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Harbrace College Handbook: With 1998 Mla Style Manual Updates,9780155072824

Harbrace College Handbook: With 1998 Mla Style Manual Updates

by ; ; ;
Edition:
13th
ISBN13:

9780155072824

ISBN10:
015507282X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Heinle & Heinle
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Summary

Offers practical, well-organized, & easily accessible advice for writers in a compact yet comprehensive guide. Demonstrates principles of writing that are applicable to both course work & professional tasks.

Table of Contents

Preface vi
GRAMMAR 2(104)
Chapter 1 Sentence Sense ss
2(29)
The parts of a sentence
2(1)
1a Recognizing verbs and predicates
3(1)
1b Recognizing subjects, objects, and complements
4(6)
(1) Subjects of verbs
4(2)
(2) Objects of verbs
6(1)
(3) Subject and object complements
7(1)
(4) Word order
8(2)
1c Recognizing parts of speech
10(9)
(1) Verbs
13(1)
(2) Nouns
13(2)
(3) Pronouns
15(1)
(4) Adjectives
15(1)
(5) Adverbs
16(1)
(6) Prepositions
16(2)
(7) Conjunctions
18(1)
(8) Interjections
18(1)
1d Recognizing phrases
19(5)
(1) Kinds of phrases
19(2)
(2) Phrases used as nouns
21(1)
(3) Phrases used as modifiers
22(2)
1e Recognizing clauses
24(4)
(1) Independent clauses
24(1)
(2) Subordinate clauses
24(4)
If Sentences form and function
28(3)
(1) Examining sentence forms
28(1)
(2) Examining the purpose or function of sentences
29(2)
Chapter 2 Sentence Fragments frag
31(5)
Testing for fragments
31(1)
2a Phrases
32(1)
2b Subordinate clauses
33(3)
Chapter 3 Comma Splices and Fused Sentences cs/fs
36(9)
How to separate clauses
36(1)
How to link and relate clause
37(1)
3a With coordinating conjunctions
38(3)
3b With conjunctive adverbs or transitional phrases
41(1)
3c Divided quotations
42(3)
Chapter 4 Adjectives and Adverbs ad
45(9)
4a Adverbs
46(1)
4b Adjectives used as subject or object complements
47(1)
4c Comparative and superlative forms
48(3)
(1) The comparative
49(1)
(2) The superlative
50(1)
(3) Incorrect double comparatives or superlatives
50(1)
4d Awkward or ambiguous use of a noun as an adjective
51(1)
4e The double negative
52(2)
Chapter 5 Coherence: Misplaced Parts and Dangling Modifiers mp/dm
54(5)
5a Placing modifiers near the words they modify
54(2)
(1) Single-word modifiers
54(1)
(2) Prepositional phrases
55(1)
(3) Adjective clauses
55(1)
(4) "Squinting" constructions
55(1)
(5) Awkward constructions that split an infinitive
55(1)
5b Dangling modifiers
56(3)
(1) Participal Phrases
56(1)
(2) Phrases containing gerunds or infinitives
57(1)
(3) Elliptical adverb clauses
57(2)
Chapter 6 Pronouns pro
59(16)
Personal pronouns
59(2)
Relative pronouns
61(1)
6a Pronoun agreement
62(1)
6b Pronoun reference
63(4)
(1) Clear antecedents
63(1)
(2) Clear references
64(1)
(3) Broad or implied references
65(1)
(4) Awkward use of it or you
65(2)
6c Pronoun form in compound constructions
67(2)
6d Clause as determiner of pronoun form
69(3)
(1) Who or whoever as the subject of a clause
69(1)
(2) Whom for all pronouns used as objects
69(1)
(3) Confusing constructions with who or whom
70(1)
(4) Pronouns after than or as
70(2)
6e Possessive before gerund
72(1)
6f Objective with infinitive
72(1)
6g Subjective with subject complement
73(2)
Chapter 7 Verbs v
75(31)
Tense
75(1)
Regular and irregular verbs
76(1)
Auxiliary verbs
76(3)
Forms of be
79(1)
Voice
80(1)
Transitive and intransitive verbs
80(1)
Mood
81(1)
Conjugation of a verb
81(2)
7a Subject-verb agreement
83(7)
(1) Other words between the subject and the verb
84(1)
(2) Endings of subjects and verbs not clearly sounded
85(1)
(3) Subjects joined by and
85(1)
(4) Subjects joined by either...or
85(1)
(5) Inverted word order or there + verb constructions
86(1)
(6) Relative pronouns (who, which, that) used as subjects
86(1)
(7) Indefinite pronouns
87(1)
(8) Collective nouns and phrases
87(2)
(9) Linking verbs
89(1)
(10) Titles, words as words, nouns plural in form but singular in meaning
89(1)
7b Principal parts of verbs
90(5)
7c Tense forms
95(1)
(1) The meaning of tense forms
95(2)
(2) Logical sequence of tense forms
97(2)
7d Subjunctive mood
99(3)
7e Unnecessary shifts in tense or mood
102(4)
EFFECTIVE SENTENCES 106(38)
Chapter 8 Sentence Unity: Consistency su
106(8)
8a Clearly related ideas
106(1)
8b Arranging details
106(2)
8c Mixed metaphors and mixed constructions
108(1)
(1) Mixed metaphors
108(1)
(2) Mixed constructions
109(1)
8d Faulty predication
109(1)
8e Unnecessary shifts
110(4)
(1) Faulty is...when, is...where, or is...because constructions
110(1)
(2) Consistent tense, mood, and person
110(1)
(3) Consistent person and number
111(1)
(4) Shifts between direct and indirect discourse
111(1)
(5) Consistent tone and style
111(1)
(6) Consistent perspective and viewpoint
112(2)
Chapter 9 Subordination and Coordination sub/coor
114(6)
9a Subordinating related short sentences
115(2)
(1) Adjectives and adjective phrases
115(1)
(2) Adverbs and adverb phrases
116(1)
(3) Appositives and contrasting elements
116(1)
(4) Subordinate clauses
116(1)
9b Subordinating and coordinating main clauses
117(1)
(1) Subordinating structures for less important ideas
117(1)
(2) Coordinating structures for ideas of equal importance
117(1)
(3) Logical connection of ideas by subordinate and coordinate structures
117(1)
9c Faculty or excessive subordination
118(2)
Chapter 10 Parallelism
120(4)
10a Balancing similar grammatical elements
121(1)
(1) Parallel words and phrases
121(1)
(2) Parallel clauses
121(1)
(3) Parallel sentences
122(1)
10b Parallel construction
122(1)
10c Correlatives
123(1)
Chapter 11 Emphasis emp
124(9)
11a Placement of important words
124(1)
11b Periodic and cumulative sentences
125(1)
11c Ascending order of importance
126(1)
11d Forceful verbs
127(3)
(1) Active and passive voice
127(2)
(2) Action verbs and forceful linking verbs
129(1)
11e Repeating important words
130(1)
11f Inverting standard word order
130(1)
11g Balanced sentence construction
131(1)
11h Varying sentence length for emphasis
131(2)
Chapter 12 Variety var
133(11)
12a Varying sentence length
134(1)
12b Varying sentence beginnings
135(2)
(1) Adverb or adverbial clause
135(1)
(2) Prepositional phrase or a verbal phrase
136(1)
(3) Connectives
136(1)
(4) Appositive, absolute phrase, or introductory series
137(1)
12c Varying sentence structure
137(3)
(1) Complex sentence
138(1)
(2) Compound predicate in a simple sentence
138(1)
(3) Appositive in a simple sentence
138(1)
(4) Prepositional or verbal phrase added to a simple sentence
138(1)
(5) Additional conjunctions to increase the compounds in a sentence
139(1)
12d Varying subject-verb sequence
140(1)
12e Question, exclamation, or command
141(3)
DICTION 144(40)
Chapter 13 Good Usage usg
144(13)
Dictionaries
144(1)
Unabridged dictionaries
145(1)
Special dictionaries
145(2)
13a Using a dictionary
147(3)
13b Dictionary labels
150(2)
(1) Colloquial or informal
150(1)
(2) Slang
151(1)
(3) Regionalisms
151(1)
(4) Nonstandard and substandard
151(1)
(5) Archaic and obsolete
152(1)
13c Appropriate usage
152(5)
(1) Technical words
152(1)
(2) Inclusive language
152(2)
(3) Confusion of sit/set and lie/lay and rise/raise
154(3)
Chapter 14 Exactness e
157(15)
14a Accurate and precise word choice
157(8)
(1) Accuracy
157(1)
(2) Precision
158(2)
(3) Connotations
160(1)
(4) Specific, concrete words
161(3)
(5) Figurative language
164(1)
14b Idiomatic expressions
165(2)
14c Fresh expressions
167(3)
Chapter 15 Conciseness: Avoiding Wordiness and Needless Repetition w/rep
170(7)
15a Making every word count
170(3)
(1) Redundancy
170(1)
(2) Unnecessary words
171(1)
(3) Expletives
172(1)
15b Revising to eliminate wordiness
173(1)
15c Necessary repetition
174(1)
15d Revising to eliminate needless repetition
174(1)
15e Style, overwriting
175(2)
Chapter 16 Clarity and Completeness XXX
177(7)
16a Articles, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions
177(3)
(1) Use of articles
177(2)
(2) Omitted conjunctions or prepositions
179(1)
16b Verbs and auxiliaries
180(1)
16c Complete comparisons
180(1)
16d Intensifiers
181(3)
PUNCTUATION 184(52)
Chapter 17 The Comma
184(18)
17a Before a coordinating conjunction linking independent clauses
185(2)
17b After introductory words, phrases, and clauses
187(3)
(1) Adverb clauses before independent clauses
187(1)
(2) Introductory phrases before independent clauses
188(2)
17c Between separate items in a series
190(2)
(1) Words, phrases, and clauses in a series
190(1)
(2) Coordinate adjectives
191(1)
17d With nonrestrictive, parenthetical, and miscellaneous elements
192(4)
(1) Adjective clauses or phrases
193(1)
(2) Appositives
193(1)
(3) Contrasted elements
194(1)
(4) Geographical names, items in dates, and addresses
195(1)
(5) Parenthetical expressions
195(1)
(6) Mild interjections and words used in direct address
196(1)
(7) Absolute phrases
196(1)
17e For the prevention of misreading
196(2)
17f Unnecessary (or misplaced) commas
198(4)
(1) Not between the subject and the verb of the verb and the object
198(1)
(2) Not after coordinating conjunctions
198(1)
(3) Only to set off parenthetical words and short phrases
199(1)
(4) Not to set off restrective clauses, phrases, or appositives
199(1)
(5) Not before the first or after the last item of a series
199(3)
Chapter 18 The Semicolon
202(4)
18a Connecting independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction
202(2)
18b Separating elements that contain commas
204(1)
18c Misuse with parts of unequal grammatical rank
205(1)
Chapter 19 The Apostrophe
206(5)
19a Showing possession for nouns and indefinite pronouns
206(2)
(1) Singular nouns, indefinite pronouns, and acronyms
207(1)
(2) Plural nouns ending in -s
207(1)
(3) Compounds and expressions that show joint ownership
207(1)
(4) Individual ownership
207(1)
(5) In time relationships, in academic titles, or before gerunds
207(1)
19b Contractions and numbers
208(1)
19c Plurals formed with an apostrophe
209(1)
19d Misuse with personal pronouns and plural nouns
210(1)
Chapter 20 Quotation Marks
211(9)
20a Direct quotations and dialogue
211(2)
(1) Direct quotations
211(1)
(2) Indirect quotations
211(1)
(3) Quotations within quotations
212(1)
(4) Dialogue
212(1)
(5) Thoughts
213(1)
20b Long quotations
213(2)
(1) Prose
213(1)
(2) Poetry
214(1)
20c Titles of short works and subdivisions of books
215(1)
20d Words intended in a special or ironic sense
216(1)
20e Overusing quotation marks
216(1)
(1) To call attention to a cliche
216(1)
(2) To enclose yes or no in indirect discourse
216(1)
(3) To indicate questionable diction
217(1)
20f Placement with other punctuation marks
217(3)
(1) Comma and period
217(1)
(2) Semicolon and colon
218(1)
(3) Question mark, exclamation point, and dash
218(2)
Chapter 21 The Period and Other Marks
220(16)
21a The period
220(1)
(1) Declarative sentence, mildly imperative sentence
220(1)
(2) Some abbreviations
221(1)
21b The question mark
221(1)
21c The exclamation point
222(1)
21d The colon
223(3)
(1) Preceding and explanation, a series, or a quotation
223(1)
(2) Between figures in time references and between titles and subtitles
224(1)
(3) After the salutation of a business letter
225(1)
21e The dash
226(1)
(1) Marking a sudden break in thought or abrupt change in tone
226(1)
(2) Emphasizing a parenthetical element
226(1)
(3) After an introductory list or series
227(1)
21f Parentheses
227(1)
21g Brackets
228(1)
21h The slash
229(1)
21i Ellipsis points
230(6)
(1) Indicating an omission within a quoted passage
230(2)
(2) Marking a reflective pause or hesitation
232(4)
MECHANICS 236(52)
Chapter 22 Spelling, the Spell Checker, and Hyphenation sp
236(15)
22a Spelling and pronunciation
237(1)
22b Spelling words of similar sound
238(4)
(1) Contractions and possessive pronouns
239(1)
(2) Single words and two-words phrases
239(1)
(3) Singular nouns ending in -nce and plural nouns ending in -nts
239(3)
22c Prefixes
242(1)
22d Suffixes
242(4)
(1) Dropping or retaining a final unpronounced e
243(1)
(2) Doubling a final consonant before a suffix
243(1)
(3) Changing or retaining a final y before a suffix
243(1)
(4) Retaining a final / before-ly
244(1)
(5) Adding -s or -es to form the plural of nouns
244(2)
22e Confusion of ei and ie
246(1)
22f Hyphenation
246(5)
(1) Linking two or more words to form a compound
246(2)
(2) Breaking a word at the end of a line
248(3)
Chapter 23 Capitals cap
251(8)
23a Proper names, their abbreviations and acronyms
251(3)
(1) Names and nicknames
252(1)
(2) Peoples and their languages
252(1)
(3) Geographical names
252(1)
(4) Organizations, government agencies, institutions, and companies
252(1)
(5) Days of the week, months, and holidays
252(1)
(6) Historical documents, periods, events, and movements
253(1)
(7) Religions, holy books, holy days, and words denoting the Supreme Being
253(1)
(8) Personifications
253(1)
(9) Words derived from proper nouns
253(1)
(10) Abbreviations and acronyms or shortened forms of capitalized words
254(1)
23b Titles of persons before their names
254(1)
23c Titles and subtitles of books, plays, essays, and other titled works
255(1)
23d The pronoun I and the interjection O
256(1)
23e First word of sentences and of directly quoted speech
256(1)
23g For emphasis
256(1)
23h Unnecessary capitals
257(2)
Chapter 24 Italics ital
259(5)
24a Titles of publications
259(2)
24b Foreign words and phrases
261(1)
24c Names of legal cases
261(1)
24d Names of specific ships, satellites, and spacecraft
262(1)
24e Words, letters, or figures spoken of as such
262(1)
24f Emphasized words
262(2)
Chapter 25 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Numbers ab/ac/n
264(11)
25a Ms., Mr., Dr., and St.
264(1)
25b Names of states, countries, continents, months, etc.
265(1)
25c Street, Avenue, Road, Park, and Company
266(1)
25d Volume, chapter, and page
267(3)
(1) Clipped froms of words
269(1)
(2) Abbreviations with dates and figures
269(1)
(3) Abbreviations of DC and U.S.
269(1)
(4) Abbreviations of organizations, agencies, countries, etc.
270(1)
(5) Abbreviations for some common Latin expression
270(1)
25e Acronyms
270(1)
25f Numbers
271(4)
Chapter 26 Document Design des
275(13)
26a Proper materials
276(2)
(1) Paper and binding
276(1)
(2) Electronic documents
276(1)
(3) Type, fonts, and justification
277(1)
26b Clear and orderly arrangement
278(2)
(1) Layout
278(1)
(2) Indention
278(1)
(3) Paging
279(1)
(4) Headings
279(1)
26c Electronic documents
280(4)
(1) Electronic mail
280(2)
(2) The World Wide Web
282(2)
26d Proofreading
284(4)
LARGER ELEMENTS 288
Chapter 27 Working with Paragraphs
288(34)
27a Unity
290(5)
(1) Main idea and topic sentences
290(3)
(2) Main idea and paragraph unity
293(2)
27b Coherence, transitions
295(12)
(1) Patterns of coherence
295(2)
(2) Order of ideas
297(4)
(3) Transitional devices
301(4)
(4) Transitional between paragraphs
305(2)
27c Details and examples
307(3)
(1) Developing with specific details
308(1)
(2) Developing with examples
308(2)
27d Strategies of development
310(9)
(1) Narrating a series of events
310(1)
(2) Describing to make a point
311(1)
(3) Explaining a process
312(1)
(4) Showing cause and effect
313(1)
(5) Comparing and contrasting to develop an idea
314(2)
(6) Classifying and Dividing to develop an idea
316(2)
(7) Formulating a definition
318(1)
27e Editing
319(3)
Chapter 28 Planning and Drafting Essays pln/dft
322(44)
28a Purpose, audience, and occasion
323(10)
(1) Purpose
323(4)
(2) Audience
327(5)
(3) Occasion
332(1)
28b Finding an appropriate subject
333(2)
28c Focusing for a topic
335(10)
(1) Searching for a subject
335(7)
(2) Focusing on specific material
342(3)
28d Establishing a thesis
345(5)
(1) The thesis statement
345(4)
(2) Main idea
349(1)
28e Arranging ideas
350(5)
(1) Informal working plans
351(1)
(2) Outlines
352(3)
28f The first draft
355(6)
(1) Introductions
355(3)
(2) Conclusions
358(2)
(3) Titles
360(1)
28g Sample first draft
361(5)
Chapter 29 Revising and Editing Essays rev/ed
366(17)
29a Tone
367(1)
29b Revising
368(3)
(1) What is on the page
369(1)
(2) What is not on the page
370(1)
29c Editing
371(2)
29d Proofreading
373(2)
29e Essay undergoing revision
375(4)
29f The final draft
379(4)
Chapter 30 Writing under Pressure pres
383(9)
30a Preparing ahead
383(1)
30b Overcoming writer's block
384(2)
30c Essay tests
386(6)
(1) Reading instructions and questions
386(1)
(2) Organizing your response
387(2)
(3) Stating main points
389(1)
(4) Sticking to the question
390(1)
(5) Revising and proofreading
390(2)
Chapter 31 Reading and Thinking Critically cr
392(23)
31a Previewing
393(2)
31b Distinguishing between fact and opinion
395(2)
31c Searching for evidence
397(2)
31d Evaluating a writer's credibility
399(2)
31e Understanding inductive reasoning
401(2)
31f Understanding deductive reasoning
403(3)
31g The Toulming method
406(3)
31h Recognizing logical fallacies
409(6)
(1) Ad hominem
409(1)
(2) Appeal to tradition
409(1)
(3) Bandwagon
410(1)
(4) Begging the question
410(1)
(5) Equivocation
410(1)
(6) False analogy
410(1)
(7) False authority
410(1)
(8) False cause
411(1)
(9) False dilemma
411(1)
(10) Guilt by association
411(1)
(11) Hasty generalization
411(1)
(12) Non sequitur
412(1)
(13) Oversimplification
412(1)
(14) Red herring
412(1)
(15) Slippery slope
412(3)
Chapter 32 Writing Arguments arg
415(17)
32a Establishing a purpose
415(2)
32b Differing viewpoints
417(2)
32c Developing an argument
419(3)
(1) Supporting and argument
419(1)
(2) Responding to diverse views
420(2)
32d Using different kinds of appeal
422(1)
(1) Three classical appeals
422(1)
(2) Rogerian appeals
423(1)
32e Organizing an argument
423(3)
(1) Introductions
424(1)
(2) Reasons
424(1)
(3) Beginning a paragraph
425(1)
(4) Refutation and concessions
425(1)
(5) Conclusions
425(1)
32f Sample argument
426(6)
Chapter 33 Research: Finding and Evaluating Sources res
432(53)
33a Using information from sources
432(6)
(1) Analyzing the rhetorical situation
433(2)
(2) Developing a research problem and analyzing your own knowledge
435(1)
(3) Establishing a research routine
436(2)
33b Preparing a working bibliography
438(1)
33c Using library sources
439(11)
(1) Books and periodicals
440(8)
(2) References books
448(2)
33d Conducting field research
450(2)
33e Using electronic resources
452(13)
(1) Developing a research strategy
452(2)
(2) Using the college library
454(3)
(3) Using the Internet
457(8)
33f Evaluating sources and taking notes
465(7)
(1) Testing reliability, bias, and integrity
465(3)
(2) Taking notes
468(4)
33g Avoiding plagiarism
472(4)
33h Integrating sources
476(1)
(1) Mastering information
476(1)
(2) Integrating sources
477(1)
(3) Using direct quotations
478(1)
(4) Paraphrasing
479(3)
(5) Summarizing
482(3)
Chapter 34 Research: Using and Citing Sources cit
485(90)
34a MLA style documentation
487(27)
(1) Using parenthetical citations
487(8)
(2) Listing the works cited
495(19)
(3) Final revisiting, editing, and proofreading
514(1)
34b Sample MLA research paper
514(24)
34c The note style of documentation
538(3)
34d APA style documentation
541(10)
(1) Parenthetical citations
541(2)
(2) Listing the references
543(8)
34c Sample APA research paper
551(24)
Chapter 35 Writing for Special Purposes its/bus
575
35a Writing about literature
575(40)
(1) Reading, reflecting, and planning
576(6)
(2) Writing about fiction
582(10)
(3) Writing about drama
592(7)
(4) Writing about poetry
599(14)
(5) Using the proper form
613(2)
35b Writing for business
615
(1) E-mail
615(2)
(2) Memos
617(2)
(3) Business letters
619(4)
(4) Application letters
623(4)
(5) Resumes
627
Glossary of Usage usgl G-1
Glossary of Terms gt G-15
Copyrights and Acknowledgments C-1
Index I-1
ESL Index I-45
MLA Index I-47
APA Index I-49


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