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Across America today gated communities sprawl out from urban centers, employers enforce mandatory drug testing, and schools screen students with metal detectors. Social problems ranging from welfare dependency to educational inequality have been reconceptualized as crimes, with an attendant focus on assigning fault and imposing consequences. Even before the recent terrorist attacks, non-citizen residents had become subject to an increasingly harsh regime of detention and deportation, and prospective employees subjected to background checks. How and when did our everyday world become dominated by fear, every citizen treated as a potential criminal? In this startlingly original work, Jonathan Simon traces this pattern back to the collapse of the New Deal approach to governing during the 1960s when declining confidence in expert-guided government policies sent political leaders searching for new models of governance. The War on Crime offered a ready solution to their problem: politicians set agendas by drawing analogies to crime and redefined the ideal citizen as a crime victim, one whose vulnerabilities opened the door to overweening government intervention. By the 1980s, this transformation of the core powers of government had spilled over into the institutions that govern daily life. Soon our schools, our families, our workplaces, and our residential communities were being governed through crime. This powerful work concludes with a call for passive citizens to become engaged partners in the management of risk and the treatment of social ills. Only by coming together to produce security, can we free ourselves from a logic of domination by others, and from the fear that currently rules our everyday life.
Jonathan Simon is Associate Dean of Jurisprudence and Social Policy and Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkeley. He is co-editor of the journal Punishment & Society, and is the author of Poor Discipline: Parole and the Social Control of the Underclass, 1890-1990 and co-editor of two other volumes.
Table of Contents
Introduction. Crime and American Governance 1. Power, Authority, and the Criminal Law 2. "Prosecutor-in-chief": Executive Authority since the War on Crime 3. We the Victims: Fearing Crime and Making Law 4. Judgment and Distrust: The Jurisprudence of Crime and the Decline of Judicial Governance 5. Project Exile: Race, the War on Crime, and Mass Imprisonment 5. Project Exile: Race, the War on Crime, and Mass Imprisonment 5. Project Exile: Race, the War on Crime, and Mass Imprisonment 6. Crime Families: Governing Domestic Relations Through Crime 7. Safe Schools: Reforming Education Through Crime 8. Penalty Box: Crime, Victimization, and Punishment in the Deregulated Workplace 9. Wars of Governance: From Cancer to Crime to Terror Notes References Index