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Biomedical research involving animals remains essential for the advancement of the medical, veterinary, agricultural, and biological sciences. Following in the footsteps of its predecessors, the Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Volume II, Third Edition: Animal Modelsexplains in great detail the comparative considerations underlying the choice of animal species and strains in different research disciplines. Efficient and humane experimental work with animals, in which subjects experience no avoidable pain and mental distress, requires skillful and conscientious staff. To this end, scientists apply the three R'¬"s: replacing experiments on live animals with alternative methods, reducing the number of animals necessary to obtain valid results within experiments, and refining techniques to minimize the discomfort experienced by the animal participants.