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Handbook of Informatics for Nurses and Health Care Professionals,9780131512627

Handbook of Informatics for Nurses and Health Care Professionals

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131512627

ISBN10:
0131512625
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $44.95
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Summary

Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Health Care Professionals is an introduction to the computer technology used by nurses & other health care professionals. Offering an overview of informatics, as well as practical information for day-to-day use. Book jacket.

Author Biography

Cynthia Mascara is a Principal Consultant with Siemens Medical Solutions-Health Services and previously served in nursing services and administration at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix
MEDIA CONTRIBUTORS xxi
REVIEWERS xxiii
ABOUT THE AUTHORS xxv
SECTION ONE General Computer Information 1(116)
CHAPTER 1 Informatics in the Health Care Professions
3(33)
Data, Information, and Knowledge
4(3)
The Nurse as Knowledge Worker
7(1)
The Significance of Good Information Management
8(1)
The Definition and Evolution of Informatics
8(4)
Informatics Competencies for Nurses
12(3)
Applications of Nursing Informatics
15(1)
Nursing Practice
15(1)
Nursing Administration
15(1)
Nursing Education
16(1)
Nursing Research
16(1)
The Current Status of Health Care Delivery
16(5)
Patient Safety
17(1)
The Nursing Shortage
18(1)
Pressure to Implement Information Technology
18(1)
Consumer Demands for Quality and Cost-Effective Care
19(1)
Research
20(1)
Managed Care
20(1)
Benefits of Nursing Informatics for Other Health Care Professionals
21(2)
Nursing Informatics as a Specialty Area of Practice
23(4)
The Role of the Informatics Nurse
27(1)
The Future of Nursing Informatics
28(1)
Case Study Exercise
29(1)
Summary
29(1)
References
30(6)
CHAPTER 2 Hardware, Software, and the Roles of Support Personnel
36(28)
Hardware
37(1)
Input Devices
37(1)
Central Processing Unit
38(1)
Secondary Storage
38(1)
Output Devices
38(1)
Computer Categories
38(4)
Peripheral Hardware Items
42(3)
Networks
45(1)
How Computers Work
46(2)
Selection Criteria
48(3)
User Needs
49(1)
Physical Constraints
49(2)
Mobile and Wireless Computing
51(2)
Software
53(3)
Operating Systems
54(1)
Application Software
55(1)
Utility Programs
55(1)
Roles of Support Personnel
56(4)
Superuser
56(1)
Call Desk and Help Desk Personnel
56(1)
Microcomputer or PC Specialist
56(1)
Analyst
57(1)
Clinical Liaison
57(1)
Programmer
57(1)
Network Administrator
57(1)
Trainer
58(1)
Security Officer
58(1)
Chief Information Officer
58(1)
Webmaster
58(1)
Chief Privacy Officer
59(1)
Chief E-health Officer
59(1)
Compliance Officer
59(1)
Disaster Planning and Recovery Officer
59(1)
Interface Engineer
60(1)
Case Study Exercises
60(1)
Summary
61(1)
References
61(3)
CHAPTER 3 Ensuring the Quality of Information
64(16)
Data Integrity
65(2)
Ensuring Correct Data Collection and Entry
65(2)
Data Management
67(6)
Data Storage
68(3)
Outsourcing Data Management and Storage
71(1)
Data Retrieval
71(1)
Data Exchange
72(1)
Characteristics of Quality Information
73(2)
Data Mining
75(1)
Data Cleansing
76(1)
Case Study Exercises
77(1)
Summary
77(1)
References
78(2)
CHAPTER 4 Electronic Communication and the Internet
80(37)
The Internet
82(23)
E-mail
83(4)
File Transfer
87(1)
The World Wide Web
87(6)
Browsers
93(1)
Search Tools
93(2)
Listservs
95(1)
News Groups
95(1)
Bulletin Board Systems
96(1)
Access to Health Care Information and Services
96(1)
Professional Information Sharing
97(3)
Online Publications and Journals
100(1)
Marketing Services
101(1)
E-health
102(3)
Concerns Related to the Use of the Internet
105(3)
Firewalls
105(1)
Web Security
105(1)
Organizational Policy
106(1)
Overload
107(1)
Viral Contamination
108(1)
Intranets and Extranets
108(2)
Case Study Exercises
110(1)
Summary
110(1)
References
111(6)
SECTION TWO Health Care Information Systems 117(206)
CHAPTER 5 Health Care Information Systems
119(23)
Clinical Information Systems
120(16)
Nursing Information Systems
120(6)
Clinician Information Systems
126(1)
Monitoring Systems
126(1)
Order Entry Systems
126(2)
Laboratory Systems
128(2)
Radiology Systems
130(1)
Pharmacy Systems
131(4)
Other Clinical Systems
135(1)
Administrative Systems
136(1)
Registration Systems
136(1)
Scheduling Systems
137(1)
Decision Support and Expert Systems
137(1)
Case Study Exercises
138(1)
Summary
139(1)
References
139(3)
CHAPTER 6 Strategic Planning
142(16)
The Mission
143(1)
Goals and Objectives
144(1)
Developing Strategies
145(1)
Strategic Planning for Information Systems
146(2)
Steps of the Strategic Planning Process
148(7)
Identification of Goals and Scope
149(1)
Scanning the External and Internal Environments
149(1)
Data Analysis
150(1)
Identification of Potential Solutions
150(1)
Selecting a Course of Action
151(3)
Implementation
154(1)
Ongoing Evaluation and Feedback
154(1)
Case Study Exercises
155(1)
Summary
156(1)
References
157(1)
CHAPTER 7 Selecting a Health Care Information System
158(18)
Needs Assessment
159(9)
The Steering Committee
161(1)
Consultants
162(1)
Developing a Common Vision
162(1)
Understanding the Current System
163(1)
Determining System Requirements
163(5)
System Selection
168(6)
Additional Sources of Information
168(1)
Request for Information
169(1)
Request for Proposal
170(4)
Case Study Exercises
174(1)
Summary
174(1)
References
175(1)
CHAPTER 8 System Implementation and Maintenance
176(15)
System Implementation
177(9)
Develop an Implementation Committee
177(1)
Install the System
177(4)
Analyze Hardware Requirements
181(1)
Develop Procedures and Documentation
182(1)
Testing
183(1)
Provide Training
183(1)
Go-Live Planning
183(1)
Common Implementation Pitfalls
184(2)
Maintenance
186(2)
User Feedback and Support
186(1)
System Maintenance
186(2)
Technical Maintenance
188(1)
The Information System's Life Cycle
188(1)
Case Study Exercises
188(1)
Summary
189(1)
References
190(1)
CHAPTER 9 Information Systems Training
191(18)
Identification of Training Needs
193(11)
User Needs
193(1)
Training Class Content
194(2)
Class Schedules
196(1)
Hardware and Software Requirements
197(1)
Training Costs
197(1)
Training Center
198(1)
Training Approaches
198(2)
Proficiency Testing
200(4)
Additional Training Considerations
204(1)
Training Students
204(1)
Case Study Exercises
205(1)
Summary
206(1)
References
207(2)
CHAPTER 10 Information Security and Confidentiality
209(28)
Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security
210(1)
Information System Security
211(5)
Security Risks
212(4)
Security Mechanisms
216(4)
Physical Security
216(1)
Passwords and Other Means of Authentication
217(2)
Firewalls
219(1)
Application Security
219(1)
Antivirus Software
220(1)
Spyware Detection Software
220(1)
Administrative and Personnel Issues
220(7)
Levels of Access
272
User Authentication
222(1)
Personnel Issues
223(1)
System Security Management
224(2)
Audit Trails
226(1)
Handling and Disposal of Confidential Information
227(4)
Computer Printouts
227(1)
Faxes
228(1)
Electronic Files
228(2)
E-mail and the Internet
230(1)
Web-Based Applications for Health Care
230(1)
Electronic Storage
231(1)
Case Study Exercises
231(1)
Summary
232(1)
References
233(4)
CHAPTER 11 System Integration
237(14)
Interfaces
238(3)
Integration Issues
241(1)
The Need for Integration Standards
241(4)
Data Dictionary
242(1)
Master Patient Index
242(1)
Uniform Language
243(1)
Data Exchange Standards
244(1)
Benefits of Integration
245(1)
Integration Implications for Nursing
246(1)
Emerging Integration Solutions
247(1)
Case Study Exercises
247(1)
Summary
248(1)
References
249(2)
CHAPTER 12 The Electronic Health Record
251(17)
Definitions
252(2)
Historical Developments
254(2)
Benefits of the EHR
256(2)
General Benefits
257(1)
Nursing Benefits
257(1)
Physician Benefits
258(1)
Health Care Enterprise Benefits
258(1)
Current Status of the EHR
258(4)
Considerations When Implementing the EHR
258(2)
Data Integrity
260(1)
Ownership of the Patient Record
261(1)
Privacy and Confidentiality
261(1)
Electronic Signature
262(1)
Smart Cards
262(1)
CHINs
263(1)
Considerations for the Future
264(1)
Case Study Exercises
265(1)
Summary
266(1)
References
266(2)
CHAPTER 13 Regulatory and Accreditation Issues
268(24)
Privacy and Confidentiality Legislation
269(9)
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
272(5)
Other Privacy Legislation
277(1)
Accreditation and Reimbursement Issues
278(3)
Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
278(1)
Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities
279(1)
Reimbursement Issues
280(1)
HIPAA Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Transactions Rule
281(1)
Quality Initiatives
281(1)
Special Facility Issues
282(3)
Geriatric and Long-Term Facilities
282(2)
Psychiatric Facilities
284(1)
Case Study Exercises
285(1)
Summary
286(1)
References
287(5)
CHAPTER 14 Contingency Planning and Disaster Recovery
292(31)
What Is Contingency Planning?
293(1)
Steps of the Contingency Planning Process
294(5)
Advantages of Contingency Planning
299(1)
Disasters versus System Failure
300(2)
Environmental Disasters
300(1)
Human Error
300(1)
Sabotage, Cybercrime, Terrorism, and Bioterrorism
301(1)
System or Equipment Failure
302(1)
Continuity and Recovery Options
302(4)
Backup and Storage
303(3)
Manual versus Automated Alternatives
306(7)
Salvaging Damaged Records
309(3)
Restarting Systems
312(1)
Planning Pitfalls
313(1)
Using Post-Disaster Feedback to Improve Planning
314(2)
Legal and Accreditation Requirements
316(1)
Case Study Exercises
317(1)
Summary
318(1)
References
319(4)
SECTION THREE Specialty Applications 323(82)
CHAPTER 15 Using the Computer to Support Health Care Education
325(30)
Instructional Applications of Computer Technology
326(15)
Computer-Assisted Instruction
327(2)
Competency-Based Training
329(1)
Multimedia
329(2)
Teleconferencing
331(1)
Distance Education
331(4)
Web-Based Instruction (WBI)
335(4)
E-learning 33S
Computer Labs
339(2)
Audiences for Computer-Enhanced Education
341(5)
Formal Nursing Education
341(3)
Continuing Education
344(1)
Client Education
345(1)
Issues Related to Computer-Enhanced Education
346(1)
Educational Opportunities in Nursing Informatics
347(1)
Case Study Exercises
347(1)
Summary
348(2)
References
350(5)
CHAPTER 16 Telehealth
355(28)
Terms Related to Telehealth
356(2)
Teleconferencing
358(1)
Videoconferencing
358(1)
Desktop Videoconferencing
358(1)
Historical Background
358(2)
Driving Forces
360(1)
Applications
361(6)
Online Databases and Tools
362(2)
Education
364(1)
Continuing Education
364(1)
Home Health Care
364(1)
Disease Management
365(2)
Legal and Privacy Issues
367(3)
HIPAA, Referral, and Payment
367(1)
Support Personnel
368(1)
Liability
368(1)
Licensure Issues
369(1)
Confidentiality/Privacy
370(1)
Other Telehealth Issues
370(1)
Establishing a Telehealth Link
371(5)
Formulating a Telehealth Plan
371(1)
Building the Supporting Framework
372(1)
Human Factors
373(1)
Equipment
374(1)
Telehealth Costs
374(1)
Technology Issues
374(2)
Telenursing
376(1)
Future Development
376(1)
Case Study Exercises
377(1)
Summary
378(1)
References
379(4)
CHAPTER 17 Research
383(22)
Using Computers to Support Research
384(10)
Identification of Research Topics
384(1)
Literature Searches
384(2)
Data Collection Tools
386(3)
Data Analysis
389(3)
Data Presentation: Graphics
392(1)
Online Access to Databases
392(2)
Impediments to Health Care Research
394(5)
Unified Language Efforts
395(1)
Multi-institutional Research
396(1)
Research in Real Time
396(1)
Collaborative Research
396(3)
Dissemination of Research Findings
399(1)
The Implications of HIPAA for Health Care Research
399(1)
Students Using Computers for Research
400(1)
Case Study Exercises
401(1)
Summary
402(1)
References
402(3)
APPENDIX A: INTERNET PRIMER 405(8)
APPENDIX B: CAREER RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET 413(4)
APPENDIX C: CASE STUDY EXERCISES-SUGGESTED RESPONSES 417(20)
GLOSSARY 437(16)
INDEX 453

Excerpts

The original idea for this book came from the realization that there were few comprehensive sources available with practical information about computer applications and information systems in health care. From its inception this book was envisioned as a guide for nurses and other health care professionals who need to learn how to adapt and use computer applications in the workplace. As the outline developed, it became apparent that this book could also serve as an informatics text for students in the health care professions. This third edition contains updates and revisions to reflect changes that have occurred in the rapidly evolving technology of health. Each of the authors has a long-standing interest and involvement in nursing informatics, having worked in the field; been active in informatics groups, and presented nationally and internationally. ORGANIZATION The book is divided into three sections. The first section, General Computer Information, reviews information common to all information systems. It assumes no prior knowledge or experience with computers. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the role of informatics in contemporary health care. Chapter 2 reviews basic information and terminology related to computer hardware and software. The section on the roles of various support personnel has been expanded, with content added on wireless and mobile computing. Chapter 3 emphasizes the importance of maintaining data integrity and suggests some practical steps to ensure current, accurate data in health care information systems. The fourth chapter addresses basic Internet use to support health care. The discussion on search tools has been expanded and content has been added on the evaluation of Web sites. Additional information on Internet use and resources are found in the appendices at the end of the book. The second section, Health Care Information Systems, covers information and issues related to the use of computers and information systems in health care. This section bridges the gap between the theory and practice of nursing informatics. Chapter 5 covers basic information on health care information systems, including decision support and expert systems. Chapters 6 through 14 discuss all aspects of selecting, implementing, and operating these systems. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss the processes of overall and system strategic planning, system selection, implementation, and training. Chapter 8 contains additional information on testing, system evaluation, and strategies to implement system changes after system installation. Other pertinent topics are addressed in the remaining chapters. Chapter 10 discusses information security and confidentiality; Chapter 11, system integration; and Chapter 12, the Electronic Health Record. Chapter 13, Regulatory and Accreditation Issues, has been updated to reflect the implications of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and in particular the impact on nursing informatics and health care professionals. Chapter 14 covers contingency planning and disaster recovery. Section III covers three specialty applications of computers in health care. Chapter 15 discusses ways that computers can support health care education. It contains content on Web-based education as well as the use of wireless and handheld computers in education. Chapter 16, Telehealth, discusses the applications and issues associated with this area of practice. Chapter 17 looks at ways that computers are being used in nursing and health care research. The major themes of privacy, confidentiality, and information security are woven throughout the book. Three appendices are included at the end of the book. The first two provide detailed information on getting up and running on the Internet and using the Internet to perform a job search. The third appendix provides suggested answers to the case studies that are found at the end of every chapter. FEATURES E


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