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A concise, easy-to-read introduction to informal logic, With Good Reason offers both comprehensive coverage of informal fallacies and an abundance of engaging examples of both well-conceived and faulty arguments. A long-time favorite of both students and instructors, the text continues in its sixth edition to provide an abundance of exercises that help students identify, correct, and avoid common errors in argumentation.
S. MORRIS ENGEL (Ph.D., University of Toronto) recently retired as a professor of philosophy at York University in Toronto, Ontario. Previously, he taught at the University of Southern California for twenty-five years. His many publications include The Study of Philosophy, Third Edition (1990) and The Language Trap (1994), as well as Wittgenstein's Doctrine of the Tyranny of Language (1971). Engel is also renowned as a translator of Yiddish, with projects including The Dybbuk (1979) and Kiddush Hashem (1977), Rachmil Bryks's moving account of the Holocaust.
Table of Contents
PART I. ON LOGIC AND LANGUAGE
1. The Nature and Scope of Logic Logic as Science and Art Logic as the Study of Argument Exercises Arguments and Nonarguments Exercises Eliminating Verbiage A Further Note on Eliminating Verbiage Exercises Missing Components Exercises Finding the Missing Component Syllogistically Exercises Highlighting Suspect Elements Exercises Evaluating Arguments: Truth, Validity, and Soundness Exercises Deductive and Inductive Arguments A Final Word on Deduction Exercises Logic and Education Exercises Summary Answers to Starred Exercises
2. The Medium of Language Language and Thought Signs and Symbols Exercises Words and Things Exercises The Uses of Language Exercises Ambiguity and Vagueness Exercises Verbal Disputes Exercises Definition Exercises The Art of Plain Talk Exercises Summary Answers to Starred Exercises Suggested Readings for Part One
Part II. Informal Fallacies
3. The Fallacy of Ambiguity THE FALLACY OF EQUIVOCATION The Fallacy of Amphiboly The Fallacy of Accent The Fallacy of Hypostatization The Fallacies of Division and Composition Summary Exercises Answers to Starred Exercises
4. Fallacies of Presumption Overlooking the Facts The Fallacy of Sweeping Generalization The Fallacy of Hasty Generalization The Fallacy of Bifurcation Exercises Evading the Facts The Fallacy of Begging the Question The Fallacy of Question-Begging Epithets The Fallacy of Complex Question The Fallacy of Special Pleading Exercises Distorting the Facts` The Fallacy of False Analogy The Fallacy of False Cause The Fallacy of Slippery Slope The Fallacy of Irrelevant Thesis Exercises Summary Answers to Starred Exercises
5. Fallacies of Relevance The Fallacy of Personal Attack Genetic Fallacy Abusive ad Hominem Circumstantial ad Hominem Tu Quoque Poisoning the Well The Fallacy of Mob Appeal The Fallacy of Appeal to Pity The Fallacy of Appeal to Authority The Authority of the One The Authority of the Many The Authority of the Select Few The Authority of Tradition The Fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance The Fallacy of Appeal to Fear Summary Exercises Answers to Starred Exercises Suggested Readings for Part Two