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The book introduces the reader into the ultrafast nanoworld of graphene and carbon nanotubes, including their microscopic tracks and unique optical finger prints. The author reviews the recent progress in this field by combining theoretical and experimental achievements. He offers a clear theoretical foundation by presenting transparently derived equations. Recent experimental breakthroughs are reviewed.
By combining both theory and experiment as well as main results and detailed theoretical derivations, the book turns into an inevitable source for a wider audience from graduate students to researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering who work on optoelectronic devices, renewable energies, or in the semiconductor industry.
Professor Andreas Knorr works in the field of nonlinear optics and quantum electronics of nanostructured solids.
His research is focused on the interaction of light and matter, self-consistent solutions of Maxwell- and material equations and many body effects in open quantum systems. Since 2000 Andreas Knorr has a professorship at the Technical University of Berlin. His scientific career, which started at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena led him to the Universities of New Mexico, Arizona (College of Optical Sciences), Marburg, Göttingen and to Sandia National Labs Albuquerque and NTT Tokio.
Table of Contents
The carbon age
2 Theoretical framework
2.1 Many-particle Hamilton operator
2.2 Microscopic Bloch equations
2.3 Electronic band structure of graphene
2.4 Electronic band structure of carbon nanotubes
2.5 Optical matrix element
2.6 Coulomb matrix elements
2.7 Electron-phonon matrix elements
2.8 Macroscopic observables
3 Experimental techniques to ultrafast non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in graphene *** guest article by Stephan Winnerl ***
3.1 The principle of pump-probe experiments
3.2 Characteristics of short radiation pulses
3.3 Sources of short infrared and terahertz radiation pulses
3.4 Single-color and two-color pump-probe experiments on graphene
Part I Electronic properties -
Carrier relaxation dynamics
4 Relaxation dynamics in graphene
4.1 Experimental studies
4.2 Relaxation channels in graphene
4.3 Optically induced non-equilibrium carrier distribution
4.4 Carrier dynamics
4.5 Phonon dynamics
4.6 Pump fluence dependence
4.7 Influence of the substrate
4.8 Auger-induced carrier multiplication
4.9 Optical gain
4.10 Relaxation dynamics near the Dirac point
5 Carrier dynamics in carbon nanotubes
5.1 Experimental studies
5.2 Phonon-induced relaxation dynamics
5.3 Coulomb-induced quantum-kinetic carrier dynamics
Part II Optical properties -
6 Absorption spectra of carbon nanotubes
6.1 Experimental studies
6.2 Absorption of semiconducting carbon nanotubes
6.3 Absorption of metallic carbon nanotubes
6.4 Absorption of functionalized carbon nanotubes
7 Absorption spectrum of graphene
7.1 Experimental studies
7.2 Absorbance and conductivity in graphene
A A guideline for the appendices
A.1 Microscopic processes in carbon nanostructures
A.2 Outline of the theoretical description
B Observables in optical experiments
C Second quantization
D Equations of motion
E Mean-field and correlation effects