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Foreword | |
Preface | |
About the Author | |
Aperitifs | |
The Lexicon of Cryptography | |
Cryptographic Systems | |
Cryptanalysis | |
Side Information | |
Thomas Jefferson and the M-94 | |
Cryptography and History | |
Cryptography and Computers | |
The National Security Agency | |
The Giants | |
No Sex, Money, Crime or . . . Love | |
An Example of the Inference Process in Cryptanalysis | |
Warning! | |
Columnar Transposition | |
Shannon?s Classification of Secrecy Transformations | |
The Rules of Columnar Transposition Encipherment | |
Cribbing | |
Examples of Cribbing | |
Plaintext Language Models | |
Counting k-Grams | |
Deriving the Parameters of a Markov Model from Sliding Window Counts | |
Markov Scoring | |
The ADFGVX Transposition System | |
CODA | |
Columnar Transposition Problems | |
Monoalphabetic Substitution | |
Monoalphabetic Substitution | |
Caesar's Cipher | |
Cribbing Using Isomorphs | |
The x2-Test of a Hypothesis | |
Pruning from the Table of Isomorphs | |
Partial Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Monoalphabetic Substitution | |
The Hidden Markov Model (HMM) | |
Hill Encipherment of ASCII N-Grams | |
Gaussian Elimination | |
Monoalphabetic Substitution Problems | |
Polyalphabetic Substitution | |
Running Keys | |
Blaise de Vigenére | |
Gilbert S. Vernam | |
The One-Time Pad | |
Finding the Key of Vernam-Vigenére Ciphertext with Known Period by Correlation | |
Coincidence | |
Venona | |
Polyalphabetic Substitution Problems | |
Statistical Tests | |
Weaknesses in a Cryptosystem | |
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test | |
NIST's Proposed Statistical Tests | |
Diagnosis | |
Statistical Tests Problems | |
The Emergence Of Cipher Machines | |
The Rotor | |
Rotor Systems | |
Rotor Patents | |
A Characteristic Property of Conjugacy | |
Analysis of a 1-Rotor System Ciphertext Only | |
The Displacement Sequence of a Permutation | |
Arthur Scherbius | |
Enigma Key Distribution Protocol | |
Cryptanalysis of the Enigma | |
Cribbing Enigma Ciphertext | |
The Lorenz Schlüsselzusatz | |
The SZ40 Pin Wheels | |
SZ40 Cryptanalysis Problems | |
Cribbing SZ40 Ciphertext | |
The Japanese Cipher Machines | |
Japanese Signaling Conventions | |
Half-Rotors | |
Components of the RED Machine | |
Cribbing RED Ciphertext | |
Generalized Vowels and Consonants | |
"Climb Mount Itaka" - War! | |
Components of the PURPLE Machine | |
The PURPLE Keys | |
Cribbing PURPLE Finding the V-Stepper | |
Cribbing PURPLE Finding the C-Steppers | |
Stream Ciphers | |
Stream Ciphers | |
Feedback Shift Registers | |
The Algebra of Polynomials over Z2 | |
The Characteristic Polynomial of a Linear Feedback Shift Register | |
Properties of Maximal Length LFSR Sequences | |
Linear Equivalence | |
Combining Multiple Linear Feedback Shift Registers | |
Matrix Representation of the LFSR | |
Cribbing of Stream Enciphered ASCII Plaintext | |
Nonlinear Feedback Shift Registers | |
Nonlinear Key Stream Generation | |
Irregular Clocking | |
RC4 | |
Stream Encipherment Problems | |
Block-Ciphers Clucifer, Des, And Aes | |
Lucifer | |
Des | |
The DES S-Boxes, P-Box, and Initial Permutation (IP) | |
DES Key Schedule | |
Sample DES Encipherment | |
Chaining | |
Is DES a Random Mapping? | |
DES in the Output-Feedback Mode (OFB) | |
Cryptanalysis of DES | |
Differential Cryptanalysis | |
The EFS DES-Cracker | |
What Now? | |
The Future Advanced Data Encryption Standard | |
And the Winner Is! | |
The Rijndael Operations | |
The Rijndael Cipher | |
Rijndael's Strength Propagation of Patterns | |
When is a Product Block-Cipher Secure? | |
Generating the Symmetric Group | |
A Class of Block Ciphers | |
The IDEA Block Cipher | |
The Paradigm Of Public Key Cryptography | |
In the Beginning. . | |
Key Distribution | |
E-Commerce | |
Public-Key Cryptosystems Easy and Hard Computational Problems | |
Do PKCS Solve the Problem of Key Distribution? | |
P.S | |
The Knapsack Cryptosystem | |
Subset Sum and Knapsack Problems | |
Modular Arithmetic and the Euclidean Algorithm | |
A Modular Arithmetic Knapsack Problem | |
Trap-Door Knapsacks | |
Knapsack Encipherment and Decipherment of ASCII-Plaintext | |
Cryptanalysis of the Merkle-Hellman Knapsack System Modular Mapping | |
Diophantine Approximation | |
Short Vectors in a Lattice | |
Knapsack-Like Cryptosystems | |
Knapsack Cryptosystem Problems | |
The Rsa Cryptosystem | |
A Short Number-Theoretic Digression | |
RSA | |
The RSA Encipherment and Decipherment of ASCII-Plaintext | |
Attack on RSA | |
Williams Variation of RSA | |
Multiprecision Modular Arithmetic | |
Prime Numbers And Factorization | |
Number Theory and Cryptography | |
Prime Numbers and the Sieve of Eratosthenes | |
Pollard's p 2 1 Method | |
Pollard's r-Algorithm | |
Quadratic Residues | |
Random Factorization | |
The Quadratic Sieve (QS) | |
Testing if an Integer is a Prime | |
The RSA Challenge | |
Perfect Numbers and the Mersenne Primes | |
Multiprecision Arithmetic | |
Prime Number Testing and Factorization Problems | |
The Discrete Logarithm Problem | |
The Discrete Logarithm Problem Modulo p | |
Solution of the DLP Modulo p Given a Factorization of p 2 1 | |
Adelman's Subexponential Algorithm for the Discrete Logarithm Problem | |
The Baby-Step, Giant-Step Algorithm | |
The Index-Calculus Method | |
Pollard's r -Algorithm | |
Extension Fields | |
The Current State of Discrete Logarithm Research | |
Elliptic Curve Cryptography | |
Elliptic Curves | |
The Elliptic Group over the Reals | |
Lenstra's Factorization Algorithm | |
The Elliptic Group over Zp ( p . 3) | |
Elliptic Groups over the Field Zm,2 | |
Computations in the Elliptic Group EZm,2(a, b) | |
Supersingular Elliptic Curves | |
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Using an Elliptic Curve | |
The Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem | |
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm | |
The Certicom Challenge | |
NSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography | |
Key Exchange In A Network | |
Key Distribution in a Network | |
U.S. Patent '770 | |
Spoofing | |
El Gamal's Extension of Diffie-Hellman | |
Shamir's Autonomous Key Exchange | |
X9.17 Key Exchange Architecture | |
The Needham-Schroeder Key Distribution Protocol | |
Digital Signatures And Authentication | |
The Need for Signatures | |
Threats to Network Transactions | |
Secrecy, Digital Signatures, and Authentication | |
The Desiderata of a Digital Signature | |
Public-Key Cryptography and Signature Systems | |
Rabin's Quadratic Residue Signature Protocol | |
Hash Functions | |
MD5 | |
The Secure Hash Algorithm | |
NIST's Digital Signature Algorithm | |
El Gamal's Signature Protocol | |
The Fiat-Shamir Identification and Signature Schema | |
The Oblivious Transfer | |
Applications Of Cryptography | |
UNIX Password Encipherment | |
Magnetic Stripe Technology | |
Protecting ATM Transactions | |
Keyed-Access Cards | |
Smart Cards | |
Who Can You Trust? Kohnfelder's Certificates | |
X.509 Certificates | |
The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) | |
Making a Secure Credit Card Payment on the Web | |
Cryptographic Patents | |
What is a Patent? | |
Patentability of Ideas | |
The Format of a Patent | |
Patentable versus Nonpatentable Subjects | |
Infringement | |
The Role of Patents in Cryptography | |
U.S. Patent 3,543,904 | |
U.S. Patent 4,200,770 | |
U.S. Patent 4,218,582 | |
U.S. Patent 4,405,829 | |
PKS/RSADSI Litigation | |
Leon Stambler | |
Index | |
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved. |