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Germany and the Holy Roman Empire offers a striking new interpretation of a crucial era in German and European history, from the great reforms of 1495-1500 to the dissolution of the Reich in 1806. Over two volumes, Joachim Whaley rejects the notion that this was a long period of decline, and shows instead how imperial institutions developed in response to the crises of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, notably the Reformation and Thirty Years War. The impact of international developments on the Reich is also examined.
Volume II begins with the Peace of Westphalia and concludes with the dissolution of the Reich. Whaley analyses the remarkable resurgence of the Reich after the Thirty Years War, which saw the Habsburg emperors achieve a new position of power and influence and which enabled the Reich to withstand the military threats posed by France and the Turks in the later seventeenth century. He gives a rich account of topics such as Pietism and baroque Catholicism, the German enlightenment, and the impact on the Empire and its territories of the French Revolution and Napolean. Whaley emphasizes the continuing viability of the Reich's institutions to the end, and the vitality of a political culture of freedom that has been routinely underestimated by historians of modern Germany.
Joachim Whaley is Senior Lecturer in German, Faculty of Modern and Medieval Languages, University of Cambridge.
Whaley read History at Christ's College Cambridge. He held Fellowships in History at Christ's College and Robinson College before becoming a Lecturer in German in the Faculty of Modern and Medieval Languages at Cambridge, where he teaches German history, thought, and language. He is the author of Religious Toleration and Social Change in Hamburg 1529-1819 and of numerous articles on early modern and modern German history. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society in 1984.
Table of Contents
Preface to Volume II I. Reconstruction and Resurgence 1648-1705: the Reich under Ferdinand III and Leopold I 1. Historians and the Reich after the Thirty Years War 2. The Last Years of Ferdinand III: Western Leagues and Northern Wars 3. From Ferdinand III to Leopold I 4. Leopold I and his Foreign Enemies 5. A New Turkish Threat 6. Renewed Conflict with France 7. The Emperor, the Perpetual Reichstag, the Kreise, and Imperial Justice 8. Imperial Networks: the Reichskirche and the Imperial Cities 9. The Imperial Court at Vienna and Dynastic Elevations in the Reich 10. The Nature of the Reich: Projects and Culture 11. Interpretations of the Leopoldine Reic II. Consolidation and Crisis 1705-1740: the Reich under Joseph I and Charles VI 12. Two Wars and Three Emperors 13. Leopold I, Joseph I, and the War of Spanish Succession 14. Joseph I and the Government of the Reich 15. Charles VI: Fruition or Decline? 16. Conflicting Priorities: c.1714 - c.1730 17. Charles VI and the Government of the Reich 18. The Return of Confessional Politics? 19. The Problem of the Austrian Succession 20. The Ebb of Imperial Power 1733-1740? 21. The Reich in Print III. The German Territories, c. 1648-c.1740 22. An Age of Absolutism? 23. Contemporary Perceptions: From Reconstruction to Early Enlightenment 24. The Smaller Territories 25. Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia 26. The Revival of the Court and the Development of Territorial Government 27. The Court: its Culture, its Functions, and its Critics 28. The Development of Military Power 29. Princes and Estates 30. An Oppressed Peasantry? 31. Government and Society 32. Government and Economic Development 33. Public and Private Enterprise 34. Christian Polities: Baroque Catholicism 35. Christian Polities: the Territories of the Reichskirche 36. Christian Polities: Protestant Orthodoxy and Renewal 37. From Coexistence to Toleration? 38. Enlightenment and Patriotism IV. Decline or Maturity? The Reich from Charles VII to Leopold II, c. 1740-1792 39. Three Emperors and a King 40. Silesian Wars, 1740-1763 41. Managing the Reich without the Habsburgs: Charles VII (1742-45) 42. The Return of the Habsburgs: Francis I (1745-1765) 43. The Reich without Enemies? Germany and Europe 1763-1792 44. Renewal: Joseph II 1765-c.1776 45. The Great Reform Debate: Joseph II c. 1778-1790 46. Restoration: Leopold II 1790-92 47. Central and Intermediate Institutions of the Reich 48. The Reich, the Public Sphere, and the Nation V. The German Territories after c. 1760 49. Enlightenment and the Problem of Reform 50. Crisis and Opportunity 51. The Challenge of the Enlightenment and the Public Sphere 52. Protestant, Catholic and Jewish Aufklarung 53. Aufklarung and Government 54. Cameralism, Physiocracy, and the Provisioning of Society 55. Economic Policy: Manufactures, Guilds, Welfare, and Taxation 56. Administration, Law, and Justice 57. Education and Toleration 58. Courts and Culture 59. The Impact of Reform: Immunity against Revolution? VI. War and Dissolution: the Reich 1792-1806 60. Ruptures and Continuities 61. The Reich in the Revolutionary Wars 62. Reverberations of the French Revolution: Unrest and Uprisings 63. Reverberations of the French Revolution: Intellectuals 64. Schemes for the Reform of the Reich in the 1790s 65. The Peace of Luneville (1801) and the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (1803) 66. The Transformation of the Reich 1803-05 67. Final Attempts at Reform and the Dissolution of the Reich 1806 Conclusion Glossary Bibliography Index