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Peter Dicken, PhD, is Emeritus Professor of Economic Geography in the School of Environment and Development at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. He has held visiting academic appointments at universities and research institutes in Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Mexico, Singapore, Sweden, and the United States, and lectured in many other countries throughout Europe and Asia. He is an Academician of the Social Sciences, is a recipient of the Victoria Medal of the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) and of the Centenary Medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, and holds an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Uppsala, Sweden.
Table of Contents
1. What in the World Is Going On? The end of the world as we knew it? Conflicting perspectives on ‘globalization’ Grounding ‘globalization’: geography really does matter I. The Changing Contours of the Global Economy 2. The Centre of Gravity Shifts: Transforming the Geographies of the Global Economy The importance of taking a long view: the imprint of past geographies Roller-coasters and interconnections Global shifts: the changing contours of the global economic map The centre of gravity has shifted II. Processes of Global Shift 3. Tangled Webs: Unravelling Complexity in the Global Economy Connections, connections Institutional macro-structures of the global economy Global production network PNs Even in a globalizing world, economic activities are geographically localized Networks of networks 4. Technological Change: ‘Gales of Creative Destruction’ Technology and economic transformation Processes of technological change: an evolutionary perspective Time–space shrinking technologies Technological innovations in products, production systems and organizational forms Geographies of innovation 5. Transnational Corporations: The Primary ‘Movers and Shapers’ of the Global Economy The myth of the global corporation Why firms transnationalize How firms transnationalize TNCs as ‘networks within networks’ Configuring the TNCs’ internal networks TNCs within networks of externalized relationships Perpetual change: reshaping TNCs’ internal and external networks 6. The State Really Does Matter ‘The state is dead’ – oh no it isn’t! States as containers States as regulators States as collaborators III. Winning and Losing in the Global Economy 7. The Uneasy Relationship Between Transnational Corporations and States: Dynamics of Conflict and Collaboration The ties that bind Bargaining processes between TNCs and states 8. ‘Capturing Value’ Within Global Production Networks Placing places in GPNs Creating, enhancing and capturing value in GPNs Upgrading (or downgrading) of local economies within GPNs 9. ‘Destroying Value’? Environmental Impacts of Global Production Networks Production–distribution–consumption as a system of materials flows and balances Disturbing the delicate balance of life on earth: damaging the earth’s atmosphere Fouling the nest: creating, disposing and recycling waste Used clothing 10. Winning and Losing: Where You Live Really Matters Location matters Incomes and poverty Where will the jobs come from? Over-dependence on a narrow economic base Populations on the move 11. Making the World a Better Place ‘The best of all possible worlds’? TNCs and corporate social responsibility States and issues of global governance A better world? IV. The Picture in Different Sectors 12. ‘Making Holes in the Ground’: The Extractive Industries Beginning at the beginning Production circuits in the extractive industries Global shifts in the extractive industries Volatile demand Technologies of exploring, extracting, refining, distributing The centrality of state involvement in the extractive industries Corporate strategies in the extractive industries Resources, reserves and futures 13. ‘We Are What We Eat’: The Agro-food Industries Transformation of the food economy: the ‘local’ becomes ‘global’ Agro-food production circuits Global shifts in the high-value agro-food industries Consumer choices – and consumer resistances Transforming technologies in agro-food production The role of the state Corporate strategies in the agro-food industries 14. ‘Fabric-ating Fashion’: The Clothing Industries A highly contentious industry The clothing production circuit Global shifts in the clothing industries Changing patterns of consumption Technology and production costs The role of the state Corporate strategies in the clothing industries Regionalizing production networks in the clothing industries 15. ‘Wheels of Change’: The Automobile Industry All change? The automobile production circuit Global shifts in automobile production and trade Changing patterns of consumption Where will the jobs come from? Over-dependence on a narrow economic base Populations on the move 16. ‘Making the World Go Round’: Advanced Business Services The centrality of advanced business services The structure of ABS Dynamics of the markets for ABS Technological innovation and ABS The role of the state: regulation, deregulation, reregulation Corporate strategies in ABS Geographies of ABS 17. ‘Making the Connections, Moving the Goods’: Logistics and Distribution Services Taking logistics and distribution for granted The structure of logistics and distribution services The dynamics of the market for logistics services Technological innovation and logistics and distribution services The role of the state: regulation and deregulation of logistics and distribution services Corporate strategies in logistics and distribution services Logistics ‘places’: key geographical nodes on the global logistics map