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Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and Welfare,9780470655498
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Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and Welfare

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780470655498

ISBN10:
0470655496
Format:
Spiral Bound
Pub. Date:
4/15/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Blackwell
List Price: $64.99

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Summary

This bestseller has been an essential book for all those working with laboratory animals since it was first published in 1994. This fourth edition retains all the classic features that have made it a must-have reference including emphasis on best practice in order to improve animal welfare. The contents have been thoroughly updated and reorganised to make sure it is a really practical book for day-to-day use in the laboratory. The first section of the book covers principles applicable to all species, for example husbandry, handling and the education and training required by scientists and technical staff working with animals in the laboratory. Later chapters focus on specific species or groups of species. New to this edition: Reflects changes in European legislation and their impact on national legislation Covers recommendations for the education and training of those carrying out animal experiments across Europe New chapters on ethical considerations and balancing animal welfare with science New information on environmental enrichment for laboratory animals Covers advancements in anaesthesia and analgesia and techniques Spiral bound for ease-of-use as a bench-top reference This book is ideal for all personnel carrying out scientific procedures using animals, particularly during training and also for the new researcher. It will also be essential reading for study directors designing research programmes, animal technicians and veterinarians working with laboratory animal species.

Author Biography

Sarah Wolfensohn OBE BSc MA VetMB CertLAS  FSB DipECLAM Dip ECAWBM-AW MRCVS. Sarah is currently an independent consultant in animal health and welfare, and was formerly Head of Department, Veterinary Services at University of Oxford.
Maggie Lloyd MA VetMB DipHE CertLAS MRCVS.  Maggie has 20 years’ experience as a named veterinary surgeon and as an Animals (Scientific Procedures) Inspector at The Home Office. She is currently an independent veterinary consultant.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xvii

1 Education and Training for the Personal Licence Holder 1

Introduction 1

Framework for Education and Training of Licence Holders 2

Core modules 4

Prerequisite and additional modules 4

Education and training in the UK 4

Aims of Accredited Training 4

Continuing Professional Development and Reflective Practice 5

Summary 5

References 6

2 Ethical Considerations around using Animals in Research 7

History of the Use of Animals in Research 7

The Ethics of Using Animals in Experiments 9

The Local Ethical Review Process 12

Measuring harms and benefits 12

The Principles of the Three RS 13

Replacement 13

Reduction 14

Refinement 15

Prospective, ongoing and retrospective review: reflective practice and

the refinement loop 15

Public Perceptions 17

Transparency and freedom of information 18

References 18

3 The Regulatory Framework 21

Introduction to Legislation Regulating the Use of Animals in Research 21

European legislation 22

The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 22Protected animals 23

Regulated procedures 23

Exemptions 24

Licensing of places 24

The personal licence 25

Project licences 28

The Section 2C licence 30

Additional controls 32

Administration of the Act 33

Assessment of licences and inspection of premises 33

Offences and infringements 33

Communication 34

Statistics of Animal Usage 34

Other Relevant Legislation 34

References 36

4 Balancing Animal Welfare with Science 37

Welfare versus Science? 37

What is Welfare? 37

Quality of life 38

Why assess welfare? 39

Who should assess welfare? 40

How to assess welfare 40

Development of welfare assessment systems 44

Consideration of cumulative suffering 46

References 48

5 Animal Husbandry, Environmental Enrichment and

Occupational Health and Safety 51

Animal Husbandry 51

Types of housing 52

Bedding and nesting materials 54

Nutrition 54

Environment 55

Handling techniques 56

Environmental Enrichment 56

Evaluation of enrichment and other refinements to housing and care 58

Evaluating the effect of a potential refinement on animals 58

Evaluating the effect of a potential refinement on science 61

Evaluating the effect of a potential refinement on animal house

management 62

Supply and Transport 63

Aspects of Health, Safety and Security Affecting Animal Care 64

COSHH, CLP and REACH 65

Genetically modified organisms 66

Health and safety in animal facilities 67

Miscellaneous health and safety hazards and risks 71

Acknowledgements 74

References and Further Reading 74

6 Principles of Animal Use and Experimental Design 77

Principles of Experimental Design 77

Minimising variation 78

Selection of animals: species, strain, genetically altered animals 79

Genetic and Welfare Monitoring of GA and HM Animals 81

Background health status 82

Sources of infection 83

Health monitoring 84

Biosecurity and containment for rodents 86

References 87

7 Handling and Techniques 89

Prior Considerations 89

Training and competence of operator 89

Acclimatisation 90

Training of animals 90

Restraint of animals 90

Equipment 91

Administration of Substances 91

ADME 91

Administration volumes 93

Administration techniques 93

Legal considerations 103

Removal of Blood 104

Quality of samples 104

Technique for venipuncture 105

Methods of venipuncture in different species 108

Placement and Maintenance of Indwelling Cannulae 111

Withdrawal of blood 112

Long-term cannulation 112

Removal of cannulae 112

Potential sequelae 112

Arterial Sampling and Arterial Loops 113

Needle puncture 113

Arterial cannulae 113

Arterial loops 113

Miscellaneous Procedures 113

Creation and maintenance of fistulae 113

Administration techniques 114

Sampling 115

Antibody production 116

Equipment for Blood Collection and Administration of Substances 119

Over-the-needle cannulae 119

Evacuated blood-collection tubes 119

Butterfly needles 120

Tourniquets 120

Vasodilating agents 120

References 120

8 Humane Methods of Killing 123

Ethical Considerations in Killing Animals 123

Legal constraints 123

When to kill an animal 123

Preparation for humane killing 125

Methods of Euthanasia 127

Chemical methods of euthanasia 127

Physical methods of euthanasia 130

Other methods of euthanasia 131

Schedule 1 methods 132

References 133

9 Anaesthesia and Analgesia 137

Introduction 137

Pre-Anaesthetic Care and Evaluation 138

Acclimatisation 138

Training 138

Fasting 138

Handling 139

Health status 139

Local anaesthetics 139

Premedication 139

General Anaesthesia 142

General principles 142

Balanced anaesthesia 142

Administration of anaesthetics 143

Inhalation anaesthesia 144

Injectable anaesthesia 151

Long-term and non-recovery anaesthesia 164

Recovery and post-anaesthetic care 165

Local anaesthetics 166

Anaesthetic Management 167

Physiological stability 167

Depth of anaesthesia 170

Equipment monitoring 171

Anaesthetic Emergencies 171

Muscle Relaxation During Anaesthesia 172

Monitoring anaesthesia under neuromuscular blocking agents 173

Neuromuscular blocking agents 173

References 174

10 Introduction to Surgery and Surgical Techniques 177

Pre-Surgical Preparation 177

Animal 177

Instruments and equipment 178

Facilities 178

Personnel 178

Principles of Aseptic Technique 179

Atmosphere 180

Surgical team 180

Instruments 181

Methods of sterilisation 181

Preparation of the animal 183

Summary of Lasa Guidelines on Rodent Surgery 184

Conduct of Surgical Procedures 184

Inflammation and wound healing 184

Types of healing 185

Factors affecting healing 186

Performance of surgical procedures 187

Surgical Instruments 189

Skin incision 190

Dissection 191

Haemostasis 191

Wound closure 193

Other instruments 193

Suturing Techniques and Materials 195

Suture needles 196

Suture placement 197

Surgical knots 197

Suture patterns 198

Suture materials 201

Sizes of suture 206

Packaging 206

Summary 207

References 207

11 Small Laboratory Animals 209

Rodents 209

Dentition 209

Nutrition and digestion 210

Water 210

Behaviour 211

Senses and communication 211

Housing 211

Environment 211

Anaesthesia 212

Mouse 212

Behaviour 212

Communication 213

Feeding 214

Environment 215

Breeding 215

Growth 215

Handling 216

Pain and stress recognition 217

Common diseases and health monitoring 218

Biological data and useful reference data 218

Rat 218

Behaviour 219

Housing 219

Feeding 220

Water 220

Environment 220

Breeding 220

Growth and development 221

Handling 221

Pain and stress recognition 222

Common diseases and health monitoring 223

Biological data and useful reference data 223

Hamster 223

Behaviour 224

Housing 224

Feeding 225

Water 225

Environment 226

Breeding 226

Handling 227

Pain and stress recognition 227

Common diseases and health monitoring 227

Biological data and useful reference data 227

Gerbil 227

Behaviour 228

Housing 229

Feeding 229

Water 230

Environment 230

Breeding 230

Handling 230

Pain and stress recognition 231

Common diseases and health monitoring 231

Biological data and useful reference data 231

Guinea Pig 232

Behaviour 232

Housing 233

Feeding and water 233

Environment 234

Breeding 234

Growth 234

Handling 235

Recognition of pain and stress 235

Common diseases and health monitoring 235

Anaesthesia 236

Biological data and useful reference data 236

Rabbit 237

Behaviour 237

Housing 238

Feeding 239

Water 240

Environment 240

Breeding 241

Growth 241

Handling 242

Pain and stress recognition 242

Common diseases and health monitoring 243

Biological data and useful reference data 243

Anaesthesia in the rabbit 243

References 244

12 Carnivores 247

Dog 247

Behaviour 248

Housing 249

Feeding 249

Water 250

Environment 250

Breeding 250

Growth 251

Handling 251

Pain and stress recognition 251

Common diseases and health monitoring 253

Biological data and useful reference data 253

Anaesthesia 254

Ferret 254

Behaviour 255

Housing 255

Feeding 256

Water 257

Environment 257

Breeding 257

Growth 258

Handling 258

Pain and stress recognition 259

Common diseases and health monitoring 259

Biological data and useful reference data 260

Anaesthesia 260

References 261

13 Primates 263

Use of Primates in Research 263

New World Monkeys 263

Marmoset 264

Old World Monkeys 266

Sources, supply and transportation 266

Breeding 268

Housing 269

Feeding/watering 271

Health Monitoring, Quarantine and Common Diseases 272

Health-screening programme 273

Laboratory Procedures 274

Handling and restraint 274

Training 275

Administration of substances, blood sampling 276

Telemetry 277

Anaesthesia, analgesia and post-operative care 277

Husbandry post-surgery 277

Welfare 278

Natural behaviour 278

Assessment of welfare 279

Euthanasia 281

Record keeping 281

References 281

14 Production (Farm) Animals 287

C. J. Trower

Poultry 287

Biology 288

Domestic Chicken 289

Behaviour 289

Housing 289

Feeding 290

Water 290

Environment 291

Breeding 291

Handling 292

Techniques 292

Pain and stress recognition 294

Common diseases and health monitoring 294

Biological data and useful reference data 295

Anaesthesia of chickens 296

Ruminants 296

Sheep 297

Behaviour 298

Housing 298

Feeding 299

Water 300

Environment 300

Breeding 300

Handling 301

Pain and stress recognition 302

Common diseases and health monitoring 302

Anaesthesia and surgery 304

Useful data 304

Goats 305

Behaviour 306

Housing 306

Feeding 306

Water 307

Environment 307

Breeding 307

Handling 307

Pain and stress recognition 307

Common diseases and health monitoring 308

Anaesthesia and analgesia 308

Cattle 308

Behaviour 308

Housing 309

Feeding 309

Environment 310

Breeding 310

Handling 310

Pain and stress recognition 311

Common diseases and health monitoring 311

Anaesthesia 312

Useful data 312

Pigs 312

Supply 313

Behaviour 313

Housing 313

Feeding 314

Water 315

Environment 316

Breeding 316

Growth 317

Handling 317

Pain and stress recognition 318

Common diseases and health monitoring 318

Techniques 319

Anaesthesia 319

Useful data 321

References and Further Reading 321

References 321

Further reading 321

15 Wild Animals 323

General Considerations 323

Legislation and Guidance 323

Considerations under the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures)

Act 1986 324

Project Planning 325

Catching and Trapping 325

Handling Wild Animals 326

Anaesthesia of Wild Animals 326

General considerations 326

Inhalational anaesthesia 329

Injectable anaesthesia 330

Identification of Wild Animals 333

Release of Animals Back to the Wild 334

References 335

16 Aquatic Species 337

Introduction 337

Fish 337

Sources of fish 338

General biology 338

Biological data 338

Husbandry 338

Water quality 340

Feeding 340

Handling and Techniques 340

Identification 341

Anaesthesia 342

Administration of compounds 342

Collection of samples 343

Surgery 344

Post-operative care and analgesia 344

Health and disease 345

Recognition of pain and distress 345

Euthanasia 346

Zebrafish 346

Sources of fish 346

Behaviour 347

Husbandry 347

Feeding 347

Breeding 348

Health and disease 349

Rainbow Trout 349

Feeding 349

Breeding 349

Health and disease 350

Amphibians 350

Biology and behaviour 351

Identification 352

Husbandry 352

Feeding 353

Breeding 354

Handling 355

Anaesthesia 355

Techniques 356

Surgery 356

Health and disease 356

Euthanasia 357

References 357

Glossary 359

Index 363



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