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Graphics Technology

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Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131476431

ISBN10:
0131476432
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $114.20

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 1/1/2005.
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Summary

Providing content for today's course that will fit tomorrow's needs, this new edition of Graphics Technology illustrates and presents fundamental concepts in an understandable format, reducing the amount of classroom tutoring needed. Major content areas covered are: Design and Creativity-New design examples from industry, examples of worksheets, and assignments make the process fun and encourage creativity and intuition. Computer Graphics-An introduction to AutoCAD 2005 provides step-by-step instruction for two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer graphics by AutoCAD. Engineering Drawing-Illustrations separated into multiple steps present the concepts as clearly and simply as possible, utilizing a second color to emphasize sequential steps, key points, and explanations. Descriptive Geometry-Three-dimensional spatial analysis principles are covered to enable the student to apply them to industrial applications at the end of these chapters. Problem Solving-Over 600 problems are offered to aid the student in mastering the principles of graphics and design. Graphics Technology will continue to serve as a permanent reference for the engineer, technologist, or technician.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Engineering and Technology 2(4)
1.1 Introduction
2(1)
1.2 Engineering Graphics
2(1)
1.3 Technological Milestones
3(1)
1.4 The Technological Team
4(2)
Chapter 2 The Design Process 6(20)
2.1 Introduction
6(1)
2.2 Types of Design Problems
7(2)
2.3 The Design Process
9(2)
2.4 Graphics and Design
11(1)
2.5 Application of the Design Process
12(6)
2.6 Design Problems
18(1)
2.7 Short Design Problems
18(4)
2.8 Systems Design Problems
22(1)
2.9 Product Design Problems
23(3)
Chapter 3 Drawing Instruments 26(16)
3.1 Introduction
26(1)
3.2 Drawing Media
26(2)
3.3 Drawing Equipment
28(4)
3.4 Lines
32(1)
3.5 Measurements
33(5)
3.6 Presentation of Drawing
38(1)
Problems
38(4)
Chapter 4 Lettering 42(6)
4.1 Introduction
42(1)
4.2 Lettering Tools
42(1)
4.3 Guidelines
43(1)
4.4 Gothic Lettering
44(3)
Problems
47(1)
Chapter 5 Geometric Construction 48(20)
5.1 Introduction
48(1)
5.2 Polygons
48(1)
5.3 Circles
49(1)
5.4 Geometric Solids
49(1)
5.5 Constructing Polygons
50(2)
5.6 Bisecting Lines and Angles
52(1)
5.7 Division of Lines
52(1)
5.8 An Arc Through Three Points
53(1)
5.9 Parallel Lines
53(1)
5.10 Tangents
54(4)
5.11 Conic Sections
58(3)
5.12 Spirals
61(1)
5.13 Helixes
61(1)
Problems
62(6)
Chapter 6 Orthographic Sketching 68(18)
6.1 Introduction
68(1)
6.2 Shape Description
69(1)
6.3 Sketching Techniques
70(1)
6.4 Six-View Sketching
71(1)
6.5 Three-View Sketching
71(4)
6.6 Circular Features
75(1)
6.7 Pictorial Sketching: Obliques
76(2)
6.8 Pictorial Sketching: Isometrics
78(2)
Problems
80(6)
Chapter 7 Orthographic Projection with Instruments 86(26)
7.1 Introduction
86(1)
7.2 Orthographic Projection
86(2)
7.3 Alphabet of Lines
88(1)
7.4 Six-View Drawings
88(1)
7.5 Three-View Drawings
89(1)
7.6 Arrangements of Views
89(1)
7.7 Selection of Views
90(1)
7.8 Line Techniques
91(1)
7.9 Point Numbering
92(1)
7.10 Drawing with Triangles
93(1)
7.11 Views by Subtraction
93(1)
7.12 Three-View Drawing Layout
93(1)
7.13 Two-View Drawings
94(1)
7.14 One-View Drawings
95(1)
7.15 Simplified and Removed Views
96(1)
7.16 Partial Views
96(1)
7.17 Curve Plotting
96(1)
7.18 Conventional Practices
97(1)
7.19 Conventional Intersections
98(1)
7.20 Fillets and Rounds
99(3)
7.21 First-Angle Projection
102(1)
7.22 Summary
103(1)
Problems
103(9)
Chapter 8 Primary Auxiliary Views 112(18)
8.1 Introduction
112(1)
8.2 Folding-Line Principles
113(1)
8.3 Auxiliaries from the Top View
113(2)
8.4 Auxiliaries from the Top: Application
115(1)
8.5 Rules of Auxiliary Construction
116(1)
8.6 Auxiliaries from the Front View
117(2)
8.7 Auxiliaries from the Profile View
119(2)
8.8 Curved Shapes
121(1)
8.9 Partial Views
122(1)
8.10 Auxiliary Sections
122(1)
8.11 Secondary Auxiliary Views
123(1)
8.12 Elliptical Features
124(1)
8.13 Summary
124(1)
Problems
124(6)
Chapter 9 Sections 130(18)
9.1 Introduction
130(1)
9.2 Basics of Sectioning
130(2)
9.3 Sectioning Symbols
132(1)
9.4 Sectioning Assemblies of Parts
132(1)
9.5 Full Sections
132(3)
9.6 Partial Views
135(1)
9.7 Half Sections
136(1)
9.8 Offset Sections
137(1)
9.9 Broken-Out Sections
137(1)
9.10 Revolved Sections
137(1)
9.11 Removed Sections
138(2)
9.12 Conventional Revolutions
140(2)
9.13 Conventional Breaks
142(1)
9.14 Phantom (Ghost) Sections
143(1)
9.15 Auxiliary Sections
143(1)
9.16 Summary
143(1)
Problems
144(4)
Chapter 10 Screws, Fasteners, and Springs 148(26)
10.1 Introduction
148(1)
10.2 Thread Terminology
149(1)
10.3 English System Specifications
150(1)
10.4 English Thread Notes
151(1)
10.5 Metric Thread Notes
152(1)
10.6 Drawing Threads
153(1)
10.7 Detailed Symbols
153(3)
10.8 Schematic Symbols
156(1)
10.9 Simplified Symbols
157(1)
10.10 Nuts and Bolts
158(2)
10.11 Drawing Square Heads
160(1)
10.12 Drawing Hexagon Heads
161(1)
10.13 Types of Screws
162(2)
10.14 Other Threaded Fasteners
164(1)
10.15 Tapping a Hole
165(1)
10.16 Washers and Pins
166(1)
10.17 Pipe Threads and Sittings
166(2)
10.18 Keys
168(1)
10.19 Rivets
168(1)
10.20 Springs
169(2)
10.21 Drawing Springs
171(1)
Problems
171(3)
Chapter 11 Materials and Processes 174(16)
11.1 Introduction
174(1)
11.2 Commonly Used Metals
174(3)
11.3 Properties of Metals
177(1)
11.4 Forming Metal Shapes
178(5)
11.5 Machining Operations
183(5)
11.6 Surface Finishing
188(1)
11.7 Plastics and Other Materials
189(1)
Chapter 12 Dimensioning 190(24)
12.1 Introduction
190(1)
12.2 Terminology
190(1)
12.3 Units of Measurement
191(1)
12.4 English/Metric Conversions
192(1)
12.5 Dual Dimensioning
192(1)
12.6 Metric Units
192(1)
12.7 Numerals and Symbols
193(1)
12.8 Dimensioning Rules
194(7)
12.9 Curved and Symmetrical Parts
201(1)
12.10 Finished Surfaces
202(1)
12.11 Location Dimensions
203(2)
12.12 Outline Dimensioning
205(1)
12.13 Machined Holes
206(2)
12.14 Chamfers
208(1)
12.15 Keyseats
208(1)
12.16 Knurling
208(1)
12.17 Necks and Undercuts
209(1)
12.18 Tapers
210(1)
12.19 Miscellaneous Notes
210(1)
Problems
211(3)
Chapter 13 Tolerances 214(28)
13.1 Introduction
214(1)
13.2 Tolerance Dimensions
214(1)
13.3 Mating Parts
215(1)
13.4 Tolerancing Terms: English Units
216(1)
13.5 Basic Hole System
217(1)
13.6 Basic Shaft System
217(1)
13.7 Cylindrical Fits
218(1)
13.8 Tolerancing: Metric Units
219(3)
13.9 Chain versus Datum Dimensions
222(1)
13.10 Tolerance Notes
223(1)
13.11 General Tolerances: Metric
223(2)
13.12 Geometric Tolerances
225(1)
13.13 Rules for Tolerancing
226(2)
13.14 Cylindrical Datum Features
228(1)
13.15 Location Tolerancing
229(2)
13.16 Form Tolerancing
231(1)
13.17 Profile Tolerancing
232(1)
13.18 Orientation Tolerancing
233(1)
13.19 Runout Tolerancing
234(1)
13.20 Surface Texture
235(3)
Problems
238(4)
Chapter 14 Welding 242(10)
14.1 Introduction
242(1)
14.2 Welding Processes
242(2)
14.3 Weld Joints and Welds
244(1)
14.4 Welding Symbols
245(1)
14.5 Application of Symbols
245(4)
14.6 Surface Contouring
249(1)
14.7 Brazing 25O
14.8 Soldering
250(1)
Problems
251(1)
Chapter 15 Working Drawings 252(42)
15.1 Introduction
252(1)
15.2 Working Drawing as Legal Document
252(1)
15.3 Dimensions and Units
253(6)
15.4 Laying Out a Detail Drawing
259(1)
15.5 Notes and Other Information
260(2)
15.6 Drafter's Log
262(1)
15.7 Assembly Drawings
262(1)
15.8 Freehand Working Drawings
263(1)
15.9 Forged Parts and Castings
263(2)
Problems
265(29)
Chapter 16 Reproduction of Drawings 294(6)
16.1 Introduction
294(1)
16.2 Computer Reproduction
294(1)
16.3 Types of Reproduction
295(2)
16.4 Assembling Drawing Sets
297(1)
16.5 Transmittal of Drawings
298(2)
Chapter 17 Three-Dimensional Pictorials 300(20)
17.1 Introduction
300(1)
17.2 Oblique Drawings
301(5)
17.3 Isometric Pictorials
306(2)
17.4 Isometric Drawings
308(6)
17.5 Technical Illustration
314(2)
17.6 Axonometric Projection
316(1)
17.7 Three-Dimensional Modeling
317(1)
Problems
318(2)
Chapter 18 Points, Lines, and Planes 320(14)
18.1 Introduction
320(1)
18.2 Projection of Points
321(1)
18.3 Lines
322(2)
18.4 Visibility
324(1)
18.5 Planes
325(2)
18.6 Parallelism
327(2)
18.7 Perpendicularity
329(2)
Problems
331(3)
Chapter 19 Primary Auxiliary Views in Descriptive Geometry 334(26)
19.1 Introduction
334(1)
19.2 True-Length Lines by Primary Auxiliary Views
334(2)
19.3 Angles Between Lines and Principal Planes
336(1)
19.4 Sloping Lines
337(1)
19.5 Bearings and Azimuths
338(2)
19.6 Application: Plot Plans
340(1)
19.7 Contour Maps and Profiles
340(2)
19.8 Plan-Profile Drawings
342(1)
19.9 Edge Views of Planes
343(1)
19.10 Planes and Lines
344(2)
19.11 Sloping Planes
346(4)
19.12 Ore-Vein Applications
350(2)
19.13 Intersections Between Planes
352(1)
Problems
353(7)
Chapter 20 Successive Auxiliary Views 360(16)
20.1 Introduction
360(1)
20.2 Point View of a Line
361(1)
20.3 Dihedral Angles
361(1)
20.4 True Size of a Plane
362(2)
20.5 Shortest Distance from a Point to a Line: Line Method
364(1)
20.6 Shortest Distance Between Skewed Lines: Line Method
365(1)
20.7 Shortest Distance Between Skewed Lines: Plane Method
366(1)
20.8 Shortest Level Distance Between Skewed Lines: Plane Method
367(1)
20.9 Shortest Grade Distance Between Skewed Lines: Plane Method
368(1)
20.10 Angular Distance to a Line
369(1)
20.11 Angle Between a Line and a Plane: Plane Method
369(1)
20.12 Angle Between a Line and a Plane: Line Method
370(1)
Problems
370(6)
Chapter 21 Revolution 376(12)
21.1 Introduction
376(1)
21.2 True-Length Lines
376(3)
21.3 True Size of a Plane
379(2)
21.4 Angle Between Planes
381(1)
21.5 Determining Direction
382(1)
21.6 Revolution: Point About an Axis
382(3)
21.7 A Line at Specified Angles
385(1)
Problems
386(2)
Chapter 22 Vector Graphics 388(14)
22.1 Introduction
388(1)
22.2 Definitions
388(1)
22.3 Coplanar, Concurrent Forces
389(2)
22.4 Noncoplanar, Concurrent Forces
391(1)
22.5 Forces in Equilibrium
391(2)
22.6 Coplanar Truss Analysis
393(2)
22.7 Noncoplanar Vectors: Special Case
395(1)
22.8 Resultant of Parallel, Nonconcurrent Forces
396(2)
Problems
398(4)
Chapter 23 Intersections and Developments 402(24)
23.1 Introduction
402(1)
23.2 Intersections: Lines and Planes
402(2)
23.3 Intersections: Prisms
404(2)
23.4 Intersections: Planes and Cylinders
406(1)
23.5 Intersections: Cylinders and Prisms
407(1)
23.6 Intersections: Cylinders
408(1)
23.7 Intersections: Planes and Cones
408(2)
23.8 Intersections: Cones and Prisms
410(2)
23.9 Intersections: Pyramids
412(1)
23.10 Principles of Developments
413(2)
23.11 Developments: Rectangular Prisms
415(1)
23.12 Developments: Oblique Prisms
415(2)
23.13 Developments: Cylinders
417(1)
23.14 Developments: Oblique Cylinders
418(1)
23.15 Developments: Pyramids
418(2)
23.16 Developments: Cones
420(1)
23.17 Developments: Transition Pieces
421(2)
Problems
423(3)
Chapter 24 Graphs 426(12)
24.1 Introduction
426(1)
24.2 Pie Graphs
427(1)
24.3 Bar Graphs
428(1)
24.4 Linear Coordinate Graphs
429(3)
24.5 Semilogarithmic-Coordinate Graphs
432(2)
Problems
434(4)
Chapter 25 Introduction to AutoCADŽ 2005 438(48)
25.1 Introduction
438(1)
25.2 Computer Graphics Overview
438(1)
25.3 Hardware
439(2)
25.4 Your First Session
441(3)
25.5 AutoCAD Windows
444(1)
25.6 Command Options
445(1)
25.7 Dialog Boxes
445(2)
25.8 Drawing Aids
447(1)
25.9 Help Commands
448(1)
25.10 Drawing Layers
449(3)
25.11 Toolbars
452(1)
25.12 A New Drawing
452(2)
25.13 Drawing Scale
454(1)
25.14 Saving and Exiting
454(1)
25.15 Plotting Parameters
455(3)
25.16 Readying the Printer
458(1)
25.17 Lines
458(1)
25.18 Circles
459(1)
25.19 Arcs
460(1)
25.20 Polygons
460(1)
25.21 Ellipses
460(1)
25.22 Fillets
460(1)
25.23 Chamfers
461(1)
25.24 Trim
461(1)
25.25 Extend
462(1)
25.26 Zoom and Pan
462(1)
25.27 Selecting Objects
463(1)
25.28 Erase and Break
464(1)
25.29 Move and Copy
465(1)
25.30 Undo
465(1)
25.31 Polyline
465(1)
25.32 Pedit
466(1)
25.33 Hatching
467(1)
25.34 Text and Numerals
468(1)
25.35 Text Style
469(1)
25.36 Mirror
470(1)
25.37 Osnap
470(1)
25.38 Array
471(1)
25.39 Scale
472(1)
25.40 Stretch
472(1)
25.41 Rotate
472(1)
25.42 Offset
472(1)
25.43 Blocks
472(1)
25.44 Write Blocks (Wblocks)
473(1)
25.45 Dimensioning
474(1)
25.46 Dimension Style Variables
474(2)
25.47 Linear Dimensions
476(1)
25.48 Angular Dimensions
477(1)
25.49 Diameter
477(1)
25.50 Radius
478(1)
25.51 Dimension Style Manager
478(4)
25.52 Saving Dimension Styles
482(1)
25.53 Editing Dimensions
483(1)
25.54 Custom Border and Title Block
484(1)
25.55 Oblique Pictorials
484(1)
25.56 Isometric Pictorials
485(1)
25.57 Summary
486(1)
Problems 486(1)
Appendices 487(42)
Index 529

Excerpts

New and Better This second edition of Graphics Technologyis an improved version of the 1995 edition in all categories: content, format, readability, clarity; quality of illustrations, and economy. The challenge with each revision has always been, "How can the book be written and illustrated to make it easier for the student to learn and the teacher to teach?" Also asked is, "What should be the content for today''s course that will fit tomorrow''s needs?" Meeting this goal is difficult for an author in any discipline, but it is especially awesome in the area of engineering design graphics where 1500 illustrations, 620 problems, and a multitude of topics must be merged into a cohesive textbook as compactly as possible. Content must include fundamentals, design, computer graphics, industrial applications, and meaningful problems. We believe that we have met these goals. Classic Content Every paragraph and illustration has been revisited for evaluation, revision, improvement, or elimination so that all content makes a worthwhile contribution. No space has been squandered to make room for exotic illustrations of examples that are beyond the scope of a beginning freshman course. Instead, that valuable space has been used to better illustrate and present fundamental concepts in an understandable format to reduce the amount of classroom tutoring needed by the student. Major content areas covered in this text are: design and creativity, computer graphics, engineering drawing, descriptive geometry, and problem solving. Design and Creativity Chapter 2, which is devoted to the introduction of design and creativity, has been revised and improved. New design examples from industry, along with examples of worksheets applying the steps of design, guide the student through the process of design. Care has been taken to offer realistic design problems that are within the grasp of beginning students rather than overwhelming them with projects beyond their capabilities. Since the primary objective of design instruction is to introduce the process of design, meaningful design assignments are given to make the process fun and to encourage the application of creativity and intuition. A variety of design problems are given in Chapter 2 that can be used as quickie problems, short assignments, or semester-long design projects. Additional design exercises are included at the ends of the chapters throughout the book. Computer Graphics An introduction to AutOCAD 2005 is presented in a step-by-step format to aid the student in learning how to use this popular software, not just read about it in the abstract. Steps of each illustration show the reader what will be seen on the screen as the example is followed. Chapter 25 gives an introduction to two-dimensional computer graphics by AutoCAD. The main purpose of Graphics Technologyis to help students learn the fundamental principles of graphics, whether done on the drawing board or on the computer. This book can be used in courses where the entire course is taken on the computer, where part of the course is taken on the computer, or where none of the course is taken on the computer. Format: Make It Easy Much effort has been devoted to the creation of illustrations separated into multiple steps to present the concepts as clearly and simply as possible. A second color is applied as a functional means of emphasizing sequential steps, key points, and explanations, not simply as decoration. Explanatory information and text are closely associated with the steps of each example. Many three-dimensional pictorials have been drawn, modified, and refined that will aid the student in visualizing the example at hand. Photographs of actual industrial parts and products have been merged with explanatory examples of principles being covered. The illustrations in this book have been developed and drawn by the author, not by illustrators who have never had the experience of trying to explain a concept to a student. Only after years of classroom practice and trial-and-error testing is it possible to cover principles of graphics in a format that enables the student and teacher to cover the most content with fewest learning obstacles. The two-color, step-by-step format of presentation with conveniently located text has been classroom tested to validate its effectiveness over a number of years. Although substantially better than the conventional format used in other texts, this format required about twice as much effort by the author and twice as much expense by the publisher to produce. We hope you agree that the results justify the added effort and expense. Streamlined The content in all chapters has been compressed, but no material essential to the adequate coverage of a topic has been eliminated. Chapters on gears and cams, nomography, empirical equations, pipe drafting, and electronic graphics have been eliminated to save over 100 pages, thus providing this book at a lower cost for programs not covering this content. Many new problems and illustrations have been added and most of the existing figures have been edited and improved to make them more effective. No space in this book has been wasted. A Book to Keep Some material in this book may not be formally covered in the course for which it was adopted because of time limitations or variations in emphasis by different instructors. These briefly covered topics may be the ones that will be needed in later courses or in practice. Therefore, this book should be retained as permanent reference by the engineer, technologist, or technician. A Teaching System Graphics Technologyused in combination with the supplements listed below comprises a complete teaching system. Textbook problems:Approximately 620 problems are offered to aid the student in mastering the principles of graphics and design. Instructor''s solution manual:A manual containing the solutions to most of the problems in this book is available from Prentice Hall to assist the teacher with grading. Problem manuals:Nineteen problem books and teachers'' guides (with outlines, problem solutions, tests, and test solutions) that are keyed to this book are available from Creative Publishing. Fifteen of the problem books are designed to allow problem solution by computer, by sketching, or on the drawing board. A list of these manuals is given inside the back cover of this book.


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