9780198506980

Green Chemistry Theory and Practice

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780198506980

  • ISBN10:

    0198506988

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 5/25/2000
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

This book provides the first introductory treatment of the design, development, and evaluation processes central to Green Chemistry. A comprehensive textbook, it takes a broad view of the subject and integrates a wide variety of approaches. Topics include alternative feedstocks, environmentally benign syntheses, the design of safer chemical products, new reaction conditions, alternative solvents and catalyst development, and the use of biosynthesis and biomimetic principles. It introduces new evaluation processes that encompass the complete health and environmental impact of a synthesis, from the choice of starting materials to the final product. Throughout, the text provides specific examples which compare the new methods with classical ones.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(10)
The current status of chemistry and the environment
1(1)
Evolution of the environmental movement
2(7)
Public awareness
2(4)
`Dilution is the solution to pollution'
6(1)
Waste treatment and abatement through command and control
6(1)
Pollution prevention
7(1)
Green chemistry
8(1)
The role of chemists
9(2)
What is green chemistry?
11(10)
Definition
11(1)
Why is this new area of chemistry getting so much attention?
12(1)
Why should chemists pursue the goals of green chemistry?
13(3)
The root of innovation
16(1)
Limitations/obstacles
16(5)
Tools of green chemistry
21(8)
Alternative feedstocks/starting materials
21(3)
Alternative reagents
24(1)
Alternative solvents
24(1)
Alternative product/target molecule
25(1)
Process analytical chemistry
26(1)
Alternative catalysts
27(2)
Principles of green chemistry
29(28)
It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed
29(4)
Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product
33(1)
Rearrangements
34(1)
Addition
34(1)
Substitution
34(1)
Elimination
34(1)
Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment
34(2)
Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of function while reducing toxicity
36(2)
What is designing safer chemicals?
36(1)
Why is this now possible?
37(1)
The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used
38(4)
The general use of auxiliary substances
38(1)
Concerns for solvents
38(1)
Environment
39(1)
Supercritical fluids
40(1)
Solventless
41(1)
Aqueous
41(1)
Immobilized
41(1)
Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized
42(3)
Energy usage by the chemical industry
42(1)
How energy is used
43(1)
The need to accelerate reactions with heat
43(1)
The need to control reactivity through cooling
43(1)
Separation energy requirements
44(1)
Microwaves
44(1)
Sonic
44(1)
Optimizing the reaction should mean minimizing the energy requirements
44(1)
A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting, wherever technically and economically practicable
45(3)
What are renewable vs. depleting feedstocks?
45(1)
Sustainability
46(1)
Direct environmental effects
46(1)
Indirect environmental effects
46(1)
Limited supply creates economic pressure
47(1)
The political effects of petroleum
47(1)
Concerns about biological feedstocks
48(1)
Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be avoided whenever possible
48(2)
The prevalence of this practice in chemistry
48(1)
Blocking/protecting groups
49(1)
Making salts, etc. for ease of processing
49(1)
Adding a functional group only to replace it
49(1)
Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents
50(1)
Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products
51(2)
The current situation
51(1)
Persistence in the environment
52(1)
Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring, and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances
53(1)
Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen so as to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires
54(3)
Evaluating the effects of chemistry
57(10)
How does a chemist evaluate a chemical product or process for its effect on human health and the environment?
57(10)
Toxicity to humans
58(3)
Toxicity to wildlife
61(2)
Effects on the local environment
63(1)
Global environmental effects
63(4)
Evaluating to feedstocks and starting materials
67(4)
Origins of the feedstock/starting materials
67(1)
A renewable or a depleting resource
68(1)
Hazardous or innocuous feedstock
69(1)
Downstream implications of the choice of feedstock
69(2)
Evaluating reaction types
71(14)
What are the different general types of chemical transformation?
71(10)
Rearrangements
72(1)
Addition reactions
73(2)
Substitution reactions
75(2)
Elimination reactions
77(1)
Pericyclic reactions
78(2)
Oxidation/reduction reactions
80(1)
What is the intrinsic nature of the various reaction types?
81(4)
Do they require additional chemicals?
81(1)
Do they necessarily generate waste?
82(3)
Evaluation of methods to design after chemicals
85(8)
Mechanism of action analysis
86(2)
Structure activity relationships
88(1)
Avoidance of toxic functional groups
89(1)
Minimizing bioavailability
89(1)
Minimizing auxiliary substances
90(3)
Examples of green chemistry
93(22)
Examples of green starting materials
93(4)
Polysaccharide polymers
93(1)
Commodity chemicals from glucose
94(1)
Biomass conversion to chemical products
95(2)
Examples of green reactions
97(3)
Atom economy and homogeneous catalysis
97(1)
Halide-free syntheses of aromatic amines
97(1)
A green alternative to the Strecker synthesis
98(2)
Examples of green reagents
100(3)
Non-phosgene isocyanate synthesis
100(1)
Selective methylations using dimethylcarbonate
101(1)
Solid-state polymerization of amorphous polymers using diphenylcarbonate
102(1)
Green oxidative transition metal complexes
103(1)
Liquid oxidation reactor
103(1)
Examples of green solvents and reaction conditions
103(6)
Supercritical fluids
104(1)
Aqueous reaction conditions
105(2)
Immobilized solvents
107(1)
Irradiative reaction conditions
108(1)
Examples of green chemical products
109(6)
Design of alternative nitriles
110(1)
Rohm and Haas Sea-Nine(tm) product
111(1)
Rohm and Haas CONFIRM(tm) insecticide
111(1)
Donlar's polyaspartic acids
112(1)
Polaroid's complexed developers
112(3)
Future trends in green chemistry
115(6)
Oxidation reagents and catalysts
115(1)
Biomimetic, multifunctional reagents
116(1)
Combinatorial green chemistry
117(1)
Chemistry that both prevents problems and solves current pollution problems
117(1)
Proliferation of solventless reactions
118(1)
Energy focus
118(1)
Non-covalent derivatization
119(2)
Exercises 121(4)
References 125(6)
Index 131

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