9780618270446

Groups Theory and Experience

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780618270446

  • ISBN10:

    0618270442

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-07-01
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing

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Summary

The new edition of Groups reflects the author's unique combination of academic expertise and group consultant experience by including the latest research on group dynamics and the most current views on ways to make working in groups more effective. Napier and Gershenfeld present complex concepts in a way that makes them more understandable, recognizing that students are more familiar with the dynamics of individual behavior and building on that knowledge to teach group theory.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
1 Perception and Communication 1(60)
Selective Perception and the Individual
3(5)
Individual Insecurity
5(1)
Life Positions
6(1)
Perception and Development
7(1)
Selective Perception and Culture
8(4)
Unconscious Factors
9(2)
The Halo Effect
11(1)
Selective Perception and Group Behavior
12(8)
The Influence of Stereotypes
13(5)
Gestalt Theory
18(2)
Selective Perception and Communication
20(11)
The Nature of Communication
23(2)
Language Equals Words; Communication Equals People
25(2)
Communication: The Gender Difference
27(3)
Reward-Seeking Behavior and Communication Patterns
30(1)
Factors That Inhibit Communication in a Group
31(4)
Previous Experience of Group Members
31(1)
False Assumptions
32(3)
Understanding Communication in Groups
35(6)
How Tension and Defensiveness Arise in the Communication Process
35(2)
Feedback: A Means of Reducing Distortions in the Communication Process
37(3)
Poor Communication: The Rule, Not the Exception
40(1)
Factors That Influence Group Communication
41(11)
Size of Group
42(3)
Physical Attractiveness
45(1)
Time for Communication
46(1)
Crowding and Temperature
46(1)
Leadership and Control of Communication
47(2)
Physical Environment
49(1)
Status and Power
49(3)
Group Communication in a Diverse Society
52(5)
Reducing Problems of Diversity
55(2)
For Further Information
57(4)
2 Membership 61(36)
Relationship of Groups and Membership
66(1)
Types of Memberships
67(4)
Formal Membership
67(1)
Aspiring Membership
67(1)
Marginal Membership
68(2)
Membership in the Formal or Informal Organization
70(1)
Voluntary and Nonvoluntary Membership
70(1)
Why People Join Groups
71(4)
The Back Experiments
74(1)
Multiple Memberships
75(4)
Conflicts of Multiple Membership
77(2)
Reference Groups
79(5)
The Actual Group
80(1)
The Group We Represent
81(1)
The Abstracted Group
81(1)
The Hangover Group
82(1)
The Fantasied Group
83(1)
Factors Increasing Attractiveness of Membership
84(7)
Prestige
85(1)
Group Climate
86(1)
Degree of Interaction Among Members
87(1)
Size
87(1)
Relationship to Other Groups
88(1)
Success
89(1)
Fear and Stress
89(2)
Factors Decreasing Attractiveness of Membership
91(2)
Attractiveness of Membership and Group Success
93(1)
For Further Information
94(3)
3 Norms, Group Pressures, and Deviancy 97(58)
The Concept of Group Norms
100(7)
Norms at the Individual Level
102(3)
Norms at the Group Level
105(1)
The Invisibility of Group Norms
106(1)
How Group Norms Develop
107(5)
A Sociologist's View
108(1)
A Behavioral Interpretation
109(1)
Communications Theory
110(2)
Classification of Norms
112(2)
Kinds of Norms
114(2)
Written Rules
114(1)
Explicitly Stated Norms
115(1)
Nonexplicit, Informal Norms
115(1)
Norms Beyond Awareness
115(1)
Forces That Induce Acceptance of Group Norms
116(11)
Internal Forces Based on Intrapersonal Conflict
117(4)
Tendencies to Create a Social Reality
121(4)
External Forces Based on Direct Influence of Others
125(2)
The Power of Groups
127(8)
Conformity
128(2)
Compliance
130(2)
Obedience
132(3)
Collusive Behavior: Maintaining the Status Quo of Norms
135(2)
Accepting Group Norms: Under What Conditions?
137(3)
Continued Membership Is Desired
137(1)
Lower Status Is Perceived
138(1)
Salience of Membership Is Heightened
138(1)
The Group Is Cohesive
139(1)
Sanctions Are Expected
139(1)
Deviance from Norms
140(4)
Norms as Inhibiting, Preserving, Institutionalizing, and Stagnating Groups
144(1)
Changing Group Norms
145(8)
Summary
153(1)
For Further Information
153(2)
4 Goals 155(40)
Power of a Goal
157(1)
Distinguishing Between Individual Goals and Group Goals
157(2)
How Are Individual Goals Formed?
159(2)
How Are Group Goals Formed?
161(4)
Individuals Have Goals for the Group: Person-Oriented and Group-Oriented Group Goals
161(2)
Individual Goals Are Converted to Group Goals
163(2)
Classification of Goals
165(3)
Operational Versus Nonoperational Goals
167(1)
Surface and Hidden Agendas
168(5)
Relationship Between Group Goals and Group Activities
173(6)
Content of the Goal Affects the Group
174(1)
Difficulty of the Goal Affects the Group
175(1)
Type of Goal Affects the Group
175(3)
Group Goals Themselves Are Inducing Agents
178(1)
Groups as Tools for Creating Goals
179(1)
Group Productivity
179(8)
Cohesiveness of the Group Affects Productivity
180(3)
Personalities in the Group Affect Productivity
183(2)
Productivity Affects the Group
185(2)
Mission, Goals, and Objectives
187(1)
The Strategic Plan
188(1)
The Relationship Between Norms and Goals
189(2)
The Relationship Between Perception and Goals
191(1)
Changing Group Goals
192(1)
Group Goals and the Individual Member
193(1)
For Further Information
194(1)
5 Leadership 195(54)
Six Theoretical Views of Leadership
196(22)
Leadership as Power
197(5)
Organizational Theory
202(4)
Styles of Leadership
206(6)
Situational Theory
212(3)
An Organizational Example
215(2)
Vision Theory and Ethical Assessment
217(1)
Integrating the Six Dimensions of Leadership
218(19)
Isolating the Factors of Transformational and Transactional Leadership
219(7)
The Universality of Transformational Leadership
226(3)
Four Studies Reflecting the Changing Nature of Leadership
229(8)
Consequences of Nontransformational Leadership
237(2)
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
239(5)
Summary
244(1)
For Further Information
245(4)
6 A Systems View of Small Group Behavior 249(41)
General Systems Theory and Behavior in Organized Settings
250(5)
Developing a Systems Perspective
252(1)
Applying "Systemthink"
252(2)
The Complex Consequences of System Change
254(1)
The Family as a Small-Group System
255(6)
The Ultimate Small Group
256(1)
Natural Cycles and Blocks to Development in Families
257(1)
Expanding the Family Unit
257(1)
Further Disruption
258(1)
The Development of a Healthy Family System
259(2)
The Invisible Group and Its Life Space
261(2)
Background of Organizational Culture as a Concept
263(5)
Definition of Organizational Culture
264(4)
The Vocabulary of General Systems Theory
268(12)
The Case of "No Way, New way"
269(11)
Complex Systems and Changing Leadership
280(8)
Complexity Theory and Its Relation to Leadership
281(2)
The Case for Strategic Design and System Change
283(5)
Summary
288(1)
For Further Information
288(2)
7 Group Problem Solving and Decision Making 290(60)
Group Decision Making: Disadvantages and Advantages
291(4)
Dissonance: The Natural Outcome of Decision Making
294(1)
Constructive Controversy and Conflict
295(10)
The Continuing Controversy Surrounding Groupthink
296(6)
Open-Ended Versus Closed-Ended Problems
302(1)
Rational Versus Intuitive Ways of Thinking
303(2)
Rational Problem Solving
305(10)
The Six Stages of Rational Problem Solving
305(5)
A Model for Rational Problem Solving
310(5)
The Pareto System
315(3)
Pareto Analysis
315(1)
Developing a Pareto Diagram
315(2)
Advantages and a Disadvantage
317(1)
Intuitive Problem Solving
318(15)
Becoming "Unstuck"
319(1)
Brainstorming
320(5)
Other Methods of Generating Ideas
325(4)
Synectics
329(4)
Who Should Decide-The Leader or the Group?
333(13)
The Leader's Role
334(1)
Simple Majority Rule
335(1)
Two-Thirds Majority Rule
335(1)
Consensus
336(1)
Delegated Decisions
337(1)
Double Vote
338(1)
Frequently Asked Questions
339(7)
Summary
346(2)
For Further Information
348(2)
8 The Nature of Group Conflict 350(45)
The Ubiquitous Nature of Conflict
351(1)
The Very Personal Nature of Conflict
352(11)
A Historical Perspective
353(1)
A Dozen Land Mines in a Minefield of Conflict Found in Most Groups
354(9)
From Individual Sources of Conflict to the Dynamics of Conflict in Groups
363(9)
Norms: Rules Surrounding Conflict Management and Their Impact on Group Life
363(4)
Membership: How Conflict Can Gain or Lose Participant Membership
367(1)
Goals: Addressing Individual and Group Goals Can Reframe the Conflict-Membership Relationship
368(2)
Leadership: Conflict Aversion and Seduction of the Leader
370(2)
Diagnosis: The First and Most Critical Step in Conflict Resolution
372(5)
Fear and Conformity in the Trenches-The Consequences of Unresolved Conflict
373(4)
What to Do with Conflict: Creating a Design
377(14)
Turning a Liability into an Asset
379(6)
Utilizing a Structured Design to Reduce Conflict in a Group
385(6)
Summary Considerations for Managing Conflict in a Group Setting
391(1)
For Further Information
392(3)
9 The Evolution of Groups 395(34)
The Task and Emotional Aspects of Groups
397(6)
Implications for Small Groups
399(1)
Individual Development
400(3)
The Stages of Group Development
403(8)
The Beginning
404(1)
Movement Toward Confrontation
405(1)
Compromise and Harmony
406(1)
Reassessment
407(1)
Resolution and Recycling
408(1)
Termination (Adjournment)
409(2)
Linear Models of Group Development
411(2)
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning
411(1)
The LAIC Model
412(1)
Cyclical Models of Group Development
413(6)
Integrative Model of Group Development
413(2)
FIRO: A Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
415(1)
Phase Movement of Groups
416(1)
Worchel Theory of Cyclical Stages of Group Development
417(2)
The Impact of Technology on Group Development
419(2)
Adaptive Structural Theory (AST)
419(1)
Process Loss Model: Input-Process-Output
420(1)
Facilitating Group Success
421(5)
Seeking the Ideal
422(1)
Positive Structured Interventions
423(2)
Maximizing the Group's Potential
425(1)
For Further Information
426(3)
10 From Groups to Teams: The Evolution of Working Teams in Organizational life 429(45)
Defining a Team
430(5)
Types of Teams
431(1)
The Value of Teams
432(3)
Teamwork: The Key to Survival
435(3)
The Birth of Modern-Day Teams
438(5)
Focus on the Problem-Solving Process
439(1)
Focus on Motivation
439(1)
The Ultimate Paradox: Leaderless Groups
440(2)
Total Quality Management Teams
442(1)
Effective Teamwork in TQM Teams
443(10)
The Ford Taurus Turnaround
443(1)
The Federal Express Story: Breaking Dysfunctional Norms
444(1)
The Right Organizational Environment
445(1)
The Right Social Environment
446(1)
The Right Economic Environment
447(2)
TQM in an Educational Setting
449(4)
Do Teams Lead to More Profits?
453(3)
Why Teams Fail: The Mental Health Team
456(6)
The Saturn Experiment: An Integrated Team Approach to Management
462(3)
Team Building Across Culture, Space, and Function
465(7)
Multicultural Teams
465(4)
Virtual Teams
469(2)
Cross-Functional Teams
471(1)
Team Assessment
472(2)
11 Small-Group Processes: Two Contemporary Applications 474(40)
PART I SELF-HELP GROUPS
476(24)
Understanding Self-Help Groups
477(9)
Definition of Self-Help Groups
478(1)
History of Self-Help Groups
479(1)
Types of Self-Help Groups
480(3)
Origins and Membership of Self-Help Groups
483(3)
Effectiveness of Self-Help Groups
486(4)
Alcoholics Anonymous and Substance Abuse Groups
487(1)
Support Groups Led by Professionals
488(1)
Overall Benefits
489(1)
Evolving Self-Help Groups
490(2)
Process in Self-Help Groups
492(6)
Self-Help Group Norms
492(4)
Self-Help Group Goals
496(1)
A Typical Self-Help Meeting
496(2)
Stages of Development of Self-Help Groups
498(2)
PART II PEER COUNSELING
500(14)
Introduction
500(1)
Historical Perspectives
501(3)
College Students as Peer Counselors
502(1)
Peer Counseling in Elementary and Secondary Schools
502(2)
What Is Peer Counseling?
504(2)
The Role of the Paraprofessional
504(1)
The Role of a Peer Counselor
504(1)
The "Eight Commandments" of Peer Counseling
505(1)
Developing a Peer Counseling Program
506(2)
Training Peer Counselors
508(2)
Types of Training
508(1)
Peer Counseling Curriculum
509(1)
Effectiveness of Peer Counselors
510(2)
Summary
512(1)
For Further Information
513(1)
References 514(46)
Author/Name Index 560(4)
Subject Index 564

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