9781118568040

Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781118568040

  • ISBN10:

    1118568044

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2013-06-07
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets and power systems.

Unlike other texts, this book analyses EV integration in parallel with electricity market design, showing the interaction between EVs and differing electricity markets. Future regulating power market and distribution system operator (DSO) market design is covered, with up-to-date case studies and examples to help readers carry out similar projects across the world.

With in-depth analysis, this book describes:

  • the impact of EV charging and discharging on transmission and distribution networks
  • market-driven EV congestion management techniques, for example the day-ahead tariff based congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks 
  • optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management
  • EV battery technology, modelling and tests 
  • the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power system operation support, including frequency reserve, power regulation and voltage support

An accessible technical book for power engineers and grid/distributed systems operators, this also serves as a reference text for researchers in the area of EVs and power systems. It provides distribution companies with the knowledge they need when facing the challenges introduced by large scale EV deployment, and demonstrates how transmission system operators (TSOs) can develop the existing system service market in order to fully utilize the potential of EV flexibility. With thorough coverage of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers.

Author Biography

Professor Qiuwei Wu, Centre for Electric Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby

Qiuwei Wu is an assistant professor with the Centre for Electric Technology (CET), Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and is currently involved in the research of integration of electric vehicles (EVs), integration of wind power, market driven optimal operation of distribution systems, and the congestion management of distribution systems. He is co-work package leader of the first large scale demonstration project related to EV integration into power systems (WP2 of the EDISON project). Within this he is the main contributor on tasks of EV system architecture design, the potential of using EVs to provide ancillary services, and network impact of EVs on distribution and transmission systems. He has also worked on congestion management of distribution systems with large scale EV integration. Professor Wu gave a tutorial on “smart charging for electric vehicle(EV) fleet operators (FOs) and ICT implementation using IEC 61850” in the ISGT Europe 2011 conference. He contributed a chapter to the large edited book Modeling and Control of Sustainable Power Systems: Towards Smarter and Greener Electric Grids (Springer, 2011).

Table of Contents

Contributors xi

Preface xiii

1 Electrification of Vehicles: Policy Drivers and Impacts in Two Scenarios 1

M. Albrecht, M. Nilsson and J. Åkerman

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Policy Drivers, Policies and Targets 2

1.2.1 Finland 6

1.2.2 Sweden 7

1.2.3 Denmark 8

1.2.4 Norway 10

1.2.5 Nordic Comparison 10

1.3 Scenarios and Environmental Impact Assessment 11

1.4 Future Policy Drivers for a BEV and PHEV Breakthrough 16

1.4.1 Entrepreneurial Activities 18

1.4.2 Knowledge Development and Knowledge Diffusion 19

1.4.3 Positive External Effects 19

1.4.4 Resource Mobilization 19

1.4.5 Guidance 20

1.4.6 Market Creation 20

1.4.7 Creation of Legitimacy 23

1.4.8 Materialization 23

1.5 Results and Conclusion 24

Acknowledgements 25

References 25

2 EVs and the Current Nordic Electricity Market 32

C. Bang, C. Hay, M. Togeby and C. Søndergren

2.1 Chapter Overview 32

2.2 Electricity Consumption by EVs 33

2.2.1 Typical Consumption of an EV 33

2.2.2 Potential Challenges for Electrical Grids 33

2.3 Market Actors 37

2.3.1 Electricity Consumer: Individual Vehicle Owner 37

2.3.2 DSO/Grid Company 38

2.3.3 Retailer 38

2.3.4 Generator 38

2.3.5 Fleet Operators 38

2.3.6 TSO 39

2.3.7 Nord Pool 39

2.4 Nordic Electricity Markets 39

2.4.1 The Spot Market and the Financial Market 40

2.4.2 Elbas Market (Intraday) 41

2.4.3 Regulating Power Market 42

2.4.4 Future Development of the Nordic Regulating Power Market 44

2.5 Electricity Price 44

2.5.1 Composition of End-User Price 44

2.5.2 Fixed Tariffs for Losses 45

2.5.3 Transport and Local Congestions 45

2.5.4 Taxes 46

2.5.5 Future Tariff Possibilities 46

2.6 Electricity Sales Products for Demand Response 46

2.6.1 Fixed Price 46

2.6.2 Time-of-Use Products 46

2.6.3 Critical Peak Pricing 47

2.6.4 Spot Price 47

2.6.5 Future Contract Possibilities Including Regulating

Power Market 48

2.7 EVs in Different Markets 48

2.7.1 Contract Structure 1: The Current Spot Market 49

2.7.2 Contract Structure 2: The Spot Market and Regulating Power

Market 50

2.7.3 Contract Structure 3: EVs Controlled by a Fleet Operator 52

2.7.4 Summary 52

References 53

3 Electric Vehicles in Future Market Models 54

C. Søndergren, C. Bang, C. Hay and M. Togeby

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Overview 54

3.2.1 Spot Market 55

3.2.2 Regulating Power Market 55

3.2.3 Automatic Reserves 55

3.2.4 Congestions in the Distribution Grid 55

3.2.5 Role of the Distribution System Operator 56

3.3 Alternative Markets for Regulating Power and Reserves

for EV Integration 56

3.3.1 The Regulating Power Market 56

3.3.2 Market for Automatic Reserves 58

3.3.3 Proposal from the Danish TSO on Self-Regulation 58

3.3.4 FlexPower 60

3.3.5 Other Potential Alterations to Regulating Power Market 63

3.3.6 Demand as Frequency-Controlled Reserves 64

3.3.7 Frequency Regulation Via V2G 64

3.4 Alternative Market Models for EV Integration 66

3.4.1 Locational Prices (Nodal Pricing in the Transmission Grid) 66

3.4.2 Complex Bidding 67

3.5 Management of Congestions in the Distribution Grid 69

3.5.1 Section Overview 70

3.5.2 The Role of the DSO 71

3.5.3 Overall Approach: The Order of System Balance and Grid

Congestions 72

3.5.4 Payment for the Right to Use Capacity 74

3.5.5 Variable Tariffs (Time of Use) 75

3.5.6 Progressive Power Tariffs 75

3.5.7 Direct Control: Regulatory Management 76

3.5.8 Bid System 76

3.5.9 Dynamic Distribution Grid Tariffs 77

3.5.10 Comparison 79

3.5.11 Operation of a VPP for EVs 80

References 81

4 Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System 82

Nina Juul and Trine Krogh Boomsma

4.1 Introduction 82

4.2 The Road Transport System 83

4.2.1 Expectations of Future Road Transport System and Integration

with Power System 84

4.3 The Energy Systems Analysis Model, Balmorel 84

4.4 Modelling of Electric Drive Vehicles 85

4.4.1 Assumptions 86

4.4.2 Costs 87

4.4.3 Transport Demand 88

4.4.4 Power Flows 88

4.4.5 Variable Load Factor 94

4.4.6 BEVs 94

4.4.7 EDVs Contributing to Capacity Credit Equation 94

4.5 Case Study 96

4.5.1 Vehicle Technologies 96

4.5.2 Driving Patterns/Plug-in Patterns 98

4.6 Scenarios 101

4.7 Results 101

4.7.1 Costs 102

4.7.2 Investments and Production 102

4.7.3 Introducing EDVs 106

4.7.4 Charging the PHEVs 107

4.8 Results from EDVs Contributing to Capacity Credit Equation 108

4.9 Discussion and Conclusion 110

4.10 Summary 111

References 111

5 Optimal Charging of Electric Drive Vehicles: A Dynamic

Programming Approach 113

Stefanos Delikaraoglou, Trine Krogh Boomsma and Nina Juul

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles 115

5.3 Optimal Charging on Market Conditions 115

5.4 Dynamic Programming 117

5.5 Fleet Operation 118

5.6 Electricity Prices 119

5.6.1 A Markov Chain for Electricity Prices 119

5.6.2 The Price–Load Dependency 119

5.7 Driving Patterns 120

5.7.1 Vehicle Aggregation 120

5.8 A Danish Case Study 121

5.9 Optimal Charging Patterns 122

5.9.1 Single Vehicle Operation 122

5.9.2 Vehicle Fleet Operation 125

5.10 Discussion and Conclusion 127

Acknowledgments 128

References 128

6 EV Portfolio Management 129

Lars Henrik Hansen, Jakob Munch Jensen and Andreas Bjerre

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 EV Fleet Modelling and Charging Strategies 130

6.2.1 System Set-up 130

6.2.2 Battery Modelling 132

6.2.3 Charging Strategies 132

6.3 Case Studies of EV Fleet Management 140

6.3.1 System Description 140

6.3.2 Scenario Description 145

6.3.3 Conclusions on the Case Studies of the Charging Strategies 151

6.3.4 Future Implications 152

References 152

7 Analysis of Regulating Power from EVs 153

Qiuwei Wu, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Jacob Østergaard and Yi Ding

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Driving Pattern Analysis for EV Grid Integration 154

7.2.1 Driving Distance Analysis 154

7.2.2 EV Availability Analysis 154

7.3 Spot-Price-Based EV Charging Schedule 158

7.3.1 EV Charging Schedule Based on Spot Price 160

7.3.2 Intelligent Charging Schedule Based on Spot Price 164

7.4 Analysis of Regulating Power from EVs 165

7.4.1 Regulating Power Requirement and Price Analysis 165

7.4.2 Analysis of Regulating Power Capacity from EV

Grid Integration 168

7.4.3 Economic Return from Regulating Power Provision by EVs 174

7.5 Summary 176

References 176

8 Frequency-Control Reserves and Voltage Support from

Electric Vehicles 178

Jayakrishnan R. Pillai and Birgitte Bak-Jensen

8.1 Introduction 178

8.2 Power System Ancillary Services 179

8.3 Electric Vehicles to Support Wind Power Integration 179

8.4 Electric Vehicles as Frequency-Control Reserves 181

8.4.1 Primary Reserves 182

8.4.2 Secondary Reserves 185

8.4.3 Tertiary Reserves 188

8.5 Voltage Support and Electric Vehicle Integration Trends

in Power Systems 189

8.6 Summary 189

Acknowledgements 190

References 190

9 Operation and Degradation Aspects of EV Batteries 192

Claus Nygaard Rasmussen, Søren Højgaard Jensen and Guang Ya Yang

9.1 Introduction 192

9.2 Battery Modelling and Validation Techniques 193

9.2.1 Background 194

9.2.2 Experimental Testing Techniques 195

9.2.3 Degradation of Battery Modules 206

9.2.4 Test Set-Up and Results 207

9.3 Thermal Effects and Degradation of EV Batteries 209

9.3.1 Introduction to Battery Degradation 210

9.3.2 Theoretical Background 210

9.3.3 Modelling Degradation Effects 214

9.3.4 Simulation of EV Use 216

9.4 Electric EC Model 221

9.4.1 Battery Modelling: Dynamic Performance 221

9.4.2 Battery Cell Models Described in the Literature 222

9.4.3 Battery Model Implementation in Matlab 224

9.4.4 Model Parameterization and Validation 228

References 231

10 Day-Ahead Grid Tariffs for Congestion Management from EVs 233

Niamh O’Connell, Qiuwei Wu and Jacob Østergaard

10.1 Introduction 233

10.1.1 Power System Congestion 234

10.1.2 Coordinated EV Charging 235

10.2 Dynamic Tariff Concept 238

10.2.1 DT Framework 240

10.2.2 DT Calculation 240

10.2.3 Optimal EV Charging Management 244

10.3 Case Studies 246

10.3.1 Vehicle Driving Data 246

10.3.2 EV Cohort Characteristics 248

10.3.3 Price Profiles 248

10.3.4 Electrical Network 249

10.3.5 Software and Case Study Parameters 249

10.3.6 Case Study Results 250

10.4 Conclusions 256

References 257

11 Impact Study of EV Integration on Distribution Networks 259

Qiuwei Wu, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Jacob Østergaard and Yi Ding

11.1 Introduction 259

11.2 Impact Study Methodology and Scenarios 260

11.2.1 Grid Model for EV Grid Impact Study 260

11.2.2 Demand Data 261

11.2.3 EV Demand Data 261

11.2.4 EV Distribution Over the Grid 261

11.2.5 Loading Limits 262

11.2.6 Limitations 263

11.3 Bornholm Power System 263

11.3.1 Overview of Bornholm Power System 263

11.3.2 Bornholm Power System Model in PowerFactory 264

11.4 Conventional Demand Profile Modeling 268

11.5 Impact Study on 0.4 kV Grid 270

11.6 Impact Study on 10 kV Grid 276

11.7 Impact Study on 60 kV Grid 280

11.8 Conclusions 284

References 285

Index

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