9783540783916

Global Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9783540783916

  • ISBN10:

    3540783911

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-09-03
  • Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Summary

This book examines the global HIV/AIDS pandemic from a multidisciplinary perspective, analyzing its economic impact, the reasons behind the political response to the pandemic, international laws relating to public health and patents and mechanisms for financing global and national responses. The authors paint a global picture of the HIV/AIDS pandemic one issue, one country and one region at a time and show why prevention, treatment and human rights protection must each form part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy. The book analyzes the successes and failures of national governments, international organizations and the private sector in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic and recommends changes to our international economic, financial, legal and political institutions. This book highlights the lessons the world has to learn from our experience with HIV/AIDS in order to improve the way we address global diseases. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Economic, Financial, Political and Legal Implications of Global Pandemicsp. 1
The Threat of Global Pandemicsp. 1
The Origins of the HIV Virusp. 6
The Nature of HIV/AIDSp. 7
HIV/AIDS Strategies in Developed and Developing Countriesp. 9
Insurance, Mortality, Treatment Costs and the Business Impact of HIV/AIDSp. 11
The Economics of HIV/AIDSp. 13
The Political Economy of Patents and Global Health Threatsp. 15
Global Diseases, Global Patents and Developing Countries in WTO Lawp. 17
Bilateral and Multilateral Financing of HIV/AIDS Programsp. 19
The Successes and Failures of Global Health Organizationsp. 20
Prevention, Treatment and Human Rightsp. 21
Increasing the Effectiveness of Global Disease Managementp. 23
Referencesp. 24
HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Strategies in Developed and Developing Countriesp. 25
The Global Statisticsp. 26
The African Epidemic: HIV/AIDS Becomes a Security Issuep. 30
South Africa: International Politics and Lack of Political Leadershipp. 31
AIDS Strategy in Brazil: Integrating Prevention, Treatment and Human Rightsp. 36
Thailand: Successful Prevention in the Sex Tradep. 46
Japan: The Xenophobic Denial Strategyp. 52
Australia: Nondiscriminatory Education and Preventionp. 55
Implications for Other Global Diseasesp. 57
Referencesp. 59
Appendixp. 63
Insurance, Mortality, Treatment Costs and the Business Impact of HIV/AIDS in Developed and Developing Countriesp. 67
HIV/AIDS in Developed Countriesp. 67
The Insurance Industry and HIV/AIDS in Developed Countriesp. 68
Problems of Mortality Projections and Insurancep. 68
Problems for Insurance Companies in Pricing Risksp. 70
Comparing HIV/AIDS with Diabetesp. 70
The Advent of Effective Treatmentp. 71
The Impact of Drugs on Survivabilityp. 73
Estimating the Cost of HIV/AIDS Treatment in the Developed Worldp. 79
HIV/AIDS in Developing Countriesp. 80
Errors in Measuring the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Indiap. 81
Problems with Estimating Prevalence Using Antenatal Clinic Datap. 83
Insurance Companies' Problem with HIV/AIDSp. 85
The South African Life Insurance Business and HIV/AIDSp. 86
Public and Private Sector Health Care Strategies in Developing Countriesp. 90
The Cost of Treatment in a Middle Income Country: Mexicop. 91
Viatical Settlements: A Financial Byproduct of HIV/AIDSp. 93
Economic Incentives for Companies to Pay for Prevention and Treatmentp. 99
Business Strategies in High Prevalence Countriesp. 103
Implications for Other Global Diseasesp. 106
Referencesp. 107
The Economics of HIV/AIDSp. 111
Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/AIDSp. 111
Social Capital and HIV/AIDSp. 112
Relationships Between HIV/AIDS and Poverty, Inequality and Social Capital Using Global Datap. 113
The Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in a Macroeconomic Growth Modelp. 115
Macroeconomic Models: HIV/AIDS and Economic Growthp. 116
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Per Capita Incomep. 117
The Role of Human Capitalp. 117
The Transmission of Human Capitalp. 121
Fertility, HIV/AIDS and Economic Growthp. 123
Fertility and Human Capital Accumulationp. 124
Summary of Reviewed Literature on Fertility and Human Capitalp. 127
Microeconomic and Epidemiological Models of Behaviorp. 128
Do Ugandans Behave Differently?p. 128
An Epidemiological Interpretation of the Ugandan Resultsp. 132
Do Africans Behave Differently?p. 134
An Economic Explanation of Why Ugandan Results Differp. 136
The Cost of Scaling Up Prevention and Treatment in Developing Countriesp. 140
Economic Tradeoffsp. 142
The Zambian Dilemmap. 142
The Tradeoff Among Competing Needsp. 143
The Economics of SARSp. 144
Implications for Other Global Diseasesp. 147
Referencesp. 149
The Political Economy of Patents and Global Health Threatsp. 153
The Political Economy of Compulsory Licensingp. 154
The Case of Anthraxp. 154
The WTO Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Healthp. 156
The Problem Identified in Paragraph 6 of the TRIPS Declarationp. 157
Abbott in Thailandp. 161
Foreign Aid, Foreign AIDS and Regulatory Capturep. 162
Undermining TRIPS in Free Trade Agreementsp. 165
Regulatory Capture of the Patent Systemp. 166
Regulatory Capture of National Patent Lawp. 167
Regulatory Capture of International Patent Lawp. 168
The New Economics of Patentsp. 170
Two Centuries of Patent Protection in Europe and the United Statesp. 171
Innovation and Patentsp. 172
Implications for Other Global Diseasesp. 182
Referencesp. 183
Global Diseases, Global Patents and Developing Countries in WTO Lawp. 187
Key TRIPS Exceptions Relating to Patentsp. 188
TRIPS Article 30p. 189
TRIPS Article 31p. 191
The Paragraph 6 Decisionp. 192
Implementation and Use of the Paragraph 6 Decision by WTO Membersp. 194
Special and Differential Treatment in WTO Lawp. 196
The Economic Impact of Patents and their Effect on Development Needsp. 202
Are Global Patents Necessary to Provide Research Incentives for Neglected Diseases?p. 203
Are Global Patents Necessary to Provide Research Incentives for Global Diseases?p. 204
Making Patents Effective in Achieving Economic and Development Objectivesp. 205
Solving the Problem Through Interpretation or Amendmentp. 206
Eligibility for Exemption from Patent Obligationsp. 207
Implications for Other Global Diseasesp. 213
Referencesp. 215
Bilateral and Multilateral Financing of HIV/AIDS Programs: The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Global Fund, Bilateral Donors and the Private Sectorp. 217
Overview of HIV/AIDS Fundingp. 217
The World Bank: A Development Institutionp. 226
Nature of World Bank Operations Related to HIV/AIDSp. 226
Scope of World Bank Operationsp. 229
The Effectiveness of the World Bankp. 233
The International Monetary Fund (IMF): A Multilateral Financial Institutionp. 235
Nature of IMF Operationsp. 236
Scope of IMF Operationsp. 237
Effectiveness of the IMFp. 237
The Global Fund: A Fundraising and Financing Institutionp. 239
Nature of Global Fund Operationsp. 239
Scope of Global Fund Operationsp. 241
Effectiveness of the Global Fundp. 242
Bilateral Donorsp. 247
The Role of the Private Sector in Funding Prevention and Treatmentp. 249
Incentives for Companies to Invest in HIV/AIDS Programsp. 249
Market-Based Initiatives to Increase Private Sector Fundingp. 252
Funding from Private Charitable Foundationsp. 255
Implications for Other Global Diseasesp. 257
Referencesp. 259
The Successes and Failures of Global Health Organizations: The World Health Organization, UNAIDS, Medicins sans Frontieres and PEPFARp. 265
The World Health Organization: A Multilateral Health Institutionp. 265
Nature of WHO Operations Related to HIV/AIDSp. 267
Scope of WHO Operations Related to HIV/AIDSp. 267
The 2005 WHO International Health Regulationsp. 273
The Effectiveness of the WHOp. 279
UNAIDS: A Specialized Multilateral Agencyp. 281
Scope of UNAIDS Operationsp. 282
Effectiveness of UNAIDSp. 284
Doctors Without Borders (Medicins sans Frontieres)p. 285
Operations Related to HIV/AIDSp. 286
Effectiveness of MSF Operationsp. 286
US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)p. 287
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)p. 292
Implications for Other Global Diseasesp. 295
Referencesp. 296
The Way Forward: Prevention, Treatment and Human Rightsp. 301
The Importance of HIV/AIDS Preventionp. 301
HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategiesp. 304
Barriers to Increasing HIV Preventionp. 313
The Future of HIV Treatmentp. 314
Obstacles to Increasing the Number of People Receiving Treatmentp. 316
Second-Line Treatmentp. 322
Vaccines for HIV/AIDSp. 323
Public Health and Human Rightsp. 326
Laws that Discriminate Against Vulnerable Groupsp. 327
Laws that Discriminate Against HIV-Positive Peoplep. 332
Laws that Prohibit Discrimination Against Vulnerable Groupsp. 341
Risk Management: The Tradeoff between Human Rights and HIV Preventionp. 346
The Future of HIV/AIDSp. 347
Referencesp. 348
Indexp. 353
About the Authorsp. 391
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