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The Great Conversation A Historical Introduction to Philosophy,9780195175103
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The Great Conversation A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780195175103

ISBN10:
0195175107
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/15/2001
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $85.28
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Summary

This historically organized introductory text, which begins with Hesiod and goes up to Derrida and Quine, presents philosophy as an ongoing conversation about humankind's deepest and most persistent concerns. The Great Conversation traces the exchange of ideas between history's key philosophers, demonstrating that while constructing an argument or making a claim, one philosopher almost always has others in mind. The book is also available in two volumes: Volume I covers Hesiod through Descartes (Chapters 1-13); Volume II includes "Moving from Medieval to Modern" (Chapter 12), and coverage of Descartes through Derrida and Quine (Chapters 13-25).

Author Biography

Norman Melchert is Selfridge Professor Emeritus of Philosophy and was Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Lehigh University

Table of Contents

A Word to Instructors ix
A Word to Students xi
Acknowledgments xv
Before Philosophy: Myth in Hesiod and Homer
1(9)
Hesiod: War among the Gods
2(2)
Homer: Heroes, Gods, and Excellence
4(6)
Philosophy before Socrates
10(27)
Thales: The One as Water
11(1)
Anaximander: The One as the Boundless
12(2)
Xenophanes: The Gods as Fictions
14(2)
Profile: Pythagoras
16(3)
Heraclitus: Oneness in the Logos
19(5)
Parmenides: Only the One
24(4)
Zeno: The Paradoxes of Common Sense
28(2)
Atomism: The One and the Many Reconciled
30(7)
The Key: An Ambiguity
30(2)
The World
32(1)
The Soul
33(2)
How to Live
35(2)
The Sophists: Rhetoric and Relativism in Athens
37(22)
Democracy
37(1)
The Persian Wars
38(2)
The Sophists
40(9)
Rhetoric
42(2)
Relativism
44(1)
Physis and Nomos
45(4)
Athens and Sparta at War
49(5)
Aristophanes and Reaction
54(5)
Socrates: To Know Oneself
59(12)
Character
60(3)
Is Socrates a Sophist?
63(3)
What Socrates ``Knows''
66(5)
We Ought to Search for Truth
66(1)
Human Excellence Is Knowledge
67(1)
All Wrongdoing Is Due to Ignorance
68(1)
The Most Important Thing of All Is to Care for Your Soul
69(2)
The Trial and Death of Socrates
71(46)
Euthyphro
71(14)
Translator's Introduction
71(1)
The Dialogue
72(8)
Commentary and Questions
80(5)
Apology
85(18)
Translator's Introduction
85(1)
The Dialogue
85(13)
Commentary and Questions
98(5)
Crito
103(10)
Translator's Introduction
103(1)
The Dialogue
103(7)
Commentary and Questions
110(3)
Phaedo (Death Scene)
113(4)
Translator's Introduction
113(1)
The Dialogue (Selection)
113(2)
Commentary and Questions
115(2)
Plato: Knowing the Real and the Good
117(40)
Knowledge and Opinion
118(8)
Making the Distinction
119(1)
We Do Know Certain Truths
120(1)
The Objects of Knowledge
121(3)
The Reality of the Forms
124(2)
The World and the Forms
126(8)
How Forms Are Related to the World
126(3)
Lower and Higher Forms
129(2)
The Form of the Good
131(3)
The Love of Wisdom
134(8)
What Wisdom Is
134(4)
Love and Wisdom
138(4)
The Soul
142(3)
The Immortality of the Soul
142(2)
The Structure of the Soul
144(1)
Justice
145(6)
The State
151(2)
Problems with the Forms
153(4)
Aristotle: The Reality of the World
157(43)
Aristotle and Plato
157(3)
Otherworldliness
157(1)
The Objects of Knowledge
158(1)
Human Nature
158(1)
Relativism and Skepticism
158(1)
Ethics
159(1)
Logic and Knowledge
160(9)
Terms and Statements
161(2)
Truth
163(1)
Reasons Why: The Syllogism
164(3)
Knowing First Principles
167(2)
The World
169(5)
Nature
170(1)
The Four ``Becauses''
170(2)
Is There Purpose in Nature?
172(1)
Teleology
173(1)
First Philosophy
174(7)
Not Plato's Forms
175(1)
What of Mathematics?
176(1)
Substance and Form
176(2)
Pure Actualities
178(1)
God
179(2)
The Soul
181(5)
Levels of Soul
181(1)
Soul and Body
182(2)
Nous
184(2)
The Good Life
186(14)
Happiness
188(3)
Virtue or Excellence (Arete)
191(1)
The Role of Reason
192(3)
Responsibility
195(1)
The Highest Good
196(4)
Epicureans, Stoics, and Skeptics: Happiness for the Many
200(18)
The Epicureans
201(5)
The Stoics
206(5)
The Skeptics
211(7)
The Christians: Sin, Salvation, and Love
218(10)
Background
219(2)
Jesus
221(4)
The Meaning of Jesus
225(3)
Augustine: God and the Soul
228(39)
Wisdom, Happiness, and God
234(4)
The Interior Teacher
238(2)
God and the World
240(8)
The Great Chain of Being
241(3)
Evil
244(1)
Time
245(3)
Human Nature and Its Corruption
248(6)
Human Nature and Its Restoration
254(3)
Augustine on Relativism
257(2)
The Two Cities
259(3)
Christians and Philosophers
262(5)
Reason and Authority
262(1)
Intellect and Will
263(1)
Augustine on Epicureans and Stoics
263(4)
Anselm and Aquinas: Existence and Essence in God and the World
267(32)
Anselm: On That, Than Which No Greater Can Be Conceived
267(5)
Thomas Aquinas: Rethinking Aristotle
272(21)
Philosophy and Theology
273(1)
Existence and Essence
274(2)
From Creation to God
276(6)
The Nature of God
282(2)
Humans: Their Souls
284(2)
Humans: Their Knowledge
286(2)
Humans: Their Good
288(5)
Ockham and Skeptical Doubts---Again
293(6)
Moving from Medieval to Modern
299(23)
The World God Made for Man
300(4)
The Humanists
304(2)
Reforming the Church
306(5)
Skeptical Thoughts Revived
311(3)
Copernicus to Kepler to Galileo: The Great Triple Play
314(8)
Rene Descartes: Doubting Our Way to Certainty
322(42)
The Method
325(2)
Meditations: Commentary and Questions
327(12)
Meditations on First Philosophy
339(21)
Meditation I
339(2)
Meditation II
341(3)
Meditation III
344(5)
Meditation IV
349(3)
Meditation V
352(2)
Meditation VI
354(6)
What Has Descartes Done?
360(4)
A New Ideal for Knowledge
360(1)
A New Vision of Reality
361(1)
Problems
361(1)
The Preeminence of Epistemology
362(2)
Hobbes, Locke, and Berkeley: Materialism and the Beginnings of Empiricism
364(37)
Thomas Hobbes: Catching Persons in the Net of the New Science
364(11)
Method
365(1)
Minds and Motives
366(6)
Profile: Francis Bacon
372(1)
The Natural Foundation of Moral Rules
373(2)
John Locke: Looking to Experience
375(14)
Origin of Ideas
377(1)
Idea of Substance
378(1)
Idea of the Soul
379(1)
Idea of Personal Identity
380(2)
Language and Essence
382(2)
The Extent of Knowledge
384(2)
Of Representative Government
386(2)
Of Toleration
388(1)
George Berkeley: Ideas into Things
389(12)
Abstract Ideas
390(3)
Ideas and Things
393(5)
God
398(3)
David Hume: Unmasking the Pretensions of Reason
401(30)
How Newton Did It
402(1)
To Be the Newton of Human Nature
403(2)
The Theory of Ideas
405(2)
The Association of Ideas
407(1)
Causation: The Very Idea
407(7)
The Disappearing Self
414(3)
Rescuing Human Freedom
417(2)
Is It Reasonable to Believe in God?
419(4)
Understanding Morality
423(4)
Reason Is Not a Motivator
423(2)
The Origins of Moral Judgment
425(2)
Is Hume a Skeptic?
427(4)
Immanuel Kant: Rehabilitating Reason (within Strict Limits)
431(37)
Critique
433(1)
Judgments
434(2)
Geometry, Mathematics, Space, and Time
436(3)
Common Sense, Science, and the A Priori Categories
439(4)
Profile: Baruch Spinoza
443(1)
Phenomena and Noumena
444(2)
Profile: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
446(1)
Reasoning and the Ideas of Metaphysics: God, World, and Soul
447(9)
The Soul
449(1)
The World and the Free Will
450(3)
God
453(1)
The Ontological Argument
454(2)
Reason and Morality
456(12)
The Good Will
457(3)
The Moral Law
460(2)
Autonomy
462(1)
Freedom
463(5)
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Taking History Seriously
468(29)
Historical and Intellectual Context
469(2)
The French Revolution
469(1)
The Romantics
470(1)
Epistemology Internalized
471(1)
Profile: Arthur Schopenhauer
472(5)
Self and Others
477(4)
Stoic and Skeptical Consciousness
481(1)
Hegel's Analysis of Christianity
482(2)
Reason and Reality: The Theory of Idealism
484(2)
Spirit Made Objective: The Social Character of Ethics
486(6)
History and Freedom
492(5)
Kierkegaard and Marx: Two Ways to ``Correct'' Hegel
497(27)
Kierkegaard: On Individual Existence
497(18)
The Aesthetic
498(3)
The Ethical
501(3)
The Religious
504(8)
The Individual
512(3)
Marx: Beyond Alienation and Exploitation
515(9)
Alienation, Exploitation, and Private Property
517(3)
Communism
520(4)
The Utilitarians: Moral Rules and the Happiness of All (Including Women)
524(18)
The Classic Utilitarians
524(10)
The Rights of Women
534(8)
Friedrich Nietzsche: The Value of Existence
542(35)
Pessimism and Tragedy
543(5)
Good-bye True World
548(5)
The Death of God
553(3)
Revaluation of Values
556(8)
Master Morality/Slave Morality
557(3)
Our Morality
560(4)
The Overman
564(8)
Affirming Eternal Recurrence
572(5)
The Pragmatists: Thought and Action
577(28)
Charles Sanders Peirce
577(15)
Fixing Belief
578(2)
Belief and Doubt
580(2)
Truth and Reality
582(4)
Meaning
586(4)
Signs
590(2)
John Dewey
592(13)
The Impact of Darwin
592(2)
Naturalized Epistemology
594(1)
Profile: William James
595(2)
Nature and Natural Science
597(2)
Value Naturalized
599(6)
Analysis: Logical Atomism and the Logical Positivists
605(27)
Language and Its Logic
606(2)
Profile: Bertrand Russell
608(1)
Ludwig Wittgenstein: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
608(3)
Picturing
611(15)
Thought and Language
613(3)
Logical Truth
616(1)
Saying and Showing
617(1)
Setting the Limit to Thought
618(1)
Value and the Self
619(3)
Good and Evil, Happiness and Unhappiness
622(2)
The Unsayable
624(2)
Logical Positivism
626(6)
Ordinary Language: ``This Is Simply What I Do''
632(23)
The Later Wittgenstein: Philosophical Investigations
633(11)
Philosophical Illusion
634(4)
Language-Games
638(2)
Ostensive Definitions
640(1)
Objects
641(1)
Family Resemblances
642(2)
The Continuity of Wittgenstein's Thought
644(3)
Our Groundless Certainty
647(8)
Martin Heidegger: The Meaning of Being
655(47)
What Is the Question?
656(1)
The Clue
657(3)
Phenomenology
660(1)
Profile: Jean-Paul Sartre
661(1)
Being-in-the-World
662(6)
The ``Who'' of Dasein
668(3)
Modes of Disclosure
671(7)
Attunement
672(3)
Understanding
675(2)
Discourse
677(1)
Falling-Away
678(3)
Idle Talk
678(1)
Curiosity
679(1)
Ambiguity
680(1)
Care
681(1)
Truth
682(2)
Death
684(2)
Conscience, Guilt, and Resoluteness
686(3)
Temporality as the Meaning of Care
689(3)
The Priority of Being
692(10)
Postmodernism and Physical Realism: Derrida, Rorty, Quine, and Dennett
702(41)
Postmodernism
702(21)
Deconstruction: Jacques Derrida
703(9)
Liberal Ironist: Richard Rorty
712(11)
Physical Realism
723(20)
Science, Common Sense, and Metaphysics: Willard van Orman Quine
724(11)
The Matter of Minds: Daniel Dennett
735(8)
Afterword 743
Glossary 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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