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Green Networking,9781118561713
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Green Networking

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781118561713

ISBN10:
1118561716
Format:
eBook
Pub. Date:
1/14/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley-ISTE
List Price: $133.33

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Summary

This book focuses on green networking, which is an important topic for the scientific community composed of engineers, academics, researchers and industrialists working in the networking field. Reducing the environmental impact of the communications infrastructure has become essential with the ever increasing cost of energy and the need for reducing global CO2 emissions to protect our environment.
Recent advances and future directions in green networking are presented in this book, including energy efficient networks (wired networks, wireless networks, mobile networks), adaptive networks (cognitive radio networks, green autonomic networking), green terminals, and industrial research into green networking (smart city, etc.).

Table of Contents

Introduction xi

Chapter 1. Environmental Impact of Networking

Infrastructures 1

Laurent LEFÈVRE and Jean-Marc PIERSON

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Some definitions and metrics 5

1.3. State of the sites of consumption of the networks:

the case of wired networks 7

1.4. Academic and industrial initiatives  11

1.5. Perspectives and reflections on the future 13

1.6. Bibliography 13

PART 1. A STEP TOWARDS ENERGY-EFFICIENT NETWORKS 17

Chapter 2. A Step Towards Energy-efficient

Wired Networks 19

Aruna Prem BIANZINO, Claude CHAUDET, Dario ROSSI

and Jean-Louis ROUGIER

2.1. Introduction 19

2.2. Models of energy consumption 22

2.3. Energy-saving strategies 27

2.3.1. Transport applications and protocols 27

2.3.2. Communications links 31

2.4. The problem of energy-efficient routing 37

2.4.1. Model of energy consumption. 37

vi Green Networking

2.4.2. Formulation of the problem 39

2.4.3. Experimental results 41

2.5. Conclusion 51

2.6. Bibliography52

Chapter 3. A Step Towards Green Mobile Networks 59

Sami TABBANE

3.1. Introduction 59

3.1.1. Decreasing power: an imperative

in a cellular radio network 60

3.1.2. Definition of and need for green cellular 60

3.2. Processes and protocols for green networks 63

3.2.1. Technologies on the radio interface 64

3.2.2. Adaptation of network activity to traffic 66

3.2.3. Traffic aggregation based on the delay67

3.2.4. Store, carry and forward relaying 68

3.2.5. Combination of MS and BTS 68

3.2.6. Handover for optimization of the energy used 69

3.2.7. Cooperation between base transceiver stations 70

3.2.8. Increasing the capacity of the RAN

and network core nodes 70

3.3. Architecture and engineering of green networks 71

3.3.1. Relaying and multi-hopping 71

3.3.2. Self-organizing networks (SONs) 73

3.3.3. Planning.74

3.3.4. Microcells and multi-RAT networks 75

3.3.5. A step towards all-IP and flat architecture 77

3.3.6. Reducing the number of sites

by using smart antennas 77

3.3.7. Cooperation between BTSs 78

3.4. Components and structures for green networks 79

3.4.1. Power-efficient amplifiers 80

3.4.2. Elimination of feeders, use of fiber optics 81

3.4.3. Solar and wind power 81

3.4.4. Twin TRX82

3.4.5. Cooling82

3.5. Conclusion 83

3.6. Bibliography83

Chapter 4. Green Telecommunications Networks 87

Guy PUJOLLE

4.1. Introduction 87

4.2. Data centers 89

4.3. Wireless telecommunications networks. 92

4.4. Terrestrial telecommunications networks99

4.5. Low-cost and energy-efficient networks.105

4.6. The role of virtualization in “green” techniques 109

4.7. Conclusion 112

4.8. Bibliography 113

PART 2. A STEP TOWARDS SMART GREEN NETWORKS AND SUSTAINABLE TERMINALS 115

Chapter 5. Cognitive Radio in the Service of Green Communication and Networking 117

Hicham KHALIFÉ

5.1. Introduction 117

5.2. Cognitive radio: concept and standards 120

5.2.1. Attempts at standardization121

5.2.2. Research projects and initiatives. 122

5.3. Various definitions of green in cognitive radio 124

5.3.1. Reducing the pollution of the radio spectrum 125

5.3.2. Reducing the exposure of individuals 126

5.3.3. Reducing the consumption of the equipment 126

5.4. Clean solutions offered by cognitive radio 126

5.4.1. Solutions for the spectrum and health 127

5.4.2. Actions at the level of equipment/infrastructure 127

5.4.3. Optimizing the communication parameters 129

5.4.4. Avenues for research and visions for the future 132

5.5. Use case: “Smart buildings” 135

5.6. Conclusion 138

5.7. Bibliography 138

Chapter 6. Autonomic Green Networks. 141

Francine KRIEF, Maïssa MBAYE and Martin PERES

6.1. Introduction 141

6.2. Autonomic networks 142

6.3. Self-configuring 144

viii Green Networking

6.3.1. Importance of self-configuring for green networks 145

6.4. Self-optimizing 145

6.4.1. Self-optimizing for green networks 147

6.5. Self-protecting 152

6.5.1. Protection of the executive support 154

6.5.2. Protection of the energy source 158

6.5.3. Protection of communications. 162

6.6. Self-healing165

6.6.1. Application to wireless sensor networks 167

6.6.2. Application to smart grids 170

6.7. Conclusion 170

6.8. Bibliography 171

Chapter 7. Reconfigurable Green Terminals:

a Step Towards Sustainable Electronics 177

Lilian BOSSUET

7.1. Sustainable electronics? 177

7.2. Environmental impact of electronic products
during their lifecycle 181

7.2.1. Lifecycle of electronic products 181

7.2.2. Microelectronic manufacture 183

7.2.3. Usage of electronic products 191

7.2.4. Electronic waste products 192

7.3. Reduce, reuse, recycle and reconfigure 193

7.3.1. Reduce, reuse, recycle 193

7.3.2. Reconfiguring with the help of FPGAs196

7.4. Examples of reconfigurable terminals 204

7.5. Conclusion 208

7.6. Bibliography 209

PART 3. RESEARCH PROJECTS ON GREEN NETWORKING
CONDUCTED BY INDUSTRIAL ACTORS 215

Chapter 8. Schemes for Putting Base Stations in Sleep Mode in Mobile Networks: Presentation and Evaluation 217

Louai SAKER, Salah Eddine ELAYOUBI and Tijani CHAHED

8.1. Motivation 217

Table of Contents ix

8.2. Putting macro base transceiver stations

in sleep mode 218

8.2.1. Structure of the base transceiver station 218

8.2.2. Model of energy consumption of the BTS 219

8.2.3. Principle of putting BTSs in sleep mode 220

8.2.4. Illustration of sleep mode. Case of multisystem

2G/3G networks 221

8.2.5. Implementation of sleep mode 223

8.3. Sleep mode in small-cell heterogeneous networks 225

8.3.1. Energy efficiency of small cells 227

8.3.2. Putting small cells in sleep mode 229

8.4. Conclusion and considerations on implementation 231

8.5. Bibliography 232

Chapter 9. Industrial Application of Green Networking: Smarter Cities 233

Vincent GAY, Paolo MEDAGLIANI, Florian BROEKAERT,
Jérémie LEGUAY and Mario LOPEZ RAMOS

9.1. Introduction 233

9.2. Smart cities and green networking 234

9.3. Techniques involved 237

9.3.1. Low-consumption communication protocols 237

9.3.2. Assistance in the deployment of sensor networks 242

9.3.3. Low-consumption processor treatments 249

9.3.4. System integration of heterogeneous sensors 258

9.4. Conclusion 266

9.5. Bibliography 267

List of Authors 271

Index 275



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