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Hartmann and Kester's Plant Propagation : Principles and Practices,9780136792352
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Hartmann and Kester's Plant Propagation : Principles and Practices

by ; ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780136792352

ISBN10:
0136792359
Format:
Hardcover w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $147.20
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Summary

Hallmarked as the most successful book of its kind, this remarkably thorough treatment covers all aspects of the propagation of plantsboth sexual and asexualwith considerable attention given to human (vs natural) efforts to increase plant numbers. The book presents both the art and science of propagation, and conveys knowledge of specific kinds of plants and the particular methods by which those plants must be propagated.A five-part organization outlines general aspects of plant propagation, seed propagation, vegetative propagation, methods of micropropagation, and propagation of selected plants.For anyone with an interest in how plants are grown and utilized for maintaining and adding enjoyment to human life.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
About the Authors xv
PART I GENERAL ASPECTS OF PROPAGATION 1(110)
How Plant Propagation Evolved in Human Society
3(10)
Introduction
3(1)
Chapter Objectives
4(1)
Stages of Agricultural Development
4(1)
Organization of Human Societies
5(1)
Exploration, Science, and Learning
6(2)
The Development of Nurseries
8(1)
The Modern Plant Propagation Industry
9(4)
Biology of Plant Propagation
13(28)
Introduction
13(1)
Chapter Objectives
13(1)
Alternation of Generations in Reproduction
14(4)
Seedling versus Clonal Populations
18(4)
How Genes Impact Plant Propagation
22(5)
Plant Hormones and Plant Development
27(3)
Biological Life Cycles in Plants
30(6)
Legal Protection of Cultivars
36(5)
The Propagation Environment
41(70)
Introduction
41(1)
Chapter Objectives
42(1)
Environmental Factors Affecting Propagation
42(4)
Physical Structures for Managing the Propagation Environment
46(20)
Containers for Propagating and Growing Young Liner Plants
66(6)
Management of Media and Nutrition in Propagation and Liner Production
72(10)
Management of Microclimatic Conditions in Propagation and Liner Production
82(7)
Biotic Factors---Pathogen and Pest Management in Plant Propagation
89(11)
Post-Propagation Care of Liners
100(11)
PART II SEED PROPAGATION 111(164)
The Development of Seeds
113(28)
Introduction
113(1)
Chapter Objectives
113(1)
What is a Seed?
114(1)
Relationship Between Flower Parts and Seed Parts
115(3)
General Parts of a Seed
118(2)
Stages of Seed Development
120(11)
Unusual Types of Seed Development
131(2)
Plant Hormones and Seed Development
133(3)
Ripening and Dissemination
136(5)
Principles and Practices of Seed Selection
141(22)
Introduction
141(1)
Chapter Objectives
141(1)
Breeding Systems
142(4)
Categories of Seed-Propagated Cultivars and Species
146(5)
Control of Genetic Variability During Seed Production
151(2)
Seed Production Systems
153(10)
Techniques of Seed Production and Handling
163(36)
Introduction
163(1)
Chapter Objectives
163(2)
Sources For Seeds
165(2)
Harvesting and Processing Seeds
167(5)
Seed Testing
172(11)
Seed Treatments to Improve Germination
183(5)
Seed Storage
188(11)
Principles of Propagation From Seeds
199(50)
Introduction
199(1)
Chapter Objectives
199(1)
The Germination Process
199(21)
Dormancy: Regulation of Germination
220(1)
Kinds of Primary Seed Dormancy
221(14)
Secondary Dormancy
235(1)
Hormonal Control of Dormancy and Germination
236(13)
Techniques of Propagation by Seed
249(26)
Introduction
249(1)
Chapter Objectives
249(1)
Seedling Production Systems
250(25)
PART III VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION 275(362)
Principles of Propagation by Cuttings
277(64)
Introduction
277(1)
Chapter Objectives
278(1)
Descriptive Observations of Adventitious Root and Bud (and Shoot) Formation
278(14)
Correlative Effects: How Hormonal Control Affects Adventitious Root and Bud (and Shoot) Formation
292(7)
The Biochemical Basis for Adventitious Root Formation
299(3)
Molecular/Biotechnological Advances in Asexual Propagation
302(2)
Management and Manipulation of Adventitious Root and Shoot Formation
304(2)
Management of Stock Plants to Maximize Cutting Propagation
306(11)
Treatment of Cuttings
317(6)
Environmental Manipulation of Cuttings
323(18)
Techniques of Propagation by Cuttings
341(70)
Introduction
341(1)
Chapter Objectives
341(1)
Types of Cuttings
342(15)
Sources of Cutting Material
357(6)
Rooting Media
363(3)
Wounding
366(1)
Treating Cuttings with Auxins
367(7)
Preventative Disease Control
374(3)
Environmental Conditions for Rooting Leaf Cuttings
377(11)
Preparing the Propagation Bed, Bench, Rooting Flats, and Containers, and Inserting the Cuttings
388(1)
Preventing Operation Problems with Mist and Fog Propagation Systems
388(3)
Management Practices
391(4)
Care of Cuttings During Rooting
395(2)
Hardening-Off and Post-Propagation Care
397(3)
Handling Field-Propagated Plants
400(3)
Container-Grown Plants and Alternative Field Production Systems
403(8)
Principles of Grafting and Budding
411(50)
Introduction
411(1)
Chapter Objectives
411(1)
The History of Grafting
412(1)
Terminology
412(2)
Seedling and Clonal Rootstock Systems
414(1)
Reasons for Grafting and Budding
414(6)
Natural Grafting
420(1)
Formation of the Graft Union
420(7)
Graft Union Formation in T- and Chip Budding
427(2)
Factors Influencing Graft Union Success
429(7)
Genetic Limits of Grafting
436(2)
Graft Incompatibility
438(10)
Scion-Rootstock (Shoot-Root) Relationships
448(13)
Techniques of Grafting
461(53)
Introduction
461(1)
Chapter Objectives
461(1)
Requirements for Successful Grafting
462(1)
Types of Grafts
463(28)
Production Processes of Graftage
491(10)
Aftercare of Grafted Plants
501(3)
Field, Bench, and Miscellaneous Grafting Systems
504(10)
Techniques of Budding
514(25)
Introduction
514(1)
Chapter Objectives
514(1)
Importance and Utilization of Budding
515(1)
Rootstocks for Budding
515(2)
Time of Budding---Summer, Spring, or June
517(7)
Types of Budding
524(11)
Top-Budding (Topworking)
535(2)
Double-Working by Budding
537(1)
Microbudding
538(1)
Layering and Its Natural Modifications
539(21)
Introduction
539(1)
Chapter Objectives
539(1)
Reasons for Layering Success
540(1)
Management of Plants During Layering
541(1)
Procedures in Layering
541(10)
Plant Modifications Resulting in Natural Layering
551(9)
Propagation by Specialized Stems and Roots
560(32)
Introduction
560(1)
Chapter Objectives
560(1)
Bulbs
561(13)
Corms
574(3)
Tubers
577(3)
Tuberous Roots and Stems
580(3)
Rhizomes
583(3)
Pseudobulbs
586(6)
Principles and Practices of Clonal Selection
592(45)
Introduction
592(1)
Chapter Objectives
592(1)
History
593(1)
Using Clones as Cultivars
593(3)
Origin of Clones as Cultivars
596(2)
Phenotypic Variations Within Clones
598(4)
Patterns of Genetic Chimeras Within Clones
602(6)
Management of Phase Variation During Vegetative Propagation
608(6)
Pathogens and Plant Propagation
614(3)
Selection and Management of Propagation Sources
617(8)
Propagation Sources and Their Management
625(12)
PART IV CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE PROPAGATION 637(78)
Principles of Tissue Culture and Micropropagation
639(51)
Introduction
639(1)
Chapter Objectives
639(2)
A Brief History of Tissue Culture and Micropropagation
641(2)
Types of Tissue Culture Systems
643(29)
Control of the Tissue Culture Environment
672(1)
Special Problems Encountered by In Vitro Culture
673(3)
Variation in Micropropagated Plants
676(14)
Techniques for Micropropagation
690(25)
Introduction
690(1)
Chapter Objectives
690(1)
Uses for Micropropagation
691(2)
Disadvantages of Micropropagation
693(1)
General Laboratory Facilities and Procedures
694(9)
Micropropagation Procedures
703(1)
Stage I---Establishment and Stabilization
703(3)
Stage II---Shoot Multiplication
706(1)
Stage III---Root Formation
707(1)
Stage IV---Acclimatization to Greenhouse Conditions
708(7)
PART V PROPAGATION OF SELECTED PLANT SPECIES 715(136)
Propagation Methods and Rootstocks for Fruit and Nut Species
717(41)
Propagation of Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines
758(55)
Propagation of Selected Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials Used as Ornamentals
813(38)
Subject Index 851(14)
Plant Index, Scientific Names 865(8)
Plant Index, Common Names 873

Excerpts

The seventh edition ofPlant Propagation: Principles and Practicescontinues the gradual reorganization and distribution in subject matter among the three active co-authors and the updating of biological concepts that underlie the practical application of the existing plant propagation technology. The first edition in 1959 contains the following excerpt: "The study of plant propagation involves three different aspects. These may be considered as objectives in any course of study involving the propagation of plants. First of all, plant propagation requires a knowledge of mechanical manipulations and technical skills whose mastery requires a certain amount of practice and experience. This would include such things as how to bud or graft or how to make cuttings, etc.This is the art of propagation. Secondly, successful plant propagation requires knowledge of plant growth and structure.This is the science of propagation.Some of this information can be learned empirically by working with the plants themselves, but it should be supplemented, if possible, with information gained from formal courses in botany, horticulture, plant physiology, and genetics. Such knowledge aids propagators in understanding why they do the things they do. It also makes it possible for them to better perform the practices. A third important requirement of successful plant propagation isa knowledge of specific kinds of plants and the particular methods by which those plants must be propagated.To a large extent the method must be geared to the requirements of the particular kind of plant being propagated." In preparing the seventh edition 42 years later we have maintained those same three objectives and, as much as possible, presented them in separate identified chapters as principles and practices although the order has changed somewhat. During the different editions, the amount of material has increased astronomically and the limits of scientific concepts and applicability have expanded beyond the wildest forecasts in 1959. Instead of simply piling more information onto previous information, we have tried to integrate new science and technology into the evolving pattern that characterizes the range from traditional to the present combination of science and technology. First of all, we must recognize the revolutionary impact of biotechnology not only upon the concepts of biology but also its practical applications in the propagation industry. We have had a long enough history to see the historical continuity in the evolution of human progress and scientific advancement. Chapter 1 has remained intact as a historical account of how propagation activities have been a primary backdrop for human progress leading up to our present era. Chapter 2 has been almost completely rewritten to synthesize a comprehensive view of propagation from the standpoint of the gene and the epigenetic control of development. Biotechnology is introduced as three separate branches: (a)cell and tissue culture technology,(b)gene marker technology,and (c)recombinant gene technology.Cell and tissue culture technology, which includes all aseptic aspects of the culture of protoplasts, cells, tissues, shoot tips, embryos, etc., was introduced in the first edition by a section on embryo culture which expanded into a full chapter by the third edition. From there the subject was treated in dual chapters of principles and practices. In this edition, this section has remained intact but is reorganized and partly rewritten. This technology has not only found its place in commercial propagation but is an essential aspect of current genetic engineering. DNA marker-based technology is now coming into its own to directly identify cultivars and to study taxonomic relationships. The ability to sequence genes and to manipulate them in the laboratory has created an essentially new field of biology known as genomics which will ha


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