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Good Reasons : Designing and Writing Effective Arguments

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321316813

ISBN10:
0321316819
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Summary

Engaging and accessible to all students, Good Reasons is a brief, very readable introduction to argument by two of the country's foremost rhetoricians. By stressing the rhetorical situation and audience, this rhetoric avoids complicated schemes and terminology in favor of providing students with the practical means to find "good reasons" for the positions they want to advocate to their audiences. Good Reasons helps students write and understand various types of arguments, including visual as well as verbal arguments. Supporting the authors' instruction are numerous readings by professional and student writers and over 50 photographs. Good Reasons is distinctive in providing the most thorough coverage of rhetorical analysis and visual analysis. It has a new emphasis on visual argument throughout that responds to the need for greater visual literacy in a media-saturated culture. Good Reasons is also distinctive in beginning with why people write arguments.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART 1 Persuading with Good Reasons: What Do We Mean by Argument?
Chapter 1: What to Argue About
5(18)
A Book that Changed the World
5(3)
Why Silent Spring Became a Classic
8(5)
Tactics of Silent Spring
10(2)
Analyzing Arguments: Pathos, Ethos, and Logos
12(1)
Reading Arguments
13(5)
Become a Critical Reader
14(2)
Position and Proposal Arguments
16(2)
The Obligation to Endure (Rachel Carson)
18(3)
The Impact of Global Warming in North America (Union of Concerned Scientists)
21(2)
Chapter 2: Finding Arguments
23(16)
What Exactly Is an Argument?
23(1)
The Basics of Arguments
24(3)
What Is Not Arguable
26(1)
Find a Topic
27(7)
Read Your Assignment Carefully
27(1)
Think about What Interests You
27(1)
List and Analyze Issues
28(2)
Explore Your Topic
30(1)
Freewrite
30(1)
Brainstorm
31(1)
Use an Online Subject Directory
32(1)
Read about Your Topic
33(1)
Make an Idea Map
33(1)
Think about Your Audience
34(2)
What Does Your Audience Know-And Not Know?
34(1)
What Is Your Audience's Attitude Toward You?
35(1)
What Is Your Audience's Attitude Toward Your Subject?
35(1)
Write a Thesis
36(3)
Focus Your Thesis
36(1)
Evaluate Your Thesis
37(2)
Chapter 3: Finding and Supporting Good Reasons
39(22)
The Basics of Reasoning
39(2)
Find Good Reasons
41(8)
Can You Argue by Definition?
41(1)
Can You Argue from Value?
42(1)
Can You Compare or Contrast?
43(1)
Can You Argue from Consequence?
44(2)
Can You Counter Objections to Your Position?
46(15)
Questions for Finding Good Reasons
47(2)
Find Evidence to Support Good Reasons
49(3)
Fallacies in Arguments
51(1)
Organize Good Reasons
52(1)
Create Credibility
53(4)
Argue Responsibly
57(1)
Choose an Appropriate Voice
57(4)
Chapter 4: Understanding Written Arguments: Rhetorical Analysis
61(24)
What is Rhetorical Analysis?
61(3)
The Goals of Rhetorical Analysis
62(2)
Textual Analysis: Using Rhetorical Concepts as an Analytical Screen
64(5)
Silko's Purpose and Argument
65(1)
Silko's Use of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos
65(2)
Silko's Arrangement
67(1)
Silko's Style
67(2)
Metaphors in Ads
68(1)
Contextual Analysis: Communication as Conversation
69(5)
Silko's Life and Works
70(1)
The Context of Publication
71(1)
The Larger Conversation
72(1)
Silko's Political Goals
73(1)
Write a Rhetorical Analysis
74(7)
Sample Student Rhetorical Analysis: The NRA Blacklist: A Project Gone Mad
Erica Strausner
75(6)
STEPS TO A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS
81(4)
Chapter 5: Understanding Visual Arguments
85(20)
What Is a Visual Argument?
85(2)
Visual Persuasion
87(2)
Visual Evidence
89(7)
Photographs
89(2)
Tables
91(1)
Charts and Graphs
92(4)
Evaluating Charts and Graphs
95(1)
Write a Visual Analysis
96(7)
Sample Student Visual Analysis: Got Roddick?
Angela Yamashita
99(4)
STEPS TO A VISUAL ANALYSIS
103(2)
PART 2 Putting Good Reasons into Action: Options for Arguments 105(118)
Using Different Approaches to Construct an Argument
107(2)
Chapter 6: Definition Arguments
109(18)
Kinds of Definitions
110(2)
Formal Definitions
111(1)
Operational Definitions
112(1)
Definitions from Example
112(1)
Building a Definitional Argument
112(5)
Setting the Record Straight
Scott McCloud
117(8)
STEPS TO A DEFINITION ARGUMENT
125(2)
Chapter 7: Causal Arguments
127(18)
Methods of Finding Causes
129(6)
Building a Causal Argument
135(7)
Sample Student Causal Argument: Why Are Teenage Girls Dying to Be Thin?
Jennifer May
137(5)
STEPS TO A CAUSAL ARGUMENT
142(3)
Chapter 8: Evaluation Arguments
145(14)
Kinds of Evaluations
147(3)
Where Do Criteria Come From?
148(2)
Building an Evaluation Argument
150(7)
Sample Student Evaluation Argument: An Unhealthy Practice
DeMarcus Taylor
152(5)
STEPS TO AN EVALUATION ARGUMENT
157(2)
Chapter 9: Narrative Arguments
159(14)
Kinds of Narrative Arguments
161(2)
Building a Narrative Argument
163(7)
The Border Patrol State
Leslie Marmon Silko
164(6)
STEPS TO A NARRATIVE ARGUMENT
170(3)
Chapter 10: Rebuttal Arguments
173(16)
Critical Thinking
175(1)
Two Ways of Rebutting
176(10)
Refutation
177(5)
Counterargument
182(2)
The "Separation of Church and State" Myth
Linda Chavez
184(2)
STEPS TO A REBUTTAL ARGUMENT
186(3)
Chapter 11: Proposal Arguments
189(22)
Components of Proposals
191(2)
Building a Proposal Argument
193(14)
Sample Student Proposal Argument: Need a Cure for Tribe Fever? How About a Dip in the Lake?
Brian Witkowski
195(12)
STEPS TO A PROPOSAL ARGUMENT
207(4)
Chapter 12: Revision: Putting It All Together
211(12)
Keep Your Goals in Mind-But Stay Flexible
212(1)
Read as You Write
213(1)
Take the Perspective of Your Reader
214(3)
REVISION CHECKLIST: Focus on Your Argument
217(2)
REVISION CHECKLIST: Focus on Your Style and Proofread Carefully
219(3)
Get Help on Your Draft
222(1)
PART 3 Making Effective Arguments: Designing, Presenting, and Documenting 223(74)
Chapter 13: Effective Visual Design
225(20)
Design Basics
225(8)
Arrangement
226(2)
Consistency
228(2)
Contrast
230(3)
Understanding Typefaces and Fonts
233(3)
Creating Images and Other Graphics
236(2)
Pictures
237(1)
Other Graphics
237(1)
Writing Arguments for the Web
238(7)
The First Page Is the Most Important
239(1)
Divide Your Text into Chunks
239(2)
Make the Text Readable
241(1)
Determine the Visual Theme of Your Site
242(1)
Keep the Visuals Simple
242(1)
Make Your Site Easy to Navigate
242(3)
Chapter 14: Effective Oral Presentations
245(8)
Planning an Oral Presentation
245(3)
Getting Started
245(1)
Selecting Your Topic
246(1)
Thinking About Your Audience
246(1)
Supporting Your Presentation
247(1)
Planning Your Introduction
247(1)
Planning Your Conclusion
247(1)
Delivering an Oral Presentation
248(2)
The Importance of Practice
248(1)
Speaking Effectively
248(1)
Nonverbal Communication
249(1)
Tips: Effective Speeches
249(1)
Handling Questions
250(1)
Multimedia Presentations
250(3)
Visual Elements
250(2)
Tips: Readable Transparencies and Slides
251(1)
Presentation Software
252(1)
Chapter 15: Effective Research
253(18)
Research: Knowing What Information You Need
253(4)
What Makes a Good Subject for Research
256(1)
Planning Your Research
257(2)
Interviews, Observations, and Surveys
258(1)
Finding Library Sources
259(4)
Scholarly, Trade, and Popular Journals
262(1)
Finding Web Sources
263(2)
Kinds of Search Engines
264(1)
Tips: Search Engines
264(1)
Evaluating Sources
265(3)
Traditional Criteria for Evaluating Print Sources
266(1)
Additional Criteria for Evaluating Web Sources
267(1)
Taking Notes
268(3)
Chapter 16: MLA Documentation
271(16)
Intellectual Property and Scholastic Honesty
271(7)
Avoiding Plagiarism
272(3)
Using Sources Effectively
275(3)
MLA Works-cited List
278(9)
Citing Books
280(1)
Citing Articles in Periodicals
281(2)
Citing Online Sources
283(2)
Citing Visual Sources
285(1)
Citing Other Sources
286(1)
Chapter 17: APA Documentation
287(10)
APA Reference List
288(9)
Citing Books
289(2)
Citing Articles in Periodicals
291(1)
Citing Online Sources
292(3)
Citing Other Sources
295(2)
Glossary 297(4)
Text Credits 301(1)
Index 302


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