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Heritage of World Civilizations : Teaching and Learning, Classroom Edition,9780131501003

Heritage of World Civilizations : Teaching and Learning, Classroom Edition

by ; ; ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131501003

ISBN10:
0131501003
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $95.00

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Summary

This book provides a thoughtful history of human civilizations while maintaining a balance between the Western world and other societies.Starting with the birth of civilization, this combined volume takes the reader through the empires and cultures of the ancient world, the consolidation and interaction of world civilizations, the enlightenment and revolution in the west, and into global conflict and change of the Twentieth Century.For readers looking to make history come alive.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Part 1 The Coming of Civilization
xxxii
The Birth of Civilizations
2(22)
Early Human Beings and Their Culture
4(2)
The Paleolithic Age
4(1)
The Neolithic Age
5(1)
The Emergence of Civilization
5(1)
Early Civilizations in the Near East
6(4)
Mesopotamian Civilization
6(1)
Egyptian Civilization
7(3)
Ancient Near Eastern Empires
10(1)
The Hittites
10(1)
The Assyrians
11(1)
Early Indian Civilization
11(5)
The Indus Civilization
11(3)
The Vedic Aryan Civilization
14(2)
Early Chinese Civilization
16(5)
Neolithic Origins in the Yellow River Valley
16(1)
Early Bronze Age: The Shang
17(1)
Later Bronze Age: The Western Chou
18(1)
Iron Age: The Eastern Chou
18(1)
The Rise of Civilization in the Americas
19(2)
Summary
21(1)
Review Questions
22(1)
Key Terms
23(1)
The Four Great Revolutions in Thought and Religion
24(22)
Comparing the Four Great Revolutions
26(1)
Philosophy in China
26(3)
Confucianism
27(1)
Taoism
28(1)
Legalism
29(1)
Religion in India
29(5)
``Hindu'' and ``Indian''
29(1)
Historical Background
30(1)
The Upanishadic Worldview
30(2)
Mahavira and the Jain Tradition
32(1)
The Buddha's ``Middle Path''
33(1)
The Religion of the Israelites
34(3)
From Hebrew Nomads to the Israelite Nation
34(1)
The Monotheistic Revolution
35(2)
Greek Philosophy
37(7)
Reason and the Scientific Spirit
38(2)
Political and Moral Philosophy
40(4)
Summary
44(1)
Review Questions
45(1)
Key Terms
45(1)
Part 2 Empires and Cultures of the Ancient World
46(108)
Greek and Hellenistic Civilization
48(26)
Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to ca. 1150 B.C.E.
50(1)
The Minoans
50(1)
The Mycenaeans
50(1)
Greek ``Middle Age'' to ca. 750 B.C.E.
51(2)
Age of Homer
52(1)
The Polis
53(1)
Development of the Polis
53(1)
The Hoplite Phalanx
53(1)
Expansion of the Greek World
54(2)
Greek Colonies
54(1)
The Tyrants (ca. 700-500 B.C.E.)
54(2)
Life in Archaic Greece
56(2)
Society
56(1)
Religion
57(1)
Poetry
57(1)
Major City-States
58(2)
Sparta
58(1)
Athens
59(1)
The Persian Wars
60(1)
Ionian Rebellion
60(1)
The War in Greece
60(1)
Classical Greece
61(5)
The Delian League
61(1)
The First Peloponnesian War
61(1)
The Athenian Empire
61(2)
Athenian Democracy
63(1)
Women of Athens
63(1)
The Great Peloponnesian War
64(1)
Struggle for Greek Leadership
65(1)
Culture of Classical Greece
66(4)
Fifth Century B.C.E.
66(1)
Emergence of the Hellenistic World
67(1)
Macedonian Conquest
67(1)
Alexander the Great and His Successors
68(2)
Hellenistic Culture
70(2)
Philosophy
71(1)
Literature
71(1)
Architecture and Sculpture
72(1)
Mathematics and Science
72(1)
Summary
72(1)
Review Questions
73(1)
Key Terms
73(1)
Iran, India, and Inner Asia to 200 C.E.
74(18)
Iran
76(1)
Ancient Backgrounds
76(1)
The Iranians
76(1)
Ancient Iranian Religion
77(1)
Zoroaster and the Zoroastrian Tradition
77(1)
The First Iranian Empire (550-330 B.C.E.)
77(4)
The Achaemenids
77(2)
The Achaemenid State
79(1)
The Achaemenid Economy
80(1)
India
81(1)
The First Indian Empire (321-185 B.C.E.)
81(3)
The Mauryans
81(3)
Consolidation of Indian Civilization (ca. 200 B.C.E.--300 B.C.E.)
84(1)
The Economic Base
84(1)
High Culture
84(1)
Religion and Society
85(1)
Greek and Asian Dynasties
85(1)
Seleucids
85(1)
Indo-Greeks
86(1)
Steppe Peoples
87(1)
Parthians
87(1)
Sakas and Kushans
87(1)
Summary
88(1)
Review Questions
89(1)
Key Terms
89(1)
Goddesses and the Female Form in Ancient Art
90(2)
Republican and Imperial Rome
92(26)
The Etruscans
94(1)
Royal Rome
94(1)
Government
94(1)
Family
94(1)
Clientage
94(1)
Patricians and Plebeians
95(1)
The Republic
95(3)
Constitution
95(1)
Conquest of Italy
96(1)
Rome and Carthage
96(1)
The Republic's Conquest of the Hellenistic World
97(1)
Civilization in the Early Roman Republic: Greek Influence
98(2)
Religion
98(1)
Education
98(2)
Roman Imperialism
100(1)
Aftermath of Conquest
100(1)
The Gracchi
100(1)
Marius and Sulla
101(1)
War Against the Italian Allies (90-88 B.C.E.)
101(1)
Sulla's Dictatorship
101(1)
Fall of the Republic
101(1)
Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar
101(1)
First Triumvirate
102(1)
Dictatorship of Julius Caesar
102(1)
Second Triumvirate and the Emergence of Octavian
102(1)
The Augustan Principate
102(1)
Administration
103(1)
The Army and Defense
103(1)
Religion and Morality
103(1)
Civilization of the Ciceronian and the Augustan Ages
103(2)
The Late Republic
103(1)
Age of Augustus
104(1)
Peace and Prosperity: Imperial Rome (14--180 C.E.)
105(3)
Administration of the Empire
105(1)
Culture of the Early Empire
105(3)
Rise of Christianity
108(3)
Jesus of Nazareth
108(1)
Paul of Tarsus
109(1)
Organization
110(1)
Persecution of Christians
110(1)
Emergence of Catholicism
110(1)
Rome as a Center of the Early Church
111(1)
The Crisis of the Third Century
111(1)
Barbarian Invasions
111(1)
Economic Difficulties
111(1)
Civil Disorder
111(1)
The Late Empire
112(3)
The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization
112(1)
Triumph of Christianity
113(2)
Arts and Letters in the Late Empire
115(1)
Preservation of Classical Culture
116(1)
Christian Writers
116(1)
Summary
116(1)
Review Questions
117(1)
Key Terms
117(1)
Africa: Early History to 1000 C.E.
118(18)
Physical Description of the Continent
120(1)
African Peoples
121(1)
Africa and Early Human Culture
121(1)
The Sahara and the Sudan to the Beginning of the Christian Era
121(3)
Early Saharan Cultures
121(1)
Neolithic Sudanic Cultures
121(2)
The Early Iron Age and the Nok Culture
123(1)
Nilotic African and the Ethiopian Highlands
124(4)
The Kingdom of Kush
124(1)
The Napatan Empire
124(1)
The Meroitic Empire
124(3)
The Aksumite Empire
127(1)
Isolation of Christian Ethiopia
128(1)
The Western and Central Sudan
128(3)
Agriculture, Trade, and the Rise of Urban Centers
128(2)
Formation of Sudanic Kingdoms in the First Millennium
130(1)
Central, Southern, and East Africa
131(3)
Bantu Migrations and Diffusion
131(1)
East Africa
132(2)
Summary
134(1)
Review Questions
135(1)
Key Terms
135(1)
China's First Empire (221 B.C.E.--220 C.E.)
136(18)
Ch'in Unification of China
138(2)
Former Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E.--8 C.E.)
140(5)
The Dynastic Cycle
140(1)
Early Years of the Former Han Dynasty
141(1)
Han Wu Ti
141(1)
Government During the Former Han
142(2)
Decline and Usurpation
144(1)
Later Han (25-220 C.E.) and Its Aftermath
145(2)
First Century
145(1)
Decline During the Second Century
146(1)
Aftermath of Empire
146(1)
Han Thought and Religion
147(5)
Han Confucianism
147(2)
History
149(1)
Neo-Taoism
150(1)
Buddhism
150(2)
Summary
152(1)
Review Questions
153(1)
Key Terms
153(1)
Part 3 Consolidation and Interaction of World Civilizations
154(174)
Imperial China (589--1368)
156(30)
Reestablishment of Empire: Sui (589--618) and T'ang (618--907) Dynasties
158(11)
The Sui Dynasty
158(1)
The T'ang Dynasty
159(10)
Transition to Late Imperial China: The Sung Dynasty (960--1279)
169(8)
Agriculture Revolution of the Sung: From Serfs to Free Farmers
170(1)
Commercial Revolution of the Sung
171(2)
Government: From Aristocracy to Autocracy
173(1)
Sung Culture
174(3)
China in the Mongol World Empire: The Yuan Dynasty (1279--1368)
177(7)
Rise of the Mongol Empire
177(2)
Mongol Rule in China
179(2)
Foreign Contacts and Chinese Culture
181(3)
Last Years of the Yuan
184(1)
Summary
184(1)
Review Questions
185(1)
Key Terms
185(1)
Japan: Early History to 1467
186(20)
Japanese Origins
188(1)
The Yayoi Revolution
188(3)
Tomb Culture and the Yamato State
188(1)
The Yamato Court and Korea
189(1)
Religion in Early Japan
189(2)
Nara and Heian Japan
191(4)
Seventh Century
191(1)
Nara and Early Heian Court Government
191(1)
Land and Taxes
192(1)
Rise of the Samurai
193(1)
Late Heian Court Government
194(1)
Aristocratic Culture and Buddhism in Nara and Heian Japan
195(3)
Chinese Tradition in Japan
195(1)
Birth of Japanese Literature
195(1)
Nara and Heian Buddhism
195(3)
Japan's Early Feudal Age
198(4)
Rise of Minamoto Yoritomo
198(1)
The Question of Feudalism
199(1)
Kamakura Rule after Yoritomo
199(1)
Women in Warrior Society
200(1)
The Ashikaga Era
200(1)
Agriculture, Commerce, and Medieval Guilds
201(1)
Buddhism and Medieval Culture
202(3)
Japanese Pietism: Pure Land and Nichiren Buddhism
202(1)
Zen Buddhism
203(1)
No Plays
204(1)
Summary
205(1)
Review Questions
205(1)
Key Terms
205(1)
Iran and India Before Islam
206(16)
Iran
208(1)
The Parthians
208(1)
The Sasanid Empire (224--651 C.E.)
209(2)
Society and Economy
209(1)
Religion
210(1)
Later Sasanid Developments
211(1)
India
211(1)
Golden Age of the Guptas
211(2)
Gupta Rule
211(2)
Gupta Culture
213(1)
The Development of ``Classical'' Traditions in Indian Civilization (ca. 300--1000 C.E.)
213(5)
Society
214(1)
Religion
214(4)
Summary
218(1)
Review Questions
219(1)
Key Terms
219(3)
The Formation of Islamic Civilization (622--945)
222(16)
Origins and Early Development
222(4)
The Setting
222(1)
Muhammad and the Qur'an
222(4)
Early Islamic Conquests
226(2)
Course of Conquest
226(1)
Factors of Success
226(2)
The New Islamic Order
228(4)
The Caliphate
228(1)
The Ulama
229(1)
The Umma
230(2)
The High Caliphate
232(2)
The Abbasid State
232(1)
Society
233(1)
Decline
234(1)
The ``Classical'' Islamic Culture
234(3)
Intellectual Traditions
234(1)
Language and Literature
235(1)
Art and Architecture
235(2)
Summary
237(1)
Review Questions
237(1)
Key Terms
237(1)
The Early Middle Ages in the West to 1000: the Birth of Europe
238(20)
The End of the Western Roman Empire
240(1)
The Byzantine Empire
240(4)
The Reign of Justinian
240(1)
Eastern Influences
241(3)
The Impact of Islam on the East and West
244(1)
The Western Debt to Islam
244(1)
The Developing Roman Church
244(3)
Monastic Culture
244(2)
The Doctrine of Papal Primacy
246(1)
Division of Christendom
246(1)
The Kingdom of the Franks
247(6)
Reign of Charlemagne (768--814)
248(5)
Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom
253(1)
Feudal Society
253(3)
Origins
254(1)
Vassalage and the Fief
254(2)
Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty
256(1)
Summary
256(1)
Review Questions
257(1)
Key Terms
257(1)
The Islamic Heartlands and India (ca. 1000--1500)
258(16)
The Islamic Heartlands
261(1)
Religion and Society
261(3)
Sunni Consolidation
261(1)
Sufi Piety and Organization
261(1)
Consolidation of Shi'ite Traditions
261(3)
Regional Developments
264(4)
The Islamic West: Spain and North Africa
264(1)
The Islamic West: Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean World
265(1)
The Islamic East: Before the Mongol Conquests
266(1)
The Islamic East: The Mongol Age
267(1)
India
268(1)
The Spread of Islam to India
268(4)
Muslim-Hindu Encounter
269(1)
Islamic States and Dynasties
269(1)
Religious and Cultural Accommodation
270(1)
Hindu and Other Indian Traditions
271(1)
Summary
272(1)
Review Questions
273(1)
Key Terms
273(1)
Ancient Civilizations of the Americas
274(22)
Reconstructing the History of Native American Civilization
276(1)
Mesoamerica
276(2)
The Formative Period and the Emergence of Mesoamerican Civilization
278(2)
The Olmec
278(1)
The Valley of Oaxaca and the Rise of Monte Alban
279(1)
The Classic Period in Mesoamerica
280(3)
Teotihuacan
280(1)
The Maya
281(2)
The Post-Classic Period
283(5)
The Toltecs
283(1)
The Aztecs
284(4)
Andean South America
288(1)
The Preceramic and the Initial Period
288(1)
Chavin de Huantar and the Early Horizon
289(1)
The Early Intermediate Period
289(1)
Nazca
289(1)
Moche
289(1)
The Middle Horizon Through the Late Intermediate Period
290(3)
Tiwanaku and Huari
290(1)
The Chimu Empire
290(1)
The Inca Empire
291(2)
Summary
293(1)
Review Questions
293(1)
Key Terms
293(3)
The Divine in the Middle Ages
296(1)
Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline, and Renaissance
296(32)
Revival of the Empire, Church, and Towns
298(5)
Otto I and the Revival of the Empire
298(1)
The Reviving Catholic Church
298(2)
The First Crusades
300(1)
Towns and Townspeople
301(2)
Society
303(5)
The Order of Life
303(4)
Medieval Women
307(1)
Growth of National Monarchies
308(3)
England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)
308(1)
France in the Thirteenth Century: Reign of Louis IX
309(1)
The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152--1272)
310(1)
Political and Social Breakdown
311(3)
The Black Death
313(1)
Ecclesiastical Breakdown and the Revival: the Late Medieval Church
314(1)
Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair
314(1)
The Great Schism (1378--1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449
315(1)
The Renaissance in Italy (1375--1527)
315(6)
The Italian City-State: Social Conflict and Despotism
316(1)
Humanism
316(2)
Renaissance Art
318(1)
Italy's Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494--1527)
319(1)
Niccolo Machiavelli
320(1)
Revival of Monarchy: Nation Building in the Fifteenth Century
321(5)
Medieval Russia
323(1)
France
324(1)
Spain
324(1)
England
325(1)
Summary
326(1)
Review Questions
327(1)
Key Terms
327(1)
Part 4 The World in Transition
328(164)
The Age of Reformation and Religious Wars
330(39)
On the Eve of the Reformation
332(5)
The Discovery of a New World
332(2)
Religion and Society
334(1)
The Northern Renaissance
335(2)
The Reformation
337(9)
Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525
337(3)
Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation
340(1)
Anabaptists and Radical Protestants
341(1)
John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation
341(1)
Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation
342(1)
The English Reformation to 1553
343(2)
Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation
345(1)
The Reformation's Achievements
346(4)
The Revolution in Religious Practices and Institutions
346(2)
The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women
348(2)
The Wars of Religion
350(9)
French Wars of Religion (1562--1598)
350(3)
Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II (1556--1598)
353(1)
England and Spain (1558--1603)
354(2)
The Thirty Years' War (1618--1648)
356(3)
Superstition and Enlightenment: the Battle Within
359(7)
Witch Hunts and Panic
359(2)
Writers and Philosophers
361(5)
Summary
366(1)
Review Questions
367(1)
Key Terms
367(2)
Africa (ca. 1000--1800)
369(19)
North Africa and Egypt
370(1)
The Spread of Islam South of the Sahara
370(1)
Sahelian Empires of the Western and Central Sudan
371(6)
Ghana
371(2)
Mali
373(3)
Songhai
376(1)
Kanem and Kanem-Bornu
377(1)
The Eastern Sudan
377(1)
The Forestlands--Coastal West and Central Africa
378(3)
West African Forest Kingdoms: The Example of Benin
378(1)
European Arrivals on the Coastlands
379(1)
Central Africa
380(1)
East Africa
381(3)
Swahili Culture and Commerce
381(3)
The Portuguese and the Omanis of Zanzibar
384(1)
Southern Africa
384(1)
Southereastern Africa: ``Great Zimbabwe''
384(2)
The Portuguese in Southeastern Africa
385(1)
South Africa: The Cape Colony
385(1)
Summary
386(1)
Review Questions
386(1)
Key Terms
387(1)
Conquest and Exploitation: The Development of the Transatlantic Economy
388(21)
Mercantilist Theory of Economics Exploitation
390(1)
Establishment of the Spanish Empire in America
391(3)
Conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas
391(1)
The Roman Catholic Church in Spanish America
392(2)
Economics of Exploitation in the Spanish Empire
394(2)
Varieties of Economic Activity
394(1)
The Decline of Native American Population
395(1)
Commercial Regulation
395(1)
Colonial Brazil and Slavery
395(1)
French and British North America
396(3)
Slavery in the Americas
399(2)
Establishment of Slavery
399(1)
The Plantation Economy and Transatlantic Trade
399(1)
Slavery on the Plantations
400(1)
Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade
401(5)
The Background of Slavery
401(1)
Slavery and Slaving in Africa
401(1)
The African Side of the Transatlantic Trade
402(1)
The Extent of the Slave Trade
402(3)
Consequences of the Slave Trade for Africa
405(1)
Summary
406(1)
Review Questions
407(1)
Key Terms
407(2)
East Asia in the Late Traditional Era
409(25)
Late Imperial China
410(1)
Ming (1368--1644) and Ch'ing (1644--1911) Dynasties
410(7)
Land and People
410(1)
China's Third Commercial Revolution
410(4)
Ming-Ch'ing Foreign Relations
414(2)
Ming-Ch'ing Culture
416(1)
Japan
417(1)
Warring States Era (1467--1600)
417(2)
War of All Against All
417(1)
Foreign Relations and Trade
418(1)
Tokugawa Era (1600--1868)
419(7)
Political Engineering and Economic Growth During the Seventeenth Century
419(2)
Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries
421(2)
Tokugawa Culture
423(3)
Korea and Vietnam
426(1)
Korea
426(2)
Early History
427(1)
The Chosen Era: Late Traditional Korea
427(1)
Vietnam
428(4)
Southeast Asia
428(1)
Early Vietnamese History
429(1)
Late Traditional Vietnam
430(2)
Summary
432(1)
Review Questions
433(1)
Key Terms
433(1)
European State-Building and Worldwide Conflict
434(22)
Two Models of European Political Development
436(2)
Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England
438(5)
James I
438(1)
Charles I
438(1)
The Long Parliament and Civil War
439(1)
Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic
440(1)
The Restoration of the Monarchy
440(1)
James II
440(1)
The ``Glorious Revolution''
441(1)
The Age of Walpole
441(2)
Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV
443(3)
Years of Personal Rule
443(1)
Versailles
443(1)
King by Divine Right
444(1)
Louis's Early Wars
444(1)
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
445(1)
War of the Spanish Succession
445(1)
Russia Enters the European Political Arena
446(3)
Years of Turmoil
446(1)
Peter the Great
447(2)
Central and Eastern Europe
449(2)
The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction
449(1)
Prussia and the Hohenzollerns
450(1)
The First Worldwide Wars
451(2)
The Colonial Arena
451(1)
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740--1748)
452(1)
The Seven Years' War (1756--1763)
452(1)
Summary
453(1)
Review Questions
454(1)
Key Terms
455(1)
European Society Under the Old Regime
456(20)
Life in the Old Regime
458(1)
Hierarchy and Privilege
458(1)
Aristocracy
458(2)
Great Britain
459(1)
France
459(1)
Eastern Europe
460(1)
The Land and Its Tillers
460(1)
Peasants and Serfs
460(1)
Family Structures and the Family Economy
461(5)
Households
461(1)
The Family Economy
462(2)
Women and the Family Economy
464(1)
Children and the World of the Family Economy
464(2)
Growth of Agriculture and Population
466(2)
The Revolution in Agriculture
466(2)
Population Expansion
468(1)
The Eighteenth-Century Industrial Revolution
468(3)
An Event in World History
468(1)
Industrial Leadership of Great Britain
469(2)
Cities
471(3)
Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization
471(1)
Urban Classes
472(2)
The Age of the Ghetto
474(1)
Summary
474(1)
Review Questions
475(1)
Key Terms
475(1)
The Last Great Islamic Empires (1500--1800)
476(16)
Islamic Empires
479(1)
The Ottoman Empire
479(2)
Origins and Development of the Ottoman State before 1600
479(1)
The ``Classical Ottoman'' Order
479(1)
After Suleyman: Challenges and Change
480(1)
The Decline of Ottoman Military and Political Power
481(1)
The Safavid Shi'ite Empire
481(2)
Origins
481(1)
Shah Abbas I
482(1)
Safavid Decline
482(1)
Culture and Learning
482(1)
The Empire of the Indian Timurids, or ``Mughals''
483(2)
Akbar's Reign
483(1)
The Last Great Mughals
483(1)
Sikhs and Marathas
483(1)
Political Decline
484(1)
Religious Developments
485(1)
Islamic Asia
485(1)
Islamization and Isolation
485(1)
Uzbeks and Chaghatays
485(1)
Consequences of the Shi'ite Rift
486(1)
Power Shifts in the Southern Seas
486(2)
Control of the Southern Seas
487(1)
The Indies: Acheh
488(1)
Summary
488(1)
Review Questions
489(1)
Key Terms
489(1)
The ``Other'' in the Early Modern Period
490(2)
Part 5 Enlightenment and Revolution in the West
492(72)
The Age of European Enlightenment
494(16)
The Scientific Revolution
496(3)
Nicolaus Copernicus
496(1)
Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kelper
497(1)
Galileo Galilei
497(1)
Francis Bacon
498(1)
Rene Descartes
498(1)
Isaac Newton
498(1)
John Locke
499(1)
The Enlightenment
499(2)
Voltaire
499(1)
The Encyclopedia
500(1)
The Enlightenment and Religion
501(2)
Deism
501(1)
Toleration
501(2)
The Enlightenment and Society
503(2)
Adam Smith
503(1)
Montesquieu and The Spirit of the Laws
503(1)
Rousseau
504(1)
Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment
504(1)
Enlightened Absolutism
505(4)
Joseph II of Austria
506(1)
Catherine the Great of Russia
507(1)
The Partition of Poland
508(1)
Summary
509(1)
Review Questions
509(1)
Key Terms
509(1)
Revolutions in the Transatlantic World
510(24)
Revolution in the British Colonies in North America
512(2)
Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue
512(1)
American Political Ideas
512(1)
Crisis and Independence
513(1)
Revolution in France
514(13)
Revolutions of 1789
514(2)
Reconstruction of France
516(3)
A Second Revolution
519(1)
The Reign of Terror and Its Aftermath
519(2)
The Napoleonic Era
521(4)
The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement
525(2)
Wars of Independence in Latin America
527(3)
Eighteenth-Century Developments
527(1)
First Movements Toward Independence
528(1)
San Martin in Rio de la Plata
529(1)
Simon Bolivar's Liberation of Venezuela
529(1)
Independence in New Spain
529(1)
Brazilian Independence
530(1)
Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy
530(2)
Summary
532(1)
Review Questions
533(1)
Key Terms
533(1)
Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America 1815--1880
534(30)
Nationalism
536(2)
Early-Nineteenth-Century Liberalism
537(1)
Liberalism and Nationalism in Modern World History
538(1)
Efforts to Liberalize Early-Nineteenth-Century European Political Structures
539(5)
Russia: The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 and the Autocracy of Nicholas I
539(1)
Revolution in France (1830)
540(1)
Britain: From the Great Reform Bill (1832) to Home Rule for Ireland
541(2)
1848: Year of Revolutions in Europe
543(1)
Testing the New American Republic
544(7)
Toward Sectional Conflict
544(3)
The Abolitionist Movement
547(4)
The Canadian Experience
551(1)
Road to Self-Government
551(1)
Keeping a Distinctive Culture
552(1)
Midcentury Political Consolidation in Europe
552(3)
The Crimean War (1854--1856) and Italian Unification (1859--1870)
552(1)
Italian Unification
553(2)
German Unification
555(3)
Bismarck
555(2)
The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire
557(1)
Unrest of Nationalities in Eastern Europe
558(2)
Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism
560(2)
Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism
561(1)
Summary
562(1)
Review Questions
563(1)
Key Terms
563(1)
Part 6 Into the Modern World
564(100)
Northern Transatlantic Economy and Society 1815--1914
566(32)
European Factory Workers and Urban Artisans
568(2)
Nineteenth-Century Urban Life in Europe
570(3)
Redesign of Cities
570(1)
Urban Sanitation
571(2)
Housing Reform and Middle-Class Values
573(1)
Nineteenth-Century European Women
573(10)
Women in the Early Industrial Revolution
574(1)
Women's Social Disabilities
575(2)
New Employment Patterns for Women
577(1)
Late-Nineteenth-Century Working-Class Women
578(1)
Poverty and Prostitution
579(1)
Women of the Middle Class
580(1)
Political Feminism
581(2)
Jewish Emancipation
583(1)
Early Steps to Equal Citizenship
583(1)
Broadened Opportunities
583(1)
European Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I
584(7)
The Working Classes
584(1)
Marxist Critique of the Industrial Order
585(2)
Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism
587(1)
France; ``Opportunism'' Rejected
588(1)
Great Britain: The Labour Party and Fabianism
588(1)
Russia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism
589(2)
European Socialism in World History
591(1)
North America and the New Industrial Economy
591(5)
European Immigration to the United States
592(1)
Unions: Organization of Labor
593(1)
The Progressives
594(1)
Social Reform
594(1)
The Progressive Presidency
595(1)
Summary
596(1)
Review Questions
597(1)
Key Terms
597(1)
Latin America: From Independence to the 1940s
598(18)
Independence Without Revolution
600(3)
Absence of Social Change
600(2)
Control of the Land
602(1)
Submissive Political Philosophies
602(1)
Economy of Dependence
603(2)
New Exploitation of Resources
604(1)
Increased Foreign Influence
604(1)
Economic Crises and New Directions
605(1)
Search for Political Stability
605(1)
Three National Histories
606(8)
Argentina
606(3)
Mexico
609(2)
Brazil
611(3)
Summary
614(1)
Review Questions
615(1)
Key Terms
615(1)
India, the Islamic Heartlands, and Africa: The Encounter with the Modern West (1800--1945)
616(20)
The Indian Experience
618(1)
British Rule
618(5)
Building the Empire: The First Half of the Nineteenth Century
618(1)
British-Indian Relations
619(1)
From British Raj to Independence
620(1)
The Burden of Crown Rule
620(1)
Indian Resistance
620(1)
Hindu-Muslim Friction
621(2)
The Islamic Experience
623(1)
Islamic Responses to Declining Power and Independence
623(1)
Western Political Economic Encroachment
623(1)
The Western Impact
624(1)
Islamic Responses to Foreign Encroachment
625(2)
Emulation of the West
625(1)
Integration of Western and Islamic Ideas
626(1)
Purification and Revival of Islam
626(1)
Nationalism
626(1)
The African Experience
627(1)
New States and Power Centers
627(1)
Southern Africa
627(1)
East and Central Africa
627(1)
West Africa
628(1)
Islamic Reform Movements
628(1)
Increasing European Involvement
629(4)
Exploration
629(1)
Christian Missions
629(1)
The Colonial ``Scramble for Africa''
630(3)
African Resistance to Colonialism: The Rise of Nationalism
633(1)
Summary
633(1)
Review Questions
634(1)
Key Terms
635(1)
Modern East Asia
636(28)
Modern China (1839--1949)
638(1)
Close of Manchu Rule
638(4)
The Opium War
638(1)
Rebellions Against the Manchu
639(1)
Self-Strengthening and Decline (1874--1895)
640(1)
The Borderlands: The Northwest, Vietnam, and Korea
641(1)
From Dynasty to Warlordism (1895--1926)
642(2)
Cultural and Ideological Ferment: The May Fourth Movement
644(1)
Nationalist China
644(3)
Kuomingtang Unification of China and the Nanking Decade (1927--1937)
644(1)
War and Revolution (1937--1949)
644(3)
Modern Japan (1853--1945)
647(1)
Overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu (1853--1868)
647(2)
Building the Meiji State (18168--1890)
649(2)
Centralization of Power
649(1)
Political Parties
649(1)
The Constitution
649(2)
Growth of a Modern Economy
651(1)
First Phase: Model Industries
651(1)
Second Phase: 1880s--1890s
651(1)
Third Phase: 1905--1929
651(1)
Fourth Phase: Depression and Recovery
652(1)
The Politics of Imperial Japan (1890--1945)
652(8)
From Confrontation to the Founding of the Seiyukai (1890--1900)
653(1)
The Golden Years of Meiji
653(2)
Rise of the Parties to Power
655(1)
Militarism and War (1927--1945)
656(4)
Summary
660(1)
Review Questions
661(1)
Key Terms
661(1)
Industrialization
662(2)
Part 7 Global Conflict and Change
664(2)
Imperialism and World War I
666(22)
The ``New Imperialism''
668(1)
The New Imperialism
668(1)
Motives for the New Imperialism
668(1)
Emergence of the German Empire
669(4)
Formation of the Triple Alliance (1873--1890)
669(1)
Bismarck's Leadership (1873--1890)
669(2)
Forging the Triple Entente (1890--1907)
671(2)
World War I
673(5)
The Road to War (1908--1914)
673(1)
Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June-August 1914)
674(3)
Strategies and Stalemate (1914--1917)
677(1)
The Russian Revolution
678(2)
End of World War I
680(6)
Military Resolution
680(1)
Settlement at Paris
681(4)
Evaluation of the Peace
685(1)
Summary
686(1)
Review Questions
686(1)
Key Terms
687(1)
Depression, European Dictators, and the American New Deal
688(22)
After Versailles: Demand for Revision and Enforcement
690(1)
Toward the Great Depression in Europe
690(2)
Financial Tailspin
690(1)
Problems in Agricultural Commodities
691(1)
Depression and Government Policy
691(1)
The Soviet Experiment
692(4)
War Communism
692(1)
The New Economic Policy
692(1)
Stalin Versus Trotsky
693(1)
Decision for Rapid Industrialization
694(2)
The Purges
696(1)
The Fascist Experiment in Italy
696(2)
Rise of Mussolini
697(1)
The Fascists in Power
698(1)
Germen Democracy and Dictatorship
698(7)
The Weimar Republic
698(3)
Depression and Political Deadlock
701(1)
Hitler Comes to Power
702(1)
Hitler's Consolidation of Power
703(1)
The Police State
704(1)
Women in Nazi Germany
704(1)
The Great Depression and the New Deal in the United States
705(3)
Economic Collapse
706(1)
New Role for Government
707(1)
Summary
708(1)
Review Questions
709(1)
Key Terms
709(1)
World War II
710(20)
The Road to War (1933--1939)
712(3)
Destruction of Versailles
712(1)
Italy Attacks Ethiopia
712(1)
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
713(1)
The Spanish Civil War
714(1)
Austria and Czechoslovakia
714(1)
Munich
714(1)
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
715(1)
World War II (1939--1945)
715(7)
German Conquest of Europe
715(2)
Battle of Britain
717(1)
German Attack on Russia
718(1)
Hitler's Europe: The Holocaust
718(1)
America's Entry into the War
718(1)
The Tide Turns
719(1)
Defeat of Nazi Germany
719(1)
Fall of Japanese Empire
720(2)
The Cost of War
722(1)
The Domestic Fronts
722(4)
Germany: From Victory to Defeat
722(3)
France: Collaboration and Resistance
725(1)
Great Britain: Organization for Victory
725(1)
The Soviet Union: ``The Great Patriotic War''
726(1)
Preparations for Peace
726(2)
The Atlantic Charter
726(1)
Tehran
727(1)
Yalta
728(1)
Potsdam
728(1)
Summary
728(1)
Review Questions
729(1)
Key Terms
729(1)
The West Since World War II
730(24)
The Cold War Era
732(5)
Early Cold War Conflict
733(1)
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
733(1)
Crises of 1956
733(2)
The Cold War Intensified
735(1)
Detente and Afterward
736(1)
European Society in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
737(2)
Toward Western European Unification
737(1)
A Consumer Society
738(1)
The Movement of Peoples
738(1)
New Patterns for Women
739(1)
Postwar America
739(3)
Truman and Eisenhower Administrations
740(1)
Civil Rights
740(1)
New Social Programs
740(1)
The Vietnam War and Domestic Turmoil
741(1)
The Watergate Scandal
741(1)
The Triumph of Political Conservation
741(1)
The Soviet Union to 1989
742(3)
The Khrushchev Years
742(1)
Brezhnev
742(2)
Solidarity in Poland
744(1)
Gorbachev Attempts to Redirect the Soviet Union
744(1)
1989: Year of Revolutions in Eastern Europe
745(2)
Solidarity Reemerges in Poland
745(1)
Hungary Moves Toward Independence
746(1)
German Reunification
746(1)
The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia
746(1)
Violent Revolution in Romania
746(1)
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
747(2)
Renunciation of Communist Political Monopoly
747(1)
The August 1991 Coup
747(1)
The Yeltsin Years
748(1)
The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Civil War
749(1)
Problems in the Wake of the Collapse of Communism
750(2)
The West Since 1945
751(1)
Summary
752(1)
Review Questions
752(1)
Key Terms
753(1)
East Asia in the Late Twentieth Century
754(14)
Japan
756(3)
The Occupation
756(1)
Parliamentary Politics
757(1)
Economic Growth
758(1)
Society and Culture
759(1)
China
759(4)
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1965--1976)
761(1)
China After Mao
761(2)
Taiwan
763(1)
Korea
763(2)
North and South
764(1)
Civil War and U.S. Involvement
764(1)
Recent Developments
764(1)
Vietnam
765(2)
The Colonial Backdrop
765(1)
The Anticolonial War
765(1)
The Vietnam War
765(1)
War with Cambodia
765(1)
Recent Developments
765(2)
Summary
767(1)
Review Questions
767(1)
Key Terms
767(1)
The Emerging Nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America Since 1945
768(2)
The Postcolonial Era
770(2)
Africa, the Middle East, and Asia
772(1)
Postcolonial Africa
772(3)
The Transition to Independence
772(1)
The Nigerian Case
773(1)
The South African Case
773(1)
The African Future
773(2)
The Postcolonial Middle East and Central Asia
775(6)
New Nations in the Middle East
775(1)
The Arab-Israeli Conflict
776(3)
Middle Eastern Oil
779(1)
Islamism and Politics
779(1)
Iran
780(1)
Central Asia
781(1)
South and Southeast Asia
781(1)
Pakistan and Bangladesh
781(1)
India
782(1)
Latin America Since 1945
782(2)
Revolutionary Challenges
784(2)
The Cuban Revolution
784(1)
Chile
785(1)
The Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua
786(1)
Pursuit of Stability
786(2)
Argentina
786(1)
Brazil
787(1)
Mexico
787(1)
Continuity and Change in Recent Latin American History
788(1)
Summary
788(1)
Review Questions
789(1)
Key Terms
789(1)
Imperialism and Race in Modern Art
790
Glossary 1(1)
Suggested Readings 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1(1)
World History Documents CD-Rom 1

Excerpts

The events of September 11, 2001, as nothing in the immediate past, have brought upon the world a new awareness of human history in a global con-t. Prior to that day North American readers generally understood world history and globalism as academic concepts; they now understand them as realities shaping their daily lives and experience. The new, immediate pressures of the present draw us to seek a more certain and extensive understanding of the past. The idea of globalization is now a pressing reality on the life of nations, affecting the domestic security of their citizens, their standard of living, and the environment. Whether, as Samuel Huntington, the distinguished Harvard political scientist, contends, we are witnessing a clash of civilizations, we have certainly entered a new era in which no active citizen or educated person can escape the necessity of understanding the past in global terms. Both the historical experience and the moral and political values of the different world civilizations now demand our attention and our understanding. It is our hope that in these new, challenging times The Heritage of World Civilizations will provide one path to such knowledge. THE ROOTS OF GLOBALIZATION Globalization--that is, the increasing interaction and interdependency of the various regions of the world--has resulted from two major historical developments: the closing of the European era of world history and the rise of technology. From approximately 1500 to the middle of the twentieth century, Europeans gradually came to dominate the world through colonization (most particularly in North and South America), state-building, economic productivity, and military power. That era of European dominance ended during the third quarter of the twentieth century after Europe had brought unprecedented destruction on itself during World War II and as the nations of Asia, the Near East, and Africa achieved new positions on the world scene. Their new political independence, their control over strategic natural resources, and the expansion of their economies (especially those of the nations of the Pacific rim of Asia), and in some cases their access to nuclear weapons have changed the shape of world affairs. Further changing the world political and social situation has been a growing discrepancy in the economic development of different regions that is often portrayed as a problem between the northern and southern hemispheres. Beyond the emergence of this economic disparity has been the remarkable advance of political Islam during the past forty years. In the midst of all these developments, as a result of the political collapse of the former Soviet Union, the United States has emerged as the single major world power. The second historical development that continues to fuel the pace of globalization is the advance of technology, associated most importantly with transportation, military weapons, and electron communication. The advances in transportation over the past two centuries including ships, railways, and airplanes have made more parts of the world and its resources accessible to more people in ever shorter spans of time. Military weapons of increasingly destructive power over the past century and a half enabled Europeans and then later the United States to dominate other regions of the globe. Now, the spread of these weapons means that any nation with sophisticated military technology can threaten other nations, no matter how far away. Furthermore, technologies that originated in the West from the early twentieth century to the present have been turned against the West. More recently, the electronic revolution associated with computer technology has sparked unprecedented speed and complexity in global communications. It is astonishing to recall that personal computers have been generally available for less than twenty-five years and the rapid personal communication associated with


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