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Global Studies Africa, Fourteenth Edition
Chapter 1 Cameroon (Republic of Cameroon)
Chapter 2 Central African Republic
Chapter 3 Chad (Republic of Chad)
Chapter 4 Congo (Republic of the Congo; Congo-Brazzaville)
Chapter 5 Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa; formerly Zaire)
Chapter 6 Equatorial Guinea (Republic of Equatorial Guinea)
Chapter 7 Gabon (Gabonese Republic)
Chapter 8 São Tomé and Príncipe (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe)
Chapter 9 Burundi (Republic of Burundi)
Chapter 10 Comoros (Union of Comoros)
Chapter 11 Djibouti (Republic of Djibouti)
Chapter 12 Eritrea (State of Eritrea)
Chapter 13 Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia)
Chapter 14 Kenya (Republic of Kenya)
Chapter 15 Madagascar (Republic of Madagascar)
Chapter 16 Mauritius (Republic of Mauritius)
Chapter 17 Rwanda (Rwandese Republic)
Chapter 18 Seychelles (Republic of Seychelles)
Chapter 19 Somalia
Chapter 20 South Sudan (Republic of South Sudan)
Chapter 21 Tanzania (United Republic of Tanzania)
Chapter 22 Uganda (Republic of Uganda)
Chapter 23 Algeria (Peoples' Democratic Republic of Algeria)
Chapter 24 Egypt (Arab Republic of Egypt)
Chapter 25 Libya (Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyya)
Chapter 26 Morocco (Kingdom of Morocco)
Chapter 27 Sudan (Republic of Sudan)
Chapter 28 Tunisia (Republic of Tunisia)
Chapter 29 Western Sahara
Chapter 30 Angola (Republic of Angola)
Chapter 31 Botswana (Republic of Botswana)
Chapter 32 Lesotho (Kingdom of Lesotho)
Chapter 33 Malawi (Republic of Malawi)
Chapter 34 Mozambique (Republic of Mozambique)
Chapter 35 Namibia (Republic of Namibia)
Chapter 36 South Africa (Republic of South Africa)
Chapter 37 Swaziland (Kingdom of Swaziland)
Chapter 38 Zambia (Republic of Zambia)
Chapter 39 Zimbabwe (Republic of Zimbabwe)
Chapter 40 Benin (Republic of Benin)
Chapter 41 Burkina Faso
Chapter 42 Cape Verde (Republic of Cape Verde)
Chapter 43 Côte d'lvoire (Republic of Côte d'lvoire)
Chapter 44 The Gambia (Republic of The Gambia)
Chapter 45 Ghana (Republic of Ghana)
Chapter 46 Guinea (Republic of Guinea)
Chapter 47 Guinea-Bissau (Republic of Guinea-Bissau)
Chapter 48 Liberia (Republic of Liberia)
Chapter 49 Mali (Republic of Mali)
Chapter 50 Mauritania (Islamic Republic of Mauritania)
Chapter 51 Niger (Republic of Niger)
Chapter 52 Nigeria (Federal Republic of Nigeria)
Chapter 53 Senegal (Republic of Senegal)
Chapter 54 Sierra Leone (Republic of Sierra Leone)
Chapter 55 Togo (Togolese Republic) 370
1. Refugees Are Fleeing the Weather: More Than 25 Million Could Be Displaced by 2050, Edmund Sanders, The Los Angeles Times, October 25, 2009. Climate change is expected to create as many as 25 million refugees globally by 2050, at which point climate refugees are expected to outnumber those resulting from war and persecution. The impact will be particularly severe in Africa where a large percentage of the population remains agrarian, with livelihoods directly dependent on the climatic conditions. Increasing drought is expected to be the greatest problem, as present-day conditions in much of East Africa illustrate.
2. Upwardly Mobile in Africa, Jack Ewing, Bloomberg Business Week, September 13, 2007. Mobile phones are changing the developing world faster than anyone would have imagined a decade ago and nowhere has the impact been more dramatic than in Africa, where such technology often represents the first modern infrastructure of any kind. As this article reports, mobile phones can dramatically improve living standards, even for people living on just a few dollars a day.
3. Africa's Capitalist Revolutions, Ethan B. Kapstein, Foreign Affairs, July–August, 2009. For all its poverty and underdevelopment, Africa has experienced major economic growth over the past decade, a dramatic change from the pessimism of the 1990s. The author argues that much of this is due to the free-market capitalism that is flourishing across much of the continent. The author also notes, however, that in many cases weak democratic governments and the poor global economy pose significant threats to continued economic progress.
4. In Scramble for Land, Group Says, Company Pushed Ugandans Out, Josh Kron, The New York Times, September 21, 2011. As the demand for agricultural land increases worldwide, foreign investors frequently purchase rural land in Africa in order to grow food for commercial sale on world markets or, as in the case described here, to plant forests as part of the carbon-credit trade to fight global warming. The problem is that such actions often come at the expense of Africa's local farmers who are dispossessed from their farms to make way for foreign investors.
5. Network Effects: Connectivity and Commitment Pay Dividends in African Transport, The Economist, October 2008. The lack of modern transportation infrastructure remains one of the biggest obstacles to Africa's economic development. Without working rail networks, paved roadways, and efficient port facilities, the movement of people, raw materials and finished goods remains unreliable and often prohibitively expensive. This article examines the efforts by international entrepreneurs to help address this situation.
6. South Africa Resists March of Walmart, Richard Wachman, The Guardian, October 10, 2011. Walmart's attempt to buy a major South Africa supermarket chain as a way of gaining a foothold in the South African market (and eventually the African market in general) has run into serious opposition by unions, politicians, and small business owners who oppose the move. Their concern is that Walmart's business practices and sheer economic clout pose a significant threat to local small businesses and could lead to declining wages and increased unemployment in many South African job sectors, as evidenced by Walmart's impact elsewhere.
7. The Three Biggest Threats to Newly Independent South Sudan, Eric Reeves, The New Republic (online), July 9, 2011. The birth of the Independent Republic of South Sudan in July, 2011 was a cause for celebration and hope, offering as it did the possibility of an end to decades of civil war and ethnic violence. The establishment of the new state, however, does not guarantee peace. Threats, in the form of renegade militias, on-going border conflicts with Sudan to the north, and internal political disputes could continue well into the foreseeable future.
8. Africa's Forever Wars, Jeffrey Gettleman, Foreign Policy, March/April 2010. Africa's seeming state of perpetual warfare is a result of the fact that Africa's conflicts, for the most part, do not fit the traditional definition of "war." Increasingly, conflicts are not the result of parties fighting to impose ideologies or to seek political control—a situation of soldier vs. soldier—but rather they take the form of heavily armed banditry in which the victims are mostly civilians. In recent years, approximately half of all countries in Africa have faced, or are currently facing, violence of this kind.
9. The Limits of Smart Power, David Axe, American Prospect (online), November 29, 2010. In October 2011 President Barack Obama announced that the United States was sending military advisors to East Africa to help countries counter the threat posed by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). Relatively unknown in the West, the LRA is an outlaw group responsible for horrific rural violence in Uganda, Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Congo in recent years. Dealing with groups like the LRA poses a difficult challenge for the outside world, including the United States, because legitimate government forces, such as the Congolese army, are frequently perpetrators of rural violence themselves.
10. Desmond Tutu's Dreams for Cape Town Fade as Informal Apartheid Grips the City, David Smith, The Observer, October 8, 2011. Cape Town is one of the world's great tourist destinations, but two decades after Desmond Tutu made it a shining city of defiance against apartheid, Cape Town, at least for the majority of its population, is finding economic liberation harder to achieve than the political kind. Centuries of colonial oppression and decades of official segregation have resulted in a de facto economic apartheid where the majority of the population continue to live in severe poverty, despite the city's glittering international image. South Africa's post-apartheid government has made efforts to remedy this, but given the enormity of the problem it is likely to persist for decades to come.
11. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Faces a Tough Presidential Election in Liberia, The Guardian, October 9, 2011. In 2005 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Africa's first female head of state, took office as President of Liberia, assuming leadership of a country that had been devastated by 14 years of civil war. Since then she has made significant progress in rebuilding both the country's economy and its civil society, for which she shared the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Such accomplishments were not necessarily enough, however, for many Liberian voters disillusioned by the many problems the country still faces, as her bid for reelection in Fall 2011 showed.
Appendix A: United States Map and Statistics
Appendix B: Canada Map and Statistics
Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations