9780750626293

High Performance Audio Power Amplifiers

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780750626293

  • ISBN10:

    0750626291

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1996-11-08
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Power amplifiers and their performance lie at the heart of audio engineering and provide some challenging problems for the engineer. Ben Duncan's experience, as an audio consultant, analog electronics designer and author, give him an unique insight into this difficult but rewarding field. Linking analog electronics, acoustics, heat and music technology; high-end hi-fi and professional PA and recording studio use; theory, modelling and real-world practice; design and repair; the old and the new, the mainstream and the specialised, this comprehensive guide to power amps is a core reference for anyone in the industry, and any interested onlookers. Ben Duncan is well known to many users of audio power amplifiers around the world, both professional and domestic, through his articles, reviews and research papers on music technology in the UK and US press, and through his part in creating several notable professional power amplifiers. Since 1977, he has been involved in the design of over 70 innovative, high-end audio products used by recording and broadcast studios, on stages, in clubs and by the most critical domestic listeners - as well as creating bespoke equipment for top musicians. Born in London, he has travelled widely but has lived mainly in Lincolnshire, home of his family for over 150 years. He is twice co-author of the book Rock Hardware in which he has chronicled the history of rock'n'roll PA. Reprinted with corrections September 1997 Comprehensive and colourful real-life guide Based on wide experience of audio and music technology Well-known and prolific author in the hi-fi and pro-audio press

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
System of persentation xv
Introduction and fundamentals
1(18)
What are audio power amplifiers for?
1(1)
What is the problem?
1(1)
What is audio?
2(1)
What's special about audio?
2(1)
The ramifications of quality on audio
3(1)
Some different aims of sound reproduction
3(1)
About people and their hearing
4(1)
Limits of a `objectivity'. Why listen?
5(1)
Why are power amplifiers needed for audio?
6(2)
Music fundamentals
8(1)
Adjectives that describe sound
9(1)
Tonal qualities
10(1)
Broader tonal descriptors
11(1)
General sonic adjectives
11(1)
Dynamics
12(1)
Space
13(1)
Botheration or Abomination
14(1)
Nature and range of music (alias programme)
14(1)
Bass and subsonic content
15(1)
HF dynamics and ultrasonic content
16(3)
References and Further reading
18(1)
Overview of Global Requirements
19(30)
Common formats for power amps
19(2)
Loudspeakers
21(11)
Loudspeaker drive-unit basics
21(4)
Loudspeaker sensitivity vs. efficiency
25(1)
Loudspeaker enclosure types and efficiencies
26(1)
Loudspeaker configurations: a resume
27(5)
The interrelation of components
32(8)
What loudspeakers look like to the amplifier
32(3)
What speakers are looking for
35(3)
What passive crossovers look like to amplifiers
38(2)
Behaviour of power amps as voltage sources
40(6)
Drive-unit power ratings after EIA/AES
40(1)
Output power capability requirements
41(2)
Loudspeaker vulnerabilities
43(1)
High power, the professional rationale
44(2)
Active systems, power delivery requirements
46(1)
Current delivery requirements
46(3)
The low impedance route
47(1)
References and Further reading
48(1)
The input port - Interfacing and processing
49(34)
The Input
49(9)
Input sensitivity and gain requirements
49(3)
Input impedance (Zin)
52(6)
RF filtration
58(1)
The balanced input
59(4)
Balancing requirements
59(1)
Introducing Common Mode Rejection
60(3)
Sub-sonic protection and high-pass filtering
63(5)
Direct Coupling
65(3)
Damage protection
68(3)
What are process functions?
71(9)
Common gain control (panel attenuator)
71(3)
Remotable gain controls (machine control)
74(3)
Remote control considerations
77(1)
Compression and limiting
78(1)
Clipping (overload) considerations
79(1)
Clip prevention
79(1)
Soft-Clip
79(1)
Computer control
80(3)
References and Further reading
82(1)
Topologies, classes and modes
83(86)
Introduction
83(4)
About topologies
84(3)
Germanium and early junctions
87(8)
Out of the vacuum-state
87(1)
Push-pull, Transformer-coupled
88(1)
Sub-topology: the Darlington
89(2)
Transformerless push-pull (transistor OTL)
91(1)
Sub-topology: diode biasing
91(1)
Complementary push-pull OTL
92(2)
Quasi complementarity: the faked match
94(1)
Sub-topology: paralleling
94(1)
Silicon transistors
95(10)
The Lin topology
96(2)
Sub-topology: the long-tailed pair (LTP)
98(1)
Sub-topology: the Vbe multiplier (VbeX]
99(1)
Sub-topology: the triple (compound BJT)
100(2)
Sub-toplogy: Dual supplies (+/-Vs)
102(2)
Sons of Lin
104(1)
True Symmetry: the sequel
105(8)
Later topologies
106(2)
IC power
108(2)
The Op-Amp topologies
110(2)
Power cascades and cascodes
112(1)
Introducing bridging
113(5)
Bridging the bridge
117(1)
Class-ification
118(18)
Class A
118(5)
Class A alternatives
123(1)
Class A sliding bias and `II-mode'
123(3)
`Super Class A'
126(1)
Dynamic biasing and Stasis
126(1)
Sustained plateau biasing
126(1)
Class B and A-B
127(4)
Class A-B, developments and ameliorations
131(5)
Introducing higher classes
136(10)
Class G
138(3)
Class H
141(2)
G and H, the comparison
143(3)
Beyond analogue
146(7)
Class D
147(5)
`Digital' amplification
152(1)
Class summary
153(2)
Introducing modes of control
155(9)
Negative feedback modes
156(6)
Other Error Correction Modes
162(2)
Conclusions
164(5)
References and Further reading
168(1)
Features of the power stage
169(62)
Overview
169(2)
Operating with high voltages
169(1)
Operating with high currents
170(1)
Power devices
171(13)
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
171(6)
Mosfets (enhancement-mode power FETs)
177(6)
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT)
183(1)
Recognising large signals
184(7)
The slew limit
185(6)
RF stability
191(2)
Power stage, critical layout requirements
191(1)
Critical nodes
192(1)
V&I limits on output, the context
193(20)
V-I output capability
198(2)
V-I output limiting (adverse load protection)
200(10)
Mapping V-I capability
210(1)
Audio protection, by fuse
211(2)
Clip indication - external relations
213(5)
Overdrive behaviour - internal relations
215(1)
Output stability and the output network (OPN)
215(2)
RF protection
217(1)
DC offset, at output
218(2)
DC (Fault) protection (DCP, DCFP)
219(1)
The output interface
220(2)
Muting systems
221(1)
Output stage, cooling requirements
222(6)
Heat exchange
224(2)
Thermal protection
226(2)
Logical systems
228(1)
Output transformers
228(3)
References and Further reading
230(1)
The power supply
231(26)
Mains frequency (50/60Hz) supplies
231(9)
50/60Hz EMI considerations
235(2)
Surge handling
237(1)
Actively-adaptive 50/60Hz PSU
238(1)
Regulated 50/60Hz `passive' supplies
239(1)
Supply amongst channels
240(3)
Bridge benefits
242(1)
Operation with 3 Phase AC
242(1)
Pulse-width power (PWM PSU)
243(8)
HF power supplies (SMPS, HF switchers)
244(3)
Resonant power
247(3)
The higher adaptive PSUs
250(1)
HF switching summary
250(1)
Power supply (PSU) efficiency round-up
251(2)
Amplifier efficiency summary
252(1)
Power supply fusing
253(4)
References and Further reading
256(1)
Specifications and testing
257(58)
Why specifications?
257(2)
Types of spec
257(2)
Standards for audio power amps
259(1)
Why test things?
259(6)
Test tools and orientation
260(1)
Realtime test signals
261(3)
The test equipment revolution
264(1)
Physical environment
265(7)
Mains measurement and conditioning
265(1)
Power amplifier preconditioning
266(2)
The test load
268(4)
Frequency response (Bandwidth, BW)
272(9)
Gain and balance
274(2)
Output impedance (Zo)
276(2)
Damping factor
278(1)
Phase response
278(3)
Introducing noise
281(5)
Noise spectra
282(1)
Breakthrough and crosstalk (channel separation)
283(1)
Understanding CMR measurements
284(1)
Measuring CMR
285(1)
Input impedance (Zin)
286(1)
Introducing harmonic distortion
286(18)
Harmonics: the musical context
289(4)
Harmonic distortion (THD, %THD+N)
293(4)
Individual harmonic analysis (IHA)
297(1)
Intermodulation (% IMD, Intermod)
298(4)
Dynamic intermodulation (% DIM 30/100)
302(1)
Sundry intermodulation checks
303(1)
Other distortion tests
303(1)
Power output (Po)
304(4)
Output voltage capability (Vo rms, MOL)
305(1)
Dynamic output capability
306(1)
Clipping symmetry
307(1)
Dynamic range
308(1)
Dynamic tests
308(7)
Rise time (small signal attack)
308(1)
Slew limit (slew rate, large signal attack)
309(1)
Transient response (impulse response)
310(2)
Peak output current capability
312(2)
References and Further reading
314(1)
Real world testing - rationale and procedures
315(16)
Scope and why essential
315(1)
Listening
315(2)
Operable mains range
317(4)
Inrush current
318(1)
Soft start
319(1)
Mains current draw
320(1)
Signal present indication and metering
321(1)
Clip indication
322(1)
DC at the input
322(1)
RF at input
322(1)
Large signals at input
323(1)
Output DC offset (output offset, Voos)
323(4)
RF at output
324(1)
Adverse loads
325(1)
Adverse load proving
325(1)
Adverse loads, low loads and shorting
325(2)
Adverse loads, reactive
327(1)
Hard drive testing
327(1)
Thermal protection and monitoring
327(1)
Muting behaviour
328(1)
Acoustic noise
328(1)
EMI and EMC
329(2)
References and Further reading
330(1)
Choice, application installation and set-up
331(46)
Manufactured goods, a resume
331(9)
Choosing the right power amp, domestic
332(3)
Choosing the right power amp, for pro users
335(5)
Howlers
340(2)
AC mains voltage
342(14)
Safety earthing
344(2)
Mains cabling
346(2)
Power factor correction
348(1)
Mains fuses and breakers
349(1)
AC mains connectors, amplifier end
350(2)
AC mains connectors, the power-end
352(1)
Mains wiring practice, domestic and studio
352(4)
Input connections
356(6)
Balanced polarity and shielding
359(1)
Quasi balanced (unbal-to-bal)
360(1)
Input cabling
361(1)
Output connections
362(9)
Speaker cabling
367(3)
Impedance setting
370(1)
Output polarity
370(1)
Placement and fitment
371(3)
Cooling airflow conventions
371(2)
Cooling and air pollution
373(1)
The 1 to 5 of prudent amplifier use
374(3)
System back-end troubleshooting
374(2)
References and Further reading
376(1)
Maintenance and surgery
377(80)
Classifying failures
377(2)
Problem solving procedures
379(1)
Universal repair procedures
379(10)
Repair tools and equipment
389(4)
Useful tools
389(1)
Test powering tools
390(2)
Audio test tools
392(1)
Testing components
393(5)
Testing BJTs (bipolar transistors)
393(2)
Testing Mosfets
395(2)
Testing diodes, zeners and LEDs
397(1)
Scope traces
398(3)
References and Further reading
400(1)
Useful addresses for maintenance
400(1)
Appendices
1 History
401(8)
2 Makers' listings
409(6)
A-Z, under principal use
409(4)
A-Z of integrated loudspeaker-amplifier makers
413(1)
Principal output device, by number of makers
414(1)
3 Active devices
415(8)
A Bipolar transistors, silicon
416(4)
B Lateral power Mosfets
420(1)
C Power D-Mosfets
421(1)
D Thermionic valves (electron tubes)
422(1)
4 Power amplifier terminology
423(34)
Index 457

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