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Global Marketing : Foreign Entry, Local Marketing, and Global Management,9780072961805
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Global Marketing : Foreign Entry, Local Marketing, and Global Management

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072961805

ISBN10:
0072961805
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/7/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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    Global Marketing : Foreign Entry, Local Marketing, and Global Management




Summary

Johansson's Global Marketing, 4/e utilizes a three-pronged framework to organize the discussion of how to conduct global business: Foreign Entry, Local Marketing, and Global Management. Johansson seeks to develop the varied skills a marketing manager needs to be successful in each of these tasks. The discussion progresses from how to market an existing product outside of the domestic market to how to develop a new product for specific local markets and then broadens the scope to discuss marketing and management topics from a global managerial perspective. Legal, regulatory, political, and cultural, issues are discussed as appropriate throughout the text. Excellent examples and cases, many of which are drawn from the author's rich international experience, help students move from concept to application. Most International Marketing books have 6-7 separate chapters up front that discuss the legal and regulatory, political, and cultural environments before they begin to discuss global market entry. Johansson presumes that the students have a basic appreciation of these environments and begins the market entry discussion after 3 introductory chapters. The orientation of this text is more managerial and less descriptive. This text is used both as the first course in the undergraduate level and in MBA level courses.

Table of Contents

PART ONE FUNDAMENTALS
1(96)
The Global Marketing Job
3(28)
Going Global
5(1)
A Historical Perspective
6(5)
The Multinational Phase
6(1)
The Global Phase
7(1)
The Antiglobalization Phase
8(2)
An Anti-American Phase?
10(1)
Key Concepts
11(6)
Global Marketing
11(1)
International Marketing
11(1)
``Foreign'' Marketing
11(1)
Multidomestic Markets
12(1)
Global and Regional Markets
13(1)
Global Products
13(2)
Global Brands
15(1)
Leading Markets
15(1)
The Product Life Cycle
16(1)
Drivers toward Globalization
17(4)
Market Drivers
17(1)
Competitive Drivers
18(1)
Cost Drivers
19(1)
Technology Drivers
19(1)
Government Drivers
20(1)
Localized Global Marketing
21(1)
The Limits to Global Marketing
21(1)
Global Localization
21(1)
Developing Knowledge Assets
22(2)
New Products
23(1)
Advertising
23(1)
Distribution
24(1)
Skill Benefits
24(1)
Global Marketing Objectives
24(1)
Three Hats
25(2)
The Foreign Entry Role
25(1)
The Local Marketing Role
26(1)
The Global Management Role
27(1)
A Guide to the Chapters
27(1)
Summary
28(3)
Theoretical Foundations
31(30)
Introduction
33(1)
Country-Specific Advantages (CSAs)
34(6)
Comparative and Absolute Advantages
34(1)
The International Product Cycle (IPC)
35(1)
National Competitive Advantages
36(2)
The New Trade Theory
38(1)
Country-of-Origin Effects
38(2)
Firm-Specific Advantages (FSAs)
40(8)
Knowledge-Based FSAs
41(1)
Marketing FSAs
42(1)
Transferability of FSAs
43(1)
FSAs and Internalization
44(1)
FSAs and Transaction Costs
45(2)
FSAs in the Value Chain
47(1)
Extending Porter's ``Five Forces'' Model
48(3)
Rivalry
48(2)
New Entrants
50(1)
Substitutes
51(1)
Buyer Power
51(1)
Supplier Power
51(1)
Rivalry between Global Competitors
51(4)
Competitive Strength
52(1)
Competitive Repertoire
52(1)
Global Rivalry
52(2)
Hypercompetition
54(1)
Strategy and The Three Hats
55(1)
Summary
56(5)
Cultural Foundations
61(36)
Introduction
63(2)
The Meaning of Culture
65(1)
Cultures across Countries
65(6)
High versus Low Context Cultures
65(1)
``Silent Languages''
66(1)
Avoid Self-Referencing
67(1)
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
67(1)
Gannon's Metaphors
68(3)
Culture and ``How to Do Business''
71(3)
Culture and Managerial Skills
72(1)
Managerial Styles
72(1)
Managing Subordinates
73(1)
Culture and Negotiations
74(4)
Know Whom You Are Dealing With
75(1)
Know What They Hear
76(1)
Know When to Say What
77(1)
The Limits to Cultural Sensitivity
78(1)
Nonadaptation
78(1)
Keeping One's Center
79(1)
Culture and The Three Hats
79(3)
Foreign Entry
79(1)
Local Marketing
80(1)
Global Management
81(1)
Summary
82(3)
Case 1-1: IKEA's Global Strategy: Furnishing the World
85(5)
Case 1-2: Globalization Headaches at Whirlpool
90(7)
PART TWO FOREIGN ENTRY
97(104)
Country Attractiveness
99(26)
Introduction
101(1)
Political Risk Research
102(1)
Environmental Research
103(3)
Physical Environment
104(1)
Sociocultural Environment
104(1)
Economic Environment
105(1)
Regulatory Environment
105(1)
Researching Competitors
106(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses
106(1)
Competitive Signaling
107(1)
Entry Evaluation Procedure
107(4)
Stage 1---Country Identification
107(1)
Stage 2---Preliminary Screening
108(1)
Stage 3---In-Depth Screening
109(1)
Stage 4---Final Selection
110(1)
Personal Experience
111(1)
Country Data Sources
111(3)
Forecasting Country Sales
114(1)
A Basic Equation
114(1)
Stage of the Product Life Cycle
115(1)
Industry Sales
115(4)
The Build-Up Method
115(1)
Forecasting by Analogy
115(1)
An Illustration: TV Penetration
116(1)
Judgmental Forecasts
117(1)
Time Series Extrapolation
118(1)
Regression-Based Forecasts
118(1)
Forecasting Market Share
119(2)
Predicting Competition
119(1)
Identifying Competitors
120(1)
Domestic Competitors
120(1)
Foreign Competitors
121(1)
Summary
121(4)
Export Expansion
125(34)
Introduction
127(1)
Four Modes of Entry
127(2)
Exporting
127(1)
Licensing
128(1)
Strategic Alliances (SAs)
128(1)
Wholly Owned Manufacturing Subsidiary
129(1)
The Impact of Entry Barriers
129(6)
Entry Barriers Defined
129(2)
The Cost of Barriers
131(1)
The Importer's View
131(1)
Tariff and Nontariff Barriers
131(1)
Government Regulations
132(1)
Distribution Access
132(2)
Natural Barriers
134(1)
Advanced versus Developing Nations
134(1)
Exit Barriers
134(1)
Effect on Entry Mode
135(1)
The Exporting Option
135(14)
Indirect Exporting
136(1)
Direct Exporting
137(1)
The Exporting Job
137(1)
Product Shipment
138(1)
Export Pricing
139(4)
Local Distribution
143(1)
Payment
144(2)
Legal Issues
146(2)
After-Sales Support
148(1)
Cultural Distance and Learning
149(2)
The ``Cultural Distance'' Effect
149(1)
The International Learning Curve
150(1)
Internationalization Paths
151(2)
The Internationalization Sequence
151(1)
Born Globals
152(1)
Export Expansion Strategy
153(2)
Waterfall versus Sprinkler Strategies
153(1)
A Comparison of Two Industries
154(1)
Importers as Trade Initiators
155(1)
Summary
155(4)
Licensing, Strategic Alliances, FDI
159(42)
Introduction
161(1)
Licensing
161(3)
Franchising
163(1)
Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM)
163(1)
Strategic Alliances
164(4)
The Rationale for Nonequity SAs
165(1)
Distribution Alliances
166(1)
Manufacturing Alliances
166(1)
R&D Alliances
167(1)
Joint Ventures
167(1)
Manufacturing Subsidiaries
168(4)
Outsourcing
170(1)
Financial Analysis
170(1)
Acquisitions
171(1)
Entry Modes and Marketing Control
172(2)
Optimal Entry Strategy
174(5)
The Entry Mode Matrix
174(1)
Optimal Modes
175(1)
Real-World Cases
176(3)
Summary
179(2)
Case 2-1: Toys ``R'' Us Goes to Japan
181(4)
Case 2-2: Illycaffe (A): Internationalization
185(4)
Case 2-3: Illycaffe (B): The Starbucks Threat
189(3)
Case 2-4: AOL: International Expansion
192(9)
PART THREE LOCAL MARKETING
201(152)
Understanding Local Customers
203(32)
Introduction
205(1)
Local Culture and Buyer Behavior
206(3)
Marketing and Materialism
207(1)
The Meaning of a Product
208(1)
A Universal Trait in Local Form
209(1)
Buyer Decision Making
209(6)
Problem Recognition
210(1)
Search
211(1)
Evaluation of Alternatives
212(1)
Choice
213(1)
Outcomes
214(1)
A ``No-Nationality'' Global Consumer?
214(1)
Local Buyer Research
215(9)
Problem Definition
215(2)
Qualitative Research
217(1)
Consumer Surveys
218(1)
Trade Surveys
219(1)
Observational Studies
219(1)
Causal Research
220(1)
Measurement and Scaling
220(2)
Questionnaire Construction
222(1)
Sampling
222(1)
Fieldwork
223(1)
Industrial Buyers
224(5)
The Business Marketing Task
224(1)
Cultural Conditioning
224(1)
Organization Culture
225(1)
Relationship Marketing
226(2)
Culture and Networks
228(1)
Three Local Marketing Environments
229(2)
Market Environment
229(1)
Marketing Tasks
229(1)
Country Markets
230(1)
Summary
231(4)
Local Marketing in Mature Markets
235(32)
Introduction
237(1)
Local Marketing in Mature Markets
237(5)
Market Segmentation
237(1)
Product Positioning
237(1)
Marketing Tactics
238(3)
Customer Satisfaction
241(1)
Close-Up: Pan-European Marketing
242(9)
Market Environment
242(1)
Foreign Trade Agreements
243(1)
Competition
244(1)
Market Segmentation
245(1)
Product Positioning
246(1)
Marketing Tactics
247(4)
Close-Up: Marketing in Japan
251(5)
Market Environment
251(1)
Foreign Trade Agreements
251(1)
Competition
252(1)
Market Segmentation
252(1)
Product Positioning
253(1)
Marketing Tactics
253(3)
Close-Up: Marketing in Australia and New Zealand
256(3)
Market Environment
256(1)
Foreign Trade Agreements
256(1)
Competition
257(1)
Market Segmentation
257(1)
Product Positioning
258(1)
Marketing Tactics
258(1)
Close-Up: Marketing in North America
259(5)
Market Environment
259(2)
Foreign Trade Agreements
261(1)
Competition
261(1)
Market Segmentation
262(1)
Product Positioning
262(1)
Marketing Tactics
262(2)
Summary
264(3)
Local Marketing in New Growth Markets
267(28)
Introduction
269(4)
Two Kinds of Markets
269(1)
The Role of Trade Blocs
270(1)
Market Segmentation
271(1)
Product Positioning
271(1)
Marketing Tactics
272(1)
Close-Up: Marketing in Latin America
273(10)
Market Environment
273(1)
Foreign Trade Agreements
274(1)
Market Segmentation
275(1)
Product Positioning
275(1)
Marketing Tactics
276(3)
Major Country Markets
279(2)
Pan-Regional Marketing
281(2)
Close-Up: Marketing in the New Asian Growth Markets
283(8)
Market Environment
283(2)
Foreign Trade Agreements
285(1)
Market Segmentation
285(1)
Product Positioning
286(1)
Marketing Tactics
286(3)
Major Country Markets
289(1)
Pan-Regional Marketing
290(1)
Summary
291(4)
Local Marketing in Emerging Markets
295(58)
Introduction
297(1)
Local Marketing in Developing Countries
297(3)
Market Segmentation
298(1)
Product Positioning
299(1)
Pricing
299(1)
Distribution
300(1)
Promotion
300(1)
Close-Up: Marketing in Russia and the NDCs
300(9)
Market Environment
301(1)
Political and Legal Risks
302(1)
Market Segmentation
303(1)
Product Positioning
304(1)
Marketing Tactics
305(4)
Russia at the Crossroads
309(1)
Close-Up: Marketing in China
309(8)
Market Environment
310(1)
Foreign Entry
310(3)
Hong Kong's Role
313(1)
Market Segmentation
314(1)
Product Positioning
314(1)
Marketing Tactics
314(2)
Continuous Change
316(1)
Close-Up: Marketing in India
317(5)
Market Environment
317(1)
Foreign Entry
318(1)
Market Segmentation
319(1)
Product Positioning
320(1)
Marketing Tactics
320(2)
Summary
322(5)
Case 3-1: P&G's Pert Plus: A Pan-European Brand?
327(5)
Case 3-2: Levi Strauss Japan K.K.: Selling Jeans in Japan
332(9)
Case 3-3: Colgate-Palmolive: Cleopatra in Quebec?
341(12)
PART FOUR GLOBAL MANAGEMENT
353(274)
Global Segmentation and Positioning
355(28)
Introduction
356(1)
The Global Marketer's Mindset
357(2)
Selling Orientation
357(1)
Standardization
358(1)
Coordination
358(1)
Centralization
359(1)
The New Global Mindset
359(1)
Global Market Segmentation
359(9)
Segmentation Criteria
360(3)
Two-Stage Global Segmentation
363(1)
Macrosegmentation
364(3)
A Case Illustration
367(1)
Targeting Segments
368(3)
Competitive Analysis
368(1)
Profitability Analysis
369(1)
Diversification Versus Focus
370(1)
Global Product Positioning
371(6)
Key Positioning Issues
372(2)
The Product Space
374(1)
Strategic Implications
375(1)
Overcoming Mispositioning
375(1)
Changing the Product Space
375(2)
Changing Customer Preferences
377(1)
Global STP Strategies
377(2)
Summary
379(4)
Global Products
383(32)
Introduction
385(1)
The Pros and Cons of Standardization
385(3)
The Advantages of Standardization
386(1)
The Drawbacks of Standardization
387(1)
Which Features to Standardize?
388(1)
Localization Versus Adaptation
388(2)
Basic Requirements
389(1)
Compatibility Requirements
389(1)
Multisystem Compatibility
389(1)
Pitfalls of Global Standardization
390(1)
Insufficient Market Research
390(1)
Overstandardization
390(1)
Poor Follow-Up
390(1)
Narrow Vision
390(1)
Rigid Implementation
391(1)
Global Product Lines
391(1)
Developing New Global Products
392(6)
Idea Generation
393(1)
Preliminary Screening
394(1)
Concept Research
395(2)
Sales Forecast
397(1)
Test Marketing
397(1)
Globalizing Successful New Products
398(1)
New Product Success Factors
398(1)
Speed of Diffusion
398(1)
Global Brand Management
399(6)
Brand Equity
400(1)
Global Brands
401(1)
The Brand Portfolio
402(1)
Brand Globalization Potential
403(1)
Implementation
404(1)
Changeover Tactics
405(1)
Defending Local Products
405(1)
Counterfeit Products
406(3)
Extent of Problem
407(1)
Counterfeit Demand
408(1)
Actions against Counterfeits
409(1)
Summary
409(6)
Global Services
415(28)
Introduction
417(1)
Services Versus Products
418(4)
Characteristics of Services
418(2)
A Product Equivalence
420(2)
Service Globalization Potential
422(2)
Stage of the Life Cycle
423(1)
Infrastructure Barriers
423(1)
Idiosyncratic Home Market
424(1)
Foreign Entry of Services
424(4)
Foreign Trade in Services
424(1)
Service Entry Modes
425(3)
Entry and Exit Barriers
428(1)
Local Marketing of Global Services
428(3)
Market Segmentation
428(1)
Positioning
428(1)
Product Line
429(1)
Branding
429(1)
Pricing
430(1)
Promotion
431(1)
Distribution
431(1)
Controlling Local Service Quality
431(4)
Critical Incidents in Global Services
432(2)
Satisfaction and Service Quality
434(1)
Close-Up: Two Globalized Services
435(4)
Fast-Food Franchising
436(2)
Professional Services
438(1)
Summary
439(4)
Global Pricing
443(28)
Introduction
444(1)
A Global Pricing Framework
445(2)
Pricing Basics
447(2)
The Role of Costs
447(1)
Experience Curve Pricing
448(1)
Competition
448(1)
Demand
448(1)
Financial Issues
449(3)
Exchange Rates
449(2)
Hedging
451(1)
Government Intervention
452(1)
Transfer Pricing
452(3)
Definition
452(1)
The Arm's Length Principle
453(1)
Approaches to Transfer Pricing
454(1)
Conflicting Objectives
454(1)
Countertrade
455(2)
Business Evaluation
457(1)
Systems Pricing
457(2)
Price and Positioning
459(1)
Price-Quality Relationships
459(1)
The PLC Impact
460(1)
Global Coordination
460(4)
Pricing Actions Against Gray Trade
462(2)
Global Pricing Policies
464(3)
Polycentric Pricing
464(1)
Geocentric Pricing
465(1)
Ethnocentric Pricing
466(1)
Managerial Trade-Offs
466(1)
Summary
467(4)
Global Distribution
471(28)
Introduction
472(1)
Distribution as a Competitive Advantage
473(1)
Rationalizing Local Channels
474(1)
Changing Distributors
474(1)
Dual Distribution
475(1)
Wholesaling
475(3)
Vertical Integration
476(1)
Types of Wholesalers
477(1)
Retailing
478(6)
Retailing and Lifestyles
479(1)
Creating New Channels
480(2)
Global Retailing
482(2)
Global Logistics
484(4)
Competition and Technology
484(1)
Air Express
485(1)
Ocean Carriers
486(1)
Overland Transportation
487(1)
Warehousing
488(1)
Parallel Distribution
488(6)
Gray Trade
488(2)
Effects of Gray Trade
490(1)
Channel Actions against Gray Trade
491(1)
Multiple Distribution Channels
492(2)
Global Channel Design
494(1)
The FSAs Revisited
494(1)
Availability of Channels
494(1)
Channel Tie-Up
495(1)
Coordination and Control
495(1)
Summary
495(4)
Global Advertising
499(30)
Promotion as a Competitive Advantage
501(2)
The Global Advertising Job
503
The International World of Advertising
502(5)
Advertising Volume
502(2)
Media Spending
504(1)
Global Media
504(2)
Strategic Implications
506(1)
What Does Global Advertising Involve?
507(4)
Identical Ads
508(1)
Prototype Advertising
508(1)
Pattern Standardization
509(1)
Globalization Examples
509(2)
Pros and Cons of Global Advertising
511(2)
Cost Advantages
511(1)
Global Markets
511(1)
Global Products and Brands
511(2)
The Global Advertiser's Decisions
513(4)
Strategic Objectives
514(2)
Budgeting for Global Advertising
516(1)
The Global Advertising Agency
517(5)
Agency Globalization
517(1)
The Agency's Job
517(3)
Message Creation
520(1)
Media Selection
521(1)
Close-Up: Goodyear in Latin America
522(3)
Preliminary Orientation
522(1)
Regional Meeting to Define Communications Strategy
523(1)
Advertising Creative Meeting
523(1)
Qualitative Research Stage
524(1)
Research Review Meeting
524(1)
Final Creative Review
524(1)
Lessons
525(1)
Summary
525(4)
Global Promotion, E-Commerce, and Personal Selling
529(30)
Introduction
531(1)
Global Sales Promotion
531(4)
In-Store and Trade Promotions
532(1)
Sponsorships
533(2)
Cross-Marketing
535(1)
Publicity
535(2)
``Good News . . .''
535(1)
``. . . and Bad News''
536(1)
Product Placement
536(1)
Global Public Relations
537(2)
International Trade Fairs
539(1)
Direct Marketing
540(3)
Regional Developments
541(1)
Global Strategy
542(1)
Electronic Commerce
543(5)
E-tailing Growth
543(4)
Marketing Strengths and Weaknesses
547(1)
Promoting the Site
547(1)
Global Personal Selling
548(6)
Managing a Sales Force
548(2)
Personal Salesmanship
550(1)
Representing the Country
551(1)
The Presentation
552(1)
Be Prepared!
553(1)
Handling Objections
553(1)
Closing Tactics
553(1)
Integrated Marketing Communications
554(1)
Summary
555(4)
Organizing for Global Marketing
559(68)
Introduction
561(1)
The Context
561(1)
The Task
562(1)
Organizational Structure
562(5)
The Global Network as an Asset
567(2)
Painful History
567(1)
The Win--Win View
567(2)
Globalizing Management
569(2)
Global Marketing Directors
570(1)
Global Teams
570(1)
Management Systems
571(1)
Informal Coordination
571(1)
Coordinating Committees
572(1)
Coordinating Staff
572(1)
People and Organizational Culture
572(4)
Local Acceptance
573(1)
Corporate Culture
574(1)
The Expatriate Manager
575(1)
Global Customers
576(2)
Global Account Management
576(1)
Retail Trade Groups
577(1)
Conflict Resolution
578(2)
The Good Global Marketer
580(1)
Summary
581(4)
Case 4-1: Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts: Building an International Brand from an Asian Base
585(12)
Case 4-2: Texas Instruments: Global Pricing in the Semiconductor Industry
597(6)
Case 4-3: United Colors of Benetton
603(11)
Case 4-4: Cathay Pacific Airways: China or the World?
614(8)
Case 4-5: Hewlett-Packard's Global Account Management
622(5)
Appendix: Global Marketing Planning 627(6)
Index 633


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