9780470344736

Hashing in Computer Science : Fifty Years of Slicing and Dicing

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780470344736

  • ISBN10:

    0470344733

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-07-06
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Written by one of the developers of the technology, Hashing is both a historical document on the development of hashing and an analysis of the applications of hashing in a society increasingly concerned with security. The material in this book is based on courses taught by the author, and key points are reinforced in sample problems and an accompanying instructors manual. Graduate students and researchers in mathematics, cryptography, and security will benefit from this overview of hashing and the complicated mathematics that it requires.

Author Biography

Alan G. Konheim, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Computer Science at the University of Californa, Santa Barbara. Dr. Konheim’s early work at IBM led to the Data Encryption Standard (DES), which was evaluated by his Yorktown Probability and Cryptography Group. DES was certified as a national standard in the 1970s. Dr. Konheim continues to consult the government in the area of cryptanalysis.

Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
About the Author
Aperitifs
The Lexicon of Cryptography
Cryptographic Systems
Cryptanalysis
Side Information
Thomas Jefferson and the M-94
Cryptography and History
Cryptography and Computers
The National Security Agency
The Giants
No Sex, Money, Crime or . . . Love
An Example of the Inference Process in Cryptanalysis
Warning!
Columnar Transposition
Shannon?s Classification of Secrecy Transformations
The Rules of Columnar Transposition Encipherment
Cribbing
Examples of Cribbing
Plaintext Language Models
Counting k-Grams
Deriving the Parameters of a Markov Model from Sliding Window Counts
Markov Scoring
The ADFGVX Transposition System
CODA
Columnar Transposition Problems
Monoalphabetic Substitution
Monoalphabetic Substitution
Caesar's Cipher
Cribbing Using Isomorphs
The x2-Test of a Hypothesis
Pruning from the Table of Isomorphs
Partial Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Monoalphabetic Substitution
The Hidden Markov Model (HMM)
Hill Encipherment of ASCII N-Grams
Gaussian Elimination
Monoalphabetic Substitution Problems
Polyalphabetic Substitution
Running Keys
Blaise de Vigenére
Gilbert S. Vernam
The One-Time Pad
Finding the Key of Vernam-Vigenére Ciphertext with Known Period by Correlation
Coincidence
Venona
Polyalphabetic Substitution Problems
Statistical Tests
Weaknesses in a Cryptosystem
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
NIST's Proposed Statistical Tests
Diagnosis
Statistical Tests Problems
The Emergence Of Cipher Machines
The Rotor
Rotor Systems
Rotor Patents
A Characteristic Property of Conjugacy
Analysis of a 1-Rotor System Ciphertext Only
The Displacement Sequence of a Permutation
Arthur Scherbius
Enigma Key Distribution Protocol
Cryptanalysis of the Enigma
Cribbing Enigma Ciphertext
The Lorenz Schlüsselzusatz
The SZ40 Pin Wheels
SZ40 Cryptanalysis Problems
Cribbing SZ40 Ciphertext
The Japanese Cipher Machines
Japanese Signaling Conventions
Half-Rotors
Components of the RED Machine
Cribbing RED Ciphertext
Generalized Vowels and Consonants
"Climb Mount Itaka" - War!
Components of the PURPLE Machine
The PURPLE Keys
Cribbing PURPLE Finding the V-Stepper
Cribbing PURPLE Finding the C-Steppers
Stream Ciphers
Stream Ciphers
Feedback Shift Registers
The Algebra of Polynomials over Z2
The Characteristic Polynomial of a Linear Feedback Shift Register
Properties of Maximal Length LFSR Sequences
Linear Equivalence
Combining Multiple Linear Feedback Shift Registers
Matrix Representation of the LFSR
Cribbing of Stream Enciphered ASCII Plaintext
Nonlinear Feedback Shift Registers
Nonlinear Key Stream Generation
Irregular Clocking
RC4
Stream Encipherment Problems
Block-Ciphers Clucifer, Des, And Aes
Lucifer
Des
The DES S-Boxes, P-Box, and Initial Permutation (IP)
DES Key Schedule
Sample DES Encipherment
Chaining
Is DES a Random Mapping?
DES in the Output-Feedback Mode (OFB)
Cryptanalysis of DES
Differential Cryptanalysis
The EFS DES-Cracker
What Now?
The Future Advanced Data Encryption Standard
And the Winner Is!
The Rijndael Operations
The Rijndael Cipher
Rijndael's Strength Propagation of Patterns
When is a Product Block-Cipher Secure?
Generating the Symmetric Group
A Class of Block Ciphers
The IDEA Block Cipher
The Paradigm Of Public Key Cryptography
In the Beginning. .
Key Distribution
E-Commerce
Public-Key Cryptosystems Easy and Hard Computational Problems
Do PKCS Solve the Problem of Key Distribution?
P.S
The Knapsack Cryptosystem
Subset Sum and Knapsack Problems
Modular Arithmetic and the Euclidean Algorithm
A Modular Arithmetic Knapsack Problem
Trap-Door Knapsacks
Knapsack Encipherment and Decipherment of ASCII-Plaintext
Cryptanalysis of the Merkle-Hellman Knapsack System Modular Mapping
Diophantine Approximation
Short Vectors in a Lattice
Knapsack-Like Cryptosystems
Knapsack Cryptosystem Problems
The Rsa Cryptosystem
A Short Number-Theoretic Digression
RSA
The RSA Encipherment and Decipherment of ASCII-Plaintext
Attack on RSA
Williams Variation of RSA
Multiprecision Modular Arithmetic
Prime Numbers And Factorization
Number Theory and Cryptography
Prime Numbers and the Sieve of Eratosthenes
Pollard's p 2 1 Method
Pollard's r-Algorithm
Quadratic Residues
Random Factorization
The Quadratic Sieve (QS)
Testing if an Integer is a Prime
The RSA Challenge
Perfect Numbers and the Mersenne Primes
Multiprecision Arithmetic
Prime Number Testing and Factorization Problems
The Discrete Logarithm Problem
The Discrete Logarithm Problem Modulo p
Solution of the DLP Modulo p Given a Factorization of p 2 1
Adelman's Subexponential Algorithm for the Discrete Logarithm Problem
The Baby-Step, Giant-Step Algorithm
The Index-Calculus Method
Pollard's r -Algorithm
Extension Fields
The Current State of Discrete Logarithm Research
Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Elliptic Curves
The Elliptic Group over the Reals
Lenstra's Factorization Algorithm
The Elliptic Group over Zp ( p . 3)
Elliptic Groups over the Field Zm,2
Computations in the Elliptic Group EZm,2(a, b)
Supersingular Elliptic Curves
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Using an Elliptic Curve
The Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
The Certicom Challenge
NSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Key Exchange In A Network
Key Distribution in a Network
U.S. Patent '770
Spoofing
El Gamal's Extension of Diffie-Hellman
Shamir's Autonomous Key Exchange
X9.17 Key Exchange Architecture
The Needham-Schroeder Key Distribution Protocol
Digital Signatures And Authentication
The Need for Signatures
Threats to Network Transactions
Secrecy, Digital Signatures, and Authentication
The Desiderata of a Digital Signature
Public-Key Cryptography and Signature Systems
Rabin's Quadratic Residue Signature Protocol
Hash Functions
MD5
The Secure Hash Algorithm
NIST's Digital Signature Algorithm
El Gamal's Signature Protocol
The Fiat-Shamir Identification and Signature Schema
The Oblivious Transfer
Applications Of Cryptography
UNIX Password Encipherment
Magnetic Stripe Technology
Protecting ATM Transactions
Keyed-Access Cards
Smart Cards
Who Can You Trust? Kohnfelder's Certificates
X.509 Certificates
The Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Making a Secure Credit Card Payment on the Web
Cryptographic Patents
What is a Patent?
Patentability of Ideas
The Format of a Patent
Patentable versus Nonpatentable Subjects
Infringement
The Role of Patents in Cryptography
U.S. Patent 3,543,904
U.S. Patent 4,200,770
U.S. Patent 4,218,582
U.S. Patent 4,405,829
PKS/RSADSI Litigation
Leon Stambler
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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