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Good Reasons With Contemporary Arguments,9780205285853

Good Reasons With Contemporary Arguments

by ;
ISBN13:

9780205285853

ISBN10:
0205285856
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $55.00
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Summary

This brief rhetoric of argument with an anthology of readings on contemporary issues takes a non-Toulmin based approach to writing arguments in an electronic age. By stressing the rhetorical situation and the audience, the rhetoric avoids complicated terminology in favor of providing students with the practical means to find good reasons for the positions they want to advocate. The rhetoric includes readings by professional and student writers, including a pivotal selection from Rachel Carson's extraordinarily influential argument, Silent Spring. The anthology reprints over 60 arguments on interesting current issues: the environment, affirmative action, censorship, Title IX, substance abuse, gay rights, and the body.

Table of Contents

Alternate Table of Contents: Types of Arguments xv
Preface xxi
Part I Persuading with Good Reasons: What Do We Mean by Argument? 1(106)
What to Argue About
5(26)
A Book That Changed the World
5(2)
Why Silent Spring Became a Classic
7(6)
Tactics of Silent Spring
9(3)
Analyzing Arguments: Pathos, Ethos, and Logos
12(1)
Reading Arguments
13(3)
TIPS Reading with a Pencil in Your Hand
14(2)
Finding Arguments
16(2)
Position and Proposal Arguments
16(2)
``The Obligation to Endure''
18(4)
Rachel Carson
``Hand-Me-Down Poisons''
22(9)
Theo Colborn
Dianne Dumanoski
John Peterson Myers
Getting Started: Listing and Analyzing Issues
26(2)
Getting Started: Making an Idea Map
28(3)
Persuading with Good Reasons
31(22)
The Basics of Arguments
31(4)
TIPS What Is Not Arguable
34(1)
The Basics of Reasoning
35(2)
Finding Good Reasons
37(7)
Can You Argue by Definition---from ``the Nature of the Thing''?
38(1)
Can You Argue from Value?
39(1)
Can You Compare or Contrast?
39(1)
Can You Argue from Consequence?
40(2)
Can You Counter Objections to Your Position?
42(1)
Questions for Finding Good Reasons
43(1)
Supporting Good Reasons
44(2)
Deciding Which Good Reasons to Use
46(1)
``Just Take Away Their Guns''
47(6)
James Q. Wilson
Getting Started on Your Draft
51(2)
Thinking More about Your Audience
53(20)
What Exactly Is an Audience?
53(1)
Readers Do More Than Absorb Information
54(3)
Readers Begin with Purposes
55(1)
Readers Begin with Expectations
56(1)
Readers Compose as They Read
56(1)
Readers React to What They Read
56(1)
Constructing Your Readers
57(1)
Who Will Read Your Argument?
57(2)
What Does Your Audience Already Know---and Not Know?
58(1)
What Are Your Audience's Attitudes toward You?
58(1)
What Are Your Audience's Attitudes toward Your Subject and toward What You Want to Say?
58(1)
Why People Reach Different Conclusions from the Same Evidence
59(7)
How Different Assumptions Produce Different Claims from the Same Evidence
65(1)
Creating Your Readers
66(2)
``Marlboro College'' from The Fiske Guide to Colleges 1993
68(5)
Getting Started: Writing for Particular Audiences
72(1)
The Style of Arguments
73(34)
Facts Alone Do Not Persuade
73(5)
Ethos: Creating an Effective Persona
78(4)
Advice on Argument from Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography
82(1)
Choosing an Appropriate Voice
82(7)
TIPS Strong Beginnings
87(2)
Pathos: Appealing to Your Reader's Values
89(2)
TIPS Strong Endings
90(1)
The Language of Arguments
91(4)
``Scenes from an Execution''
95(12)
Christopher Hitchens
Steps in Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
104(3)
Part II Some Types of Arguments: Options for Arguments 107(100)
Definition Arguments
111(20)
``Setting the Record Straight''
118(8)
Scott McCloud
``Cheerleading Is a Competitive Sport''
126(5)
Meghann O'Connor
Steps in Writing a Definition Argument
129(2)
Causal Arguments
131(22)
``Channel Surfing''
141(12)
Douglas Rushkoff
Steps in Writing a Causal Argument
151(2)
Evaluation Arguments
153(16)
``In Colonial Williamsburg, the New History Meets the Old''
160(4)
Eric Gable
Richard Handler
``The Diet Zone: A Dangerous Place''
164(5)
Natascha Pocek
Steps in Writing an Evaluation Argument
167(2)
Narrative Arguments
169(12)
``The Border Patrol State''
173(8)
Leslie Marmon Silko
Steps in Writing a Narrative Argument
179(2)
Rebuttal Arguments
181(14)
The Faculty of the University of Washington, ``Open Letter to Governor Gary Locke and the 2020 Commission on the Future of Higher Education''
188(7)
Steps in Writing a Rebuttal Argument
192(3)
Proposal Arguments
195(12)
``Title IX: It's Time to Live Up to the Letter of the Law''
200(7)
Donna Lopiano
Steps in Writing a Proposal Argument
204(3)
Part III Effective Arguments: Designing, Documenting, and Revising Arguments 207(118)
Effective Visual Design
209(28)
Understanding Visual Arguments
209(3)
Text
210(1)
Images
211(1)
Graphic Design
211(1)
Print Is a Visual Medium
212(6)
Design Basics
218(8)
Arrangement
220(2)
Consistency
222(2)
Contrast
224(2)
The Rhetoric of Type
226(3)
Graphic Presentation of Information
229(8)
Tables and Charts
229(5)
Misleading Charts
234(1)
Other Graphics
234(3)
Effective Web Design
237(26)
The Basics of the Web
237(3)
A Very Brief History of the Internet and the World Wide Web
239(1)
Arguments on the Web
240(4)
Intranets
244(1)
Putting Text on Your Web Site
244(8)
Web Authoring Software
245(1)
The First Screen Is the Most Important
245(2)
Divide Your Text into Chunks
247(2)
Format So That the Text Is Readable
249(1)
Anticipate Readers' Questions and Objections
250(2)
TIPS Stay Organized
252(1)
Principles of Web Design
252(6)
Determine the Visual Theme of Your Site
253(2)
Know the Messages Your Images Convey
255(1)
Direct the Viewer's Eyes
255(3)
Keep the Visuals Simple
258(1)
Navigational Design
258(2)
Audience Considerations on the Web
260(3)
Online Guides for Publishing on the Web
261(2)
Effective Research
263(22)
Research: Knowing What Information You Need
263(3)
What Makes a Good Subject for Research
266(1)
Planning Your Research
266(3)
Interviews, Observations, and Surveys
267(2)
Finding What Your Are Looking for in Print Sources
269(3)
Scholarly, Trade, and Popular Journals
271(1)
Finding What You Are Looking for in Electronic Sources
272(7)
Using Search Engines
272(1)
TIPS Using Search Engines
273(1)
Searching by Key Word
274(2)
Searching by Subject
276(2)
Doing the Research for an Argument about Cloning
278(1)
Evaluating Sources
279(3)
Traditional Criteria for Evaluating Print Sources
280(1)
Additional Criteria for Evaluating Web Sources
281(1)
Taking Notes
282(3)
Effective Documentation
285(24)
Intellectual Property and Scholastic Honesty
285(6)
What Plagiarism Is
286(3)
Using Sources Effectively
289(2)
MLA Documentation
291(5)
Books
292(1)
Periodicals
293(1)
Online Sources
294(2)
Other Sources
296(1)
Sample Argument Paper Using Sources
296(1)
``Should Race Be a Qualification to Attend College?''
297(12)
Chris Thomas
Effective Revision
309(16)
Switch from Writer to Reader
309(1)
Focus on Your Argument
310(2)
Focus on Your Style and Proofread Carefully
312(13)
Appendix A: Working Effectively in Groups
315(4)
Appendix B: APA Documentation
319(6)
Part IV Contemporary Arguments 325(310)
Negotiating the Environment
327(54)
``The Land Ethic''
330(14)
Aldo Leopold
``Dirty Word, Clean Place''
344(7)
David Quammen
``Seven Doomsday Myths about the Environment''
351(7)
Ronald Bailey
``Power Play Endangers Hawaii's Rain Forest''
358(1)
Bill McKibben
``I Hate Trees''
358(7)
Rosa Ehrenreich
``The Way to Rainy Mountain''
365(5)
N. Scott Momaday
``Am I Blue?''
370(4)
Alice Walker
``The Clan of One-Breasted Women''
374(6)
Terry Tempest Williams
``Environmentalism in Advertising''
380(1)
Saturn
Gay Rights
381(45)
Some Gay-Rights Web Sites
383(2)
``Where the Military's Antipathy to Homosexuals Came From''
385(4)
E. Anthony Rotundo
``Well, yes, Mr. President...''
389(1)
Mike Ritter
``Ban on Gays Is Senseless Attempt to Stall the Inevitable''
390(2)
Barry Goldwater
``Here Comes the Groom''
392(4)
Andrew Sullivan
``The Closet Straight''
396(6)
Hadley Arkes
``Homophobic? Read Your Bible''
402(3)
Peter J. Gomes
``How the Gay-Rights Movement Won''
405(14)
Norman Podhoretz
``Appearances''
419(7)
Carmen Vazquez
A Body of Arguments
426(55)
``How the Nazis Interpreted Jazz''
429(1)
Entartete Musik
``On Teenagers and Tattoos''
430(4)
Andres Martin
``Inkmarks''
434(7)
Emily Jenkins
``Complexion''
441(3)
Richard Rodriguez
``Advertising Safer Sex Practices''
444(2)
Brainchild
``Straightening Our Hair''
446(7)
bell hooks
``The Disposable Rocket''
453(3)
John Updike
``My Inner Shrimp''
456(2)
Garry Trudeau
``The Other Body: Disability and Identity Politics''
458(6)
Ynestra King
``Pro Wrestling and the End of History''
464(8)
Paul Cantor
``Sister Act''
472(9)
Evan Wright
Controlling Substances
481(50)
``The Challenge of Legalizing Drugs''
484(6)
Joseph P. Kane
``Legalizing Drugs Is Not the Solution''
490(4)
Gerald W. Lynch
``An Argument about Alcohol''
494(1)
Absolut Impotence
``It's Drugs, Stupid''
495(4)
Joseph Califano, Jr.
``McCaffrey Must Not Stop with Andro''
499(3)
Edwin Moses
``The Amazing Smoke Screen''
502(2)
Robert Samuelson
``Mr. Chairman, I propose a $1.10 per pack tax on Twinkies!''
504(1)
John Trever
``Binge Drinking on College Campuses''
505(1)
Binge Beer
``The Magic Potion''
506(4)
Michael Bamberger
``America's Altered States''
510(21)
Joshua Wolf Shenk
On Censorship
531(45)
Some Internet Links to the Censorship Issue and Usenet Groups
534(1)
``Pornography, Obscenity, and the Case for Censorship''
535(3)
Irving Kristol
``Information Superhighway''
538(1)
Walt Handelsman
``The Perils of Pornophobia''
539(5)
Nadine Strossen
Afterword to Fahrenheit 451
544(3)
Ray Bradbury
``The Internet: A Clear and Present Danger?''
547(5)
Cathleen Cleaver
``The Fallacies of Internet Censorship''
552(1)
Jeffrey Shallit
``A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace''
552(10)
John Perry Barlow
``Watch and Learn''
562(7)
Gregg Easterbrook
``I objected to this book...''
569(1)
Chuck Asay
``Truth or Consequences: Putting Limits on Limits''
570(6)
Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
Affirmative Action
576(43)
An Affirmative Action Case
578(3)
``A Negative Vote on Affirmative Action''
581(6)
Shelby Steele
``Promoting Racial Harmony''
587(8)
Linda Chavez
``A Beginner's Guide to Universityspeak''
595(1)
Henry Payne
``Why Women Need Affirmative Action''
596(6)
Judy Lichtman
Jocelyn Frye
Helen Norton
``Racism Has Its Privileges''
602(9)
Roger Wilkins
``Sins of Admission''
611(4)
Dinesh D'Souza
``The Struggle for Inclusion''
615(2)
Charles M.Vest
``Why Not a Lottery to Get into the University of California?''
617(2)
Norman Matleff
Title IX: Women in College Sports
619(16)
The 40 Institutions with the Smallest Disparity between the Proportion of Female Undergraduates and the Proportion of Female Athletes
620(2)
Key Court Cases Related to Title IX
622(2)
``Athletics Are Changing Girlhood---For the Better''
624(2)
Geneva Overholser
``Title IX's Dark Side: Sports Gender Quotas''
626(2)
Curt Levey
Before Title IX and After Title IX
628(1)
``The Other Side of Title IX''
629(3)
Ira Berkow
``Twisting and Tainting Title IX''
632(3)
Alisa Solomon
Index 635


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