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Gronlund's Writing Instructional Objectives



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  • How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives
    How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives
  • Writing Instructional Objectives for Teaching and Assessment
    Writing Instructional Objectives for Teaching and Assessment
  • How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives
    How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives


Provides a step-by-step guide to writing instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes. The author describes how to state objectives in terms of the type of performance students must demonstrate in order to show that they have achieved the goals of the instructionand illustrates his recommended methods with numerous examples.Describes a specific procedure for writing objectivesone that can be used to achieve all types of learning outcomes and is especially suited to teaching thinking, performance, and problem-solving skills. Stresses the important role of objectives in the teaching-learning assessment process and how they can be used to improve student learning. Includes material on the use of a table of specifications for item writing; information and new illustrations on how to prepare assessment instruments; five chapters on writing objectives for specific skillscognitive, affective, and performance; and two chapters on using objectives in constructing and interpreting achievement assessments.For use as a supplement to elementary, middle-school, secondary, and K-12 general methods teachers who want to become proficient at writing instructional objectives early in their career.

Table of Contents

Preparing Instructional Objectivesp. 1
Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomesp. 3
Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomesp. 4
Levels of Goals and Objectivesp. 5
Objectives at the Training Levelp. 5
Objectives for Higher-Level Learning Outcomesp. 6
Uses of Instructional Objectivesp. 8
Role of Objectives in Teachingp. 8
Role of Objectives in Student Learningp. 9
Role of Objectives in Formative and Summative Assessmentp. 9
Role of Objectives in Communicating Instructional Intent to Othersp. 10
Role of Objectives in Evaluating Instructionp. 10
Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Processp. 11
Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomesp. 12
What About Standards?p. 14
Summaryp. 15
Exercisesp. 16
Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectivesp. 17
Stating the General Instructional Objectivesp. 17
Selecting the Proper Level of Generalityp. 20
Stating the Specific Learning Outcomesp. 22
Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomesp. 24
Emphasizing Instructional Intentp. 25
Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Studyp. 26
Using Specific Learning Outcomes in Lesson Planningp. 27
Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes Are Relevantp. 28
Revising the General Objectives as Neededp. 28
Summaryp. 28
Exercisesp. 29
Using Objectives in Planning for Teaching and Assessmentp. 31
Planning for Instructionp. 32
Planning for Assessmentp. 34
Assessment Before Instructionp. 34
Assessment During Instructionp. 34
Assessment at the End of Instructionp. 35
Preparing and Using Assessment Proceduresp. 35
Summaryp. 36
Exercisesp. 37
Content Standards and Instructional Objectivesp. 39
Nature of Content Standardsp. 40
Need for Instructional Objectivesp. 43
Summaryp. 48
Exercisesp. 48
Considerations in Preparing Instructional Objectivesp. 49
Using a Frame of Reference as a Guidep. 49
Taxonomy of Educational Objectivesp. 51
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Frameworkp. 52
Cautions in Using Any Framework as a Guidep. 53
Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectivesp. 53
Curriculum Guidesp. 53
Books and Special Reportsp. 54
Test Manualsp. 55
Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectivesp. 55
Do the Objectives Indicate Learning Outcomes That Are Appropriate to the Instructional Area?p. 55
Do the Objectives Represent All Logical Learning Outcomes of the Instructional Area?p. 55
Are the Objectives Attainable by These Particular Students?p. 56
Are the Objectives in Harmony with the Philosophy of the School in Which the Instruction Is to Be Given?p. 56
Are the Objectives in Harmony with Basic Principles of Learning?p. 56
Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperativelyp. 57
Summaryp. 58
Exercisesp. 58
Writing Instructional Objectives for Various Outcomesp. 59
Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomesp. 61
Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levelsp. 63
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instructionp. 64
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instructionp. 65
The Problem of Limiting Objectives to Intellectual Outcomesp. 67
Summaryp. 67
Exercisesp. 68
Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skillsp. 69
Making a Useful List of Outcomesp. 70
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instructionp. 72
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instructionp. 73
Affective Components of Thinkingp. 74
Summaryp. 76
Exercisesp. 76
Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomesp. 77
Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categoriesp. 78
Basing Statements on Traditional Categoriesp. 79
Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instructionp. 81
Deciding if Affective Outcomes Should Be Stated Separatelyp. 81
Summaryp. 82
Exercisesp. 82
Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Productsp. 85
Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomesp. 86
Writing Objectives for Product Outcomesp. 88
Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomesp. 89
Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectivesp. 90
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives for Skills and Productsp. 91
Summaryp. 92
Exercisesp. 92
Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projectsp. 93
Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projectsp. 93
Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projectsp. 94
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projectsp. 97
Summaryp. 98
Exercisesp. 99
Using Instructional Objectives in Assessmentp. 101
Using Objectives in Achievement Testingp. 103
Preparing the List of Instructional Objectivesp. 104
Objectives for a Unit in Economicsp. 104
Outlining the Contentp. 105
Content Outline for a Unit in Economics (Money and Banking)p. 105
Preparing the Table of Specificationsp. 106
Constructing Relevant Test Itemsp. 107
Using a Simple Table for Item Writingp. 108
Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writingp. 108
Using Objectives for Interpreting Test Resultsp. 110
Summaryp. 111
Exercisesp. 111
Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessmentp. 113
Assessing Performance Skillsp. 114
Rating Scalesp. 114
Checklistsp. 115
Holistic Scoring Rubricsp. 118
Assessing Affective Outcomesp. 119
Rating Scales and Checklistsp. 119
Self-Report Methodp. 120
Using Student Portfoliosp. 121
Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instrumentsp. 122
Summaryp. 123
Exercisesp. 124
Checklist for Evaluating the Final List of Objectivesp. 125
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Major Categories and Illustrative Objectives)p. 127
Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectivesp. 134
Depth-of-Knowledge by Subject Descriptorsp. 138
Illustrative Verbsp. 143
Answers to Exercisesp. 147
Referencesp. 152
Indexp. 154
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