Conventional GIS does not provide all the functions needed for geospatial processing. As a result, GIS customization and programming are becoming increasingly important. Focusing on automation and customization, this book describes concepts of computer programming in general and of GIS programming in particular. Python and Visual Basic for Application illustrate the geospatial techniques discussed in the text. Various applications further demonstrate concepts and methods. An included CD-ROM provides a wide range of hands-on exercises as well as sample data for programming. This complete reference is designed to bring professionals up to date in this rapidly evolving field.