(1)
Volcanoes and Volcanic Rock
131(1)
Coping with Volcanic Hazards
132(6)
Regions at Risk in the U.S.
132(1)
Highlight Living in the Shadow of Vesuvius
133(2)
Defense Plans
135(3)
Extraterrestrial Volcanism
138(1)
Chapter 4 Summary
139(3)
Key Terms
140(1)
Questions for Review
140(1)
Learning Actively
141(1)
Online Study Guide
141(1)
Weathering---The Breakdown of Rocks
142(28)
Weathering Processes
144(12)
Mechanical Weathering---Disintegrating Rocks
144(3)
Chemical Weathering---Decomposing Rocks
147(3)
Highlight Coping with Acid Rain
150(2)
Factors That Influence Chemical Weathering
152(2)
Geology at a Glance: Weathering
154(1)
Weathering
154(1)
Some Products of Chemical Weathering
155(1)
Soils and Soil Formation
156(11)
Influences on Soil Formation
157(1)
Highlight Rock Weathering and Global Climates
158(2)
Typical Soil Profile
160(3)
Classifying Soils
163(3)
Highlight Using Soils to Predict the Next Large Earthquake
166(1)
Weathering in Extraterrestrial Environments
167(1)
Chapter 5 Summary
168(2)
Key Terms
168(1)
Questions for Review
169(1)
Learning Actively
169(1)
Online Study Guide
169(1)
Sedimentary Processes, Environments, and Rocks
170(34)
The Origins of Sedimentary Rocks
172(7)
Sediment Transport and Texture
172(1)
Sedimentary Structures
173(5)
Lithification---Turning Sediment into Sedimentary Rock
178(1)
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks
179(12)
Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
179(1)
Highlight Finding ``Blueberries'' on Mars
180(2)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
182(5)
Highlight When the Mediterranean Sea Was a Desert
187(4)
``Reading'' Sedimentary Rocks
191(9)
Depositional Environments
191(2)
Geology at a Glance: Sedimentary Rocks
193(1)
Sedimentary Rocks
193(1)
Sedimentary Facies
194(1)
Sedimentary Rocks and Plate Tectonics
195(1)
Highlight Telling the Earth's History from Its Seafloor Mud
196(2)
Sedimentary Rocks from a Distance
198(2)
Chapter 6 Summary
200(4)
Key Terms
200(1)
Questions for Review
201(1)
Learning Actively
202(1)
Online Study Guide
203(1)
Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks
204(26)
What Is Metamorphism?
207(1)
What Drives Metamorphism?
207(3)
Heat
207(1)
Pressure
208(2)
Circulating Fluids
210(1)
What Controls the Mineralogy of a Metamorphic-Rock?
210(1)
Types of Metamorphism
210(3)
Contact Metamorphism
210(1)
Regional Metamorphism
211(1)
Other Types of Metamorphism
212(1)
Common Metamorphic Rocks
213(6)
Highlight Shock Metamorphism, Buckyballs . . . and the Origin of Life on Earth?
214(1)
Metamorphism of Mud
214(1)
Geology at a Glance Types of Metamorphism
215(3)
Metamorphism of Sandstones and Limestones
218(1)
Metamorphism of Igneous Rocks
218(1)
A Non-foliated Metamorphic Rock---Hornfels
219(1)
Temperatures and Pressures of Metamorphism
219(4)
Metamorphic Grade
219(1)
Index Minerals and Metamorphic Zones
220(1)
Experimenting with Rocks
220(1)
Pressure-Temperature Paths and Plate Tectonics
221(2)
Plate Tectonics and Metamorphic Rocks
223(1)
Metamorphic Rocks in Daily Life
223(3)
Potential Hazards from Metamorphic Rocks
224(1)
Highlight Asbestos, Cancer, and Crayons---A Study in Environmental Health
225(1)
The Rock Cycle Revisited
226(1)
Chapter 7 Summary
227(3)
Key Terms
228(1)
Questions for Review
228(1)
Learning Actively
229(1)
Online Study Guide
229(1)
Telling Time Geologically
230(59)
Geologic Time in Perspective
232(1)
Determining Relative Age
233(13)
Principles of Relative Dating
234(3)
Unconformities
237(1)
Highlight How Fossils Form
238(3)
Geology at a Glance Relative Dating
241(1)
Relative Dating
241(2)
Highlight The World's Oldest Landscape
243(1)
Correlation
244(1)
Relative Dating by Weathering Features
245(1)
Determining Numerical Age
246(13)
Isotope Dating
246(2)
How to Date Rock (or Mineral)
248(4)
Other Numerical-Dating Techniques
252(3)
Dating Tectonic Events
255(2)
Geology at a Glance: Numerical Dating
257(1)
Combining Relative and Numerical Dating
258(1)
The Geologic Time Scale
259(5)
Highlight Death on Earth
260(1)
Life on Earth
260(2)
The Age of the Earth
262(2)
Highlight Life on Earth---Are We All Extraterrestrials?
264(1)
Chapter 8 Summary
264(4)
Key Terms
266(1)
Questions for Review
266(1)
Learning Actively
267(1)
Online Study Guide
267(1)
Timeline of Earth History
268(21)
Introduction
268(2)
Big Bang to Formation of Earth
270(2)
Formation of Earth to 2,600 MYA
272(2)
2,600 MYA to 550 MYA
274(2)
550 MYA to 370 MYA
276(2)
370 MYA to 190 MYA
278(2)
170 MYA to 19 MYA
280(2)
19 MYA to 7.5 MYA
282(2)
7.7 MYA to 1 MYA
284(2)
1 MYA to Present
286(3)
PART 2 Shaping the Earth's Crust
289(146)
Earth Structures---Folds, Faults, and Fabrics
290(24)
Stress and Strain
292(3)
Elastic and Plastic Rocks
292(1)
Other Factors Affecting Rock Deformation
293(1)
Compression, Tension, and Shearing
294(1)
Interpreting Deformed Rocks
294(1)
Folds
295(6)
Highlight Studying Deformed Rocks in the Field
296(1)
Types and Shapes of Folds
296(3)
Domes and Basins
299(2)
Faults
301(8)
Types of Faults
302(5)
Plate Tectonics and Faulting
307(1)
Geology at a Glance: Common Types of Faults
308(1)
Common Types of Faults
308(1)
Seeing Structures
309(3)
Highlight Folds, Faults, and the Search for Fossil Fuels
311(1)
Chapter 9 Summary
312(2)
Key Terms
313(1)
Questions for Review
313(1)
Learning Actively
313(1)
Online Study Guide
313(1)
Earthquakes
314(40)
The Causes of Earthquakes
316(1)
The Products of Earthquakes---Seismic Waves
317(2)
Body Waves
317(1)
Surface Waves
318(1)
Measuring Earthquakes---Which Scale to Use?
319(3)
The Mercalli Intensity Scale
319(1)
The Modern Seismograph
320(1)
The Richter Scale
320(1)
The Moment-Magnitude Scale
321(1)
Earthquake Magnitudes on a Human Scale
322(1)
Locating an Earthquake's Epicenter
322(1)
Earthquake Depth and Magnitude
323(1)
The Effects of Earthquakes
324(8)
Ground Displacements
324(1)
Landslides and Liquefaction
324(1)
Highlight Seismic Eavesdropping---Monitoring the Peace
325(1)
Seiches
326(1)
Tsunami
327(2)
Fires
329(1)
Highlight A Mysterious Tsunami Strikes Japan
330(1)
Geology at a Glance Some Effects of Earthquakes
331(1)
The World's Principal Earthquake Zones
332(5)
Earthquake Zones at Plate Boundaries
332(2)
Intraplate Earthquakes
334(3)
Coping with the Threat of Earthquakes
337(14)
Limiting Earthquakes Caused by Humans
337(1)
Determining Seismic Frequency
337(5)
Building in an Earthquake Zone
342(2)
Earthquake Prediction---The Best Defense
344(4)
Highlight Drilling the San Andreas
348(1)
Can Earthquakes Be Controlled?
349(1)
Geology at a Glance: Strategies for Coping With the Three of Earthquakes
350(1)
The Moon---A Distant Seismic Outpost
351(1)
Chapter 10 Summary
352(2)
Key Terms
352(1)
Questions for Review
353(1)
Learning Actively
353(1)
Online Study Guide
353(1)
The Earth's Interior---What's Going on Down There?
354(30)
Highlight Journey to the Center of the Earth, 21st-Century Style
356(1)
Investigating the Earth's Interior
357(10)
The Behavior of Seismic Waves
357(1)
The Crust
358(2)
Highlight Seismic Tomography---A Planetary CAT Scan
360(2)
The Mantle
362(2)
The Core
364(3)
Taking the Earth's Temperature
367(3)
Determining Interior Temperatures
367(1)
Heat at the Earth's Surface
367(1)
Geology at a Glance: The Earth's Interior
368(1)
Highlight Simulating the Earth's Core in the Laboratory
369(1)
Is the Earth Still Cooling?
369(1)
The Earth's Gravity
370(5)
Measuring Gravity
370(1)
Gravity Anomalies
370(2)
Isostasy
372(2)
Highlight Why is the Shore So Near the Ocean?
374(1)
Magnetism
375(6)
The Earth's Magnetic Field
375(4)
Highlight Modeling Reversals
379(1)
Other Magnetic Fields in Our Solar System
380(1)
Chapter 11 Summary
381(3)
Key Terms
382(1)
Questions for Review
382(1)
Learning Actively
382(1)
Online Study Guide
383(1)
Plate Tectonics and the Formation of the Earth's Oceans
384(26)
Some Plate-Tectonic Basics
386(1)
The Nature and Origin of the Ocean Floor
386(12)
Rifting and the Origin of Ocean Basins
387(4)
Divergent Plate Boundaries
391(1)
Highlight The Unseen World of Divergent Zones
392(2)
Transform Boundaries and Offset Mid-ocean Ridges
394(1)
Convergent Plate Boundaries---Subduction Zones
394(3)
Convergent Plate Boundaries---Collision Zones
397(1)
Determining Plate Velocity
398(8)
Highlight Continental Subduction and Formation of Diamonds
399(1)
Geology at a Glance: Plate Boundaries
400(2)
Using Hot Spots to Track Plate Movements
402(2)
Tracking Magnetic Field Reversals
404(1)
Rates of Plate Motion
404(2)
The Driving Forces of Plate Motion
406(1)
Ridge Push or Slab Pull?
406(1)
The Tectonics of Continents---A Preview
407(1)
Chapter 12 Summary
407(3)
Key Terms
408(1)
Questions for Review
408(1)
Learning Actively
408(1)
Online Study Guide
409(1)
Continental Tectonics and the Formation of the Earth's Continents
410(25)
The Origin and Shaping of Continents
410(9)
The Anatomy of Continents
410(2)
The Origin of Continents
412(2)
The Changing Shape of the Earth's Continents
414(2)
Mountain Building and Mountain ``Unbuilding''
416(1)
Supercontinents
416(2)
Highlight The Geology of the Roof of the World
418(1)
The Tectonic History of the North American Continent
419(12)
The Creation of the Continental Shield and Cration
420(1)
Mountain Building in the East: The Appalachian Events
421(1)
Highlight The Appalachians---North America's Geologic Jigsaw Puzzle
422(1)
Mountain Building in the West: Westward Growth of the North American Continent
423(2)
More Mountain Building in the West
425(1)
Rifting in the West
426(1)
Most Recent Tectonic Events in North America
427(1)
Looking into the Plate-Tectonic Future: A Global Perspective
428(1)
Highlight Volcanoes in New Jersey and Georgia? When Will the Atlantic Subduct Again?
429(1)
Geology at a Glance: Future Subduction Along Atlantic Seaboard
430(1)
Chapter 13 Summary
431(4)
Key Terms
432(1)
Questions for Review
432(1)
Learning Actively
432(1)
Online Study Guide
433(2)
PART 3 Sculpting the Earth's Surface
435
Mass Movement
436(28)
What Causes Mass Movement?
438(6)
Gravity, Friction, and Slope Angle
438(1)
Slope Composition
438(3)
Setting Off a Mass-Movement Event
441(3)
Types of Mass Movement
444(10)
Slow Mass Movement
444(1)
Rapid Mass Movement
444(6)
Highlight Keeping an Eye on a Canary
450(2)
Highlight The La Conchita Mudslide
452(1)
Geology at a Glance: Mass movements
453(1)
Mass Movement
453(1)
Avoiding and Preventing Mass-Movement Disasters
454(5)
Predicting Mass Movements
454(2)
Highlight Crumbling K'ilauea
456(1)
Avoiding Mass Movements
456(1)
Preventing Mass Movements
457(2)
Extraterrestrial Mass Movement
459(2)
Highlight How to Choose a Stable Home Site
460(1)
Chapter 14 Summary
461(3)
Key Terms
462(1)
Questions for Review
462(1)
Learning Actively
463(1)
Online Study Guide
463(1)
Streams and Floods
464(36)
The Earth's Water
464(3)
Streams
467(2)
Stream Flow and Discharge
467(2)
The Geological Work of Streams
469(16)
Graded Streams
469(1)
Stream Erosion
470(7)
Stream Transport
477(4)
Stream Deposition
481(2)
Geology at a Glance: The Work of Streams
483(2)
Controlling Floods
485(11)
Highlight The Mississippi River and Its Delta
486(2)
Flood Prediction
488(2)
Highlight The Great Midwestern Floods of 1993
490(3)
Artificial Floods
493(1)
Highlight The Tragedy of Hurricane Katrina
494(2)
Stream Evolution and Plate Tectonics
496(1)
Extraterrestrial Stream Activity---Evidence from Mars
497(1)
Chapter 15 Summary
498(2)
Key Terms
498(1)
Questions for Review
499(1)
Learning Actively
499(1)
Online Study Guide
499(1)
Groundwater
500(38)
Groundwater Infiltration and Flow
502(3)
Movement and Distribution of Groundwater
503(2)
Tapping the Groundwater Reservior
505(7)
Aquifers---Water-bearing Rock Units
506(2)
Natural Springs and Geysers
508(4)
Finding and Managing Groundwater
512(7)
Locating Groundwater
512(1)
Threats to the Groundwater Supply
513(1)
Should You Hire a Water Witch?
514(3)
Who Owns Groundwater?
517(1)
Dealing with Groundwater Problems
518(1)
Maintaining Groundwater Quality
519(5)
Natural Groundwater Purification
520(2)
Highlight Yucca Mountain---A Safe Place for N-Wastes?
522(2)
Cleansing Contaminated Aquifers
524(1)
Caves and Karst---The Products of Groundwater Erosion
524(2)
How Limestone Dissolves
524(2)
Caves
526(4)
Cave Formation
526(1)
Cave Deposits
526(4)
Karst Topography
530(6)
Karst Landforms
530(3)
Protecting Karst Environments
533(1)
Geology at a Glance: The Geologic Work of Groundwater
534(1)
Geologic Work of Groundwater, At or Near the Surface
534(1)
Geologic Work of Groundwater, Underground
535(1)
Chapter 16 Summary
536(2)
Key Terms
537(1)
Questions for Review
537(1)
Learning Actively
537(1)
Online Study Guide
537(1)
Glaciers and Ice Ages
538(42)
Glacier Formation and Growth
541(5)
Classifying Glaciers
542(1)
The Budget of a Glacier
542(1)
Glacial Flow
542(4)
The Work of Glaciers
546(16)
Glacial Erosion
546(3)
Glacial Transport and Deposition
549(4)
Geology at a Glance: The Work of Continental Glaciers
553(1)
The Work of Continental Glaciers
553(1)
Geology at a Glance: The Work of Alpine Glaciers
554(1)
The Work of Alpine Glaciers
554(1)
Other Effects of Glaciation
555(5)
Highlight The World's Greatest Flood---The Channeled Scablands of Eastern Washington
560(2)
Reconstructing Ice Age Climates
562(4)
Deep-Sea Studies
564(1)
Ice-Core Studies
565(1)
The Causes of Glaciation
566(3)
Variations in the Earth's Orbital Mechanics
567(1)
Terrestrial Factors That Amplify Ice Age Climate Change
567(2)
The Earth's Glacial Past
569(7)
Highlight The Snowball Earth---When the Whole Planet Froze
570(1)
Glaciation in the Pleistocene
571(1)
Recent Glacial Events
572(3)
Highlight Opening up the Northwest Passage---A By-product of Global Warming?
575(1)
Glaciation on Other Planets and Moons
576(1)
Chapter 17 Summary
577(3)
Key Terms
578(1)
Questions for Review
578(1)
Learning Actively
579(1)
Online Study Guide
579(1)
Deserts and the Work of Winds
580(32)
Identifying Deserts
582(4)
Types of Deserts
582(1)
Highlight How Hot Is Hot?
583(1)
Weathering in Deserts
584(2)
The Work of Water in Deserts
586(3)
Stream Erosion in Deserts
586(1)
Stream Deposition in Deserts
587(2)
The Work of Winds in Deserts
589(15)
Highlight America's Dust Bowl
592
Erosion by Wind
591(2)
Transport by Wind
593(3)
Deposition by Wind
596(6)
Reconstructing Paleowind Directions
602(1)
Geology at a Glance: The Work of Wind in Deserts
603(1)
Desertification
604(4)
Highlight The Great Plains---North America's Once and Future Sahara?
606(1)
Reversing Desertification
607(1)
Wind Action on Mars
608(1)
Chapter 18 Summary
609(3)
Key Terms
610(1)
Questions for Review
610(1)
Learning Actively
611(1)
Online Study Guide
611(1)
Shores and Coastal Processes
612(34)
Waves, Currents, and Tides
614(6)
Waves and Currents
614(2)
Tides
616(4)
Processes That Shape Coasts
620(11)
Coastal Erosion
620(2)
Highlight Lake Michigan's Vanishing Shoreline
622(2)
Coastal Transport and Deposition
624(5)
Geology at a Glance: The Work of Waves and Tides
629(1)
Highlight Can (and Should) We Control Nature's Coasts?
630(1)
Types of Coasts
631(6)
Barrier Islands
631(3)
Organic Coasts
634(1)
Highlight The Future of North Carolina's Coast---Some Good, News, Some Bad
635(2)
Plate-Tectonic Settings of Coasts
637(2)
Sea-Level Fluctuations and Coastal Evolution
639(4)
Highlight The Drowning of Tuvalu---A Tiny Country Not Long for This World
641(1)
Protecting Coasts and Coastal Environments
642(1)
Chapter 19 Summary
643(3)
Key Terms
644(1)
Questions for Review
644(1)
Learning Actively
644(1)
Online Study Guide
645(1)
Human Use of the Earth's Resources
646
Reserves and Resources
648(1)
Fossil Fuels
649(7)
Hydrocarbons
649(3)
Coal and Peat
652(2)
Fossil Fuels and the Environment
654(2)
Alternative Energy Resources
656(9)
Renewable Alternative Energy Sources
656(1)
Highlight Gas Hydrates---A Major 21st-Century Fuel or a Potential Global Environmental Disaster?
657(5)
Nuclear Energy---A Nonrenewable Alternative
662(1)
Highlight Hydrogen---The Solution to All Our 21st-century Energy Needs?
663(2)
Mineral Resources
665(8)
Metals
665(6)
Nonmetals
671(2)
Future Use of Natural Resources
673(4)
Geology at a Glance: Earth's Energy Resources
674(1)
Meeting Future Energy Needs
674(1)
Meeting Future Mineral Needs
675(2)
Chapter 20 Summary
677
Key Terms
678(1)
Questions for Review
678(1)
Learning Actively
678(1)
Online Study Guide
679
Appendix A Conversion Factors for English and Metric Units 1(1)
Appendix B A Statistical Portrait of Planet Earth 2(2)
Appendix C Reading Topographic and Geologic Maps 4(2)
Appendix D Mineral-Identification Charts 6(4)
Glossary 10(10)
Photo Credits 20(5)
Index 25


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