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The Heritage of Japanese Civilization,9780135766125

The Heritage of Japanese Civilization

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780135766125

ISBN10:
0135766125
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
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  • The Heritage of Japanese Civilization
    The Heritage of Japanese Civilization




Summary

This short survey of the rich and long history of Japan provides an overall framework from its origins to today. It presents traditions in every field of the arts and literature, political changes, economic advancements, and developments in society, commerce, and culture.Five chapters cover distinct eras: Japan's origins to the twelfth century; medieval Japan, Tokugawa Rule, modern Japan: 1853-1945, and from war's end to the new millenium.For anyone interested in the civilization of Asia and Japan.

Table of Contents

Maps
xi
Documents xiii
Preface xv
Japanese History: Origins to the Twelfth Century
3(30)
Japanese Origins
4(1)
The Yayoi Revolution
4(8)
The Spread of the New Culture
7(1)
Tomb Culture and the Yamato State
8(1)
The Yamato Court and Korea
9(2)
Religion in Early Japan
11(1)
Nara and Heian Japan
12(9)
Seventh Century
14(1)
Nara and Early Heian Court Government
15(2)
Land and Taxes
17(1)
Rise of the Samurai
18(1)
Late Heian Court Government
19(2)
Aristocratic Culture and Buddhism in Nara and Heian Japan
21(8)
Chinese Tradition in Japan
24(1)
Birth of Japanese Literature
25(2)
Nara and Heian Buddhism
27(2)
Early Japanese History in Historical Perspective
29(4)
Medieval Japan: The Twelfth to Sixteenth Centuries
33(30)
Kamakura and Ashikaga Japan
34(8)
Rise of Minamoto Yoritomo
34(2)
The Question of Feudalism
36(2)
Kamakura Rule After Yoritomo
38(1)
Women in Warrior Society
39(1)
The Ashikaga Era
39(2)
Agriculture, Commerce, and Medieval Guilds
41(1)
Buddhism and Medieval Culture
42(8)
Japanese Pietism: Pure Land and Nichiren Buddhism
43(2)
Zen Buddhism
45(3)
No Plays
48(2)
Warring States Era (1467--1600)
50(9)
War of All Against All
50(2)
Foot-Soldier Revolution
52(4)
Piracy, Trade, and Foreign Relations
56(3)
Medieval Japan in Historical Perspective
59(4)
The Era of Tokugawa Rule, 1600--1868
63(30)
Political Unification
64(1)
Political Engineering and Economic Growth During The Seventeenth Century
65(6)
Ieyasu and the Establishment of Tokugawa Rule
66(3)
Economy and Society
69(2)
The Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries
71(7)
The Forty-Seven Ronin
71(3)
Talent and Rule
74(1)
Cycles of Reform
75(1)
Bureaucratization
76(1)
The Later Tokugawa Economy
77(1)
Tokugawa Culture
78(11)
Literature and Drama
81(2)
Confucian Thought
83(2)
Other Developments in Thought
85(4)
Late Traditional Japan in Historical Perspective
89(4)
Modern Japan, 1853--1945
93(42)
Overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu (1853--1868)
94(4)
Background
94(1)
Political Process
95(3)
Building the Meiji State (1868--1890)
98(7)
Centralization of Power
100(1)
New Ideas
101(3)
Political Parties
104(1)
The Meiji Constitution
104(1)
Growth of a Modern Economy
105(6)
First Phase: Model Industries
106(1)
Second Phase: 1880s--1890s
107(1)
Third Phase: 1905--1929
108(2)
Fourth Phase: Depression and Recovery
110(1)
The Politics of Imperial Japan (1890--1927)
111(7)
Diet Politics, the First Decade
111(2)
The Golden Years of Meiji
113(3)
Rise of the Parties to Power
116(2)
Militarism and War (1927--1945)
118(12)
The Army and Navy
119(1)
A Crisis in Manchuria
119(1)
The Great Depression
120(1)
The Radical Right and the Military
121(2)
The Road to Pearl Harbor
123(2)
The Pacific War
125(2)
Japanese Militarism and German Naziism
127(3)
Modern Japan in Historical Perspective
130(5)
Japan, the Recent Decades
135(32)
The Occupation and Yoshida Shigeru, 1945--1954
136(7)
The American Occupation
136(5)
Yoshida Shigeru and Japan's Postwar Policy
141(2)
The Cold War and the Japanese Transformation, 1955--1989
143(10)
Economic Growth
144(4)
Society
148(3)
Politics
151(2)
The Recent Years, 1990 to the Present
153(8)
A Recession Economy
154(2)
A New Age of Politics
156(3)
Society, Problems, and Prospects
159(2)
Japan: A Future Perspective
161(6)
Index 167

Excerpts

The long and rich history of Japan was marked by three major transitions, each initiated by contact with a more advanced technology and different culture.The first transition was from a hunting and gathering society that had been in place for thousands of years to an agricultural and metal-working society of villagers and local aristocrats. The transition began in about 300 BCE, when northeast Asian peoples, crossing from the Korean peninsula to Japan, introduced the new technologies and their accompanying culture. In the second transition the Japanese actively reached out for the technologies, writing system, and culture of China, and changed from a pre-literate to a historical East Asian society. Developments within this society between the seventh and nineteenth centuries constitute the longest span of recorded Japanese history. In the mid-nineteenth century, massive contacts with the West led to the rapid development of modern industries and the acceptance of new ideas and values. Japan transformed itself and became the first non-Western modern nation. Within the long time span in which Japan developed its unique and brilliant variant of continental East Asian civilization, three periods must be further distinguished. First was the classical era of the Nara and Heian courts that extended from the seventh to the twelfth century. The second, the medieval period of rule by military houses, began in the thirteenth and continued into the sixteenth century. The third was the Tokugawa era, which extended from the early seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth century. During this last peaceful era, military houses still ruled but were incorporated within a framework of centralized government. Modern Japan, though brief in comparison, may be divided into two phases: the first, from the mid-nineteenth century to the end of World War 11; the second, from 1945 to the present day.This volume consists in the main of the Japan chapters ofThe Heritage of World Civilization,extensively revised and expanded. It provides a chronological framework and a narrative of Japan's history. It highlights periods of rule but also addresses social, economic, and cultural developments which were continuous and cut across rule-periods. There are, to be sure, excellent thick histories of Japan, particularly of the modern era. Their principal drawback is that length precludes the assignment of other readings. For the instructor who wishes to approach Japanese history topically or assign collections of original documents, monographs, novels and films, it is hoped that the brevity of this text will prove an advantage.Brevity being the goal, the author asserts with seeming confidence many things that may be true only in the balance. Proper qualifications would take up many pages. Also, in telling the story of Japan's past the author has emphasized key historical variables, but in doing so has inevitably left out minor themes that merit attention. Reading assignments from the Suggested Readings at the end of each chapter may provide a counterpoint to the interpretations in the text.Geography helps us to understand Japanese history. The climate varies widely, from the northern island of Hokkaido, where ice and snow may last into the spring, to the southern island of Kyushu, where palm trees dot the shores of Miyazaki and Kagoshima. But the central axis of the Japanese economy, culture, and polity has always been the temperate zone that stretches from western Honshu, through Osaka and Kyoto, to the Kanto plain and Tokyo in the east. Also of historical salience is the mountainous spine that runs through the length of the country and breaks up the country into regions. When central authority was weak, the regions often became politically autonomous. Maps identify most of the places mentioned in the text.Even in studying the West--our own civilization--we catch only


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