9780444512666

High Pressure Geochemistry & Mineral Physics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780444512666

  • ISBN10:

    0444512667

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-12-30
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Significant achievements have been made at the cross-roads of physics and planetary science. In the second half of the twentieth century, the discipline of planetary sciences has witnessed three major episodes which have revolutionized its approach and content: (i) the plate-tectonic theory, (ii) human landing and discoveries in planetary astronomy and (iii) the extraordinary technical advancement in high P-T studies, which have been abetted by a vast improvement in computational methods. Using these new computational methods, such as first principles including ab initio models, calculations have been made for the electronic structure, bonding, thermal EOS, elasticity, melting, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. In this monograph, the boundaries of the definitions of a petrologist, geochemist, geophysicist or a mineralogist have been willfully eliminated to bring them all under the spectrum of "high-pressure geochemistry" when they deal with any material (quintessentially a chemical assemblage) - terrestrial or extraterrestrial - under the conditions of high-pressure and temperature. Thus, a petrologist using a spectrometer or any instrument for high-pressure studies of a rock or a mineral, or a geochemist using them for chemical synthesis and characterization, is better categorized as a "high-pressure geochemist" rather than any other kind of disciplinarian. The contents of this monograph bring together, under one cover, apparently disparate disciplines like solid-earth geophysics and geochemistry as well as material science and condensed-matter physics to present a thorough overview of high pressure geochemistry. Indeed, such interdisciplinary activities led to the discovery of new phenomena such as high P-T behaviour in metal oxides (e.g. Mott transition), novel transitions such as amorphization, changes in order-disorder in crystals and the anomalous properties of oxide melts.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Acknowledgements ix
Section A: Preamble and Preview
Section B: The Earth and Planetary System
Cosmochemistry and Properties of Light Element Compounds
17(160)
Introduction
19(4)
Range of pressure in the universe
21(1)
The proto-solar nebula
21(2)
Cosmochemistry
23(8)
Data source
23(1)
Chemical segregation in nebular condensation
24(1)
The Solar System
24(1)
Meteorites
25(5)
Inner planets: major constituents and phases
30(1)
Evolutionary history of the Solar System: terrestrial planetary formation
31(5)
Interplanetary flights of planetary materials
31(1)
Primary chemical elements for life
32(2)
Microorganisms under pressure: clues to HP genesis of life
34(1)
Biogenesis
34(2)
Primitive atmosphere
36(1)
Charge density within planetary interiors
36(1)
Electrons under pressure
37(1)
Forces binding atoms
37(7)
Van der Waals forces
38(1)
Van der Waals compounds: new materials
38(3)
Ionic compounds
41(1)
Simple ionic model
41(1)
Overlap- and self-energy: pair-potential
42(1)
Ions in distorted lattice
42(1)
Multipoles and polarization
43(1)
Covalent and hydrogen bonding
43(1)
Pressure rupturing of the binding forces
44(1)
Helioseismology and Jovian structures
44(1)
Planetary constituents under pressure
45(3)
Transition pressure
48(1)
Hydrogen
48(22)
Hydrogen molecular states
50(3)
Vibrational properties
53(1)
Vibrational excitations
54(1)
Experiments (P>300 GPa)
55(1)
Vibrons
55(1)
Phonons
55(2)
Rotons and librons
57(1)
Hydrogen bridges
57(1)
Quantum condensate, BEC
58(1)
Proton quantum tunnelling
58(1)
Insulator--metal transition
59(1)
Solid hydrogen: frustrating metallic behaviour
60(1)
Black hydrogen and metallization
61(1)
>300 GPa
62(1)
Effective charge: phase III
62(1)
Solid hydrogen: alkali metal(?) at 340 GPa
63(1)
Ortho- and para-hydrogen
63(1)
Ortho-para conversion: quantum solid state
64(1)
Conversion energy channels: EQQ
65(1)
Hydrogen in Jupiter
66(1)
H in terrestrial planets
67(1)
Hydrogen in the Earth's minerals
67(1)
Water in the Earth: D/H ratios
68(2)
H/H2O in mantle phases
70(1)
Water and ammonia in Uranus and Neptune
70(4)
Electrical conductivity: ``synthetic Uranus''
71(1)
Metallicity(?) of water and ammonia
71(1)
Water: structural order and anomalies
72(1)
Proton (and oxygen) diffusion in water
73(1)
Superionic solid state
73(1)
Ammonia: superionic state
73(1)
H2 mixtures and clathrates
74(2)
H2--O2 mixture: ``Hard Spheres''
74(1)
CH4--H2 and Ar--H2 systems: Laves phases
75(1)
Laves phases
75(1)
N2--CH4: Titan
76(1)
H2O
76(17)
Bonding: covalency
76(2)
Hydrodynamics
78(1)
H2O--ice structure: ``ice rules''
78(1)
Reflectance spectra
79(1)
Entropy of ice
79(1)
Ferroelectric alignment
80(2)
Spin ice
82(2)
Ice Ih, III, IV, V and VI: phase diagram
84(1)
Ice VI in diamond
84(1)
Ice Ih: stability boundary
84(1)
Proton ordering/disordering: new phase
85(1)
Higher isomorphs: ices VII, VIII and X
86(1)
Ice VII: as pressure medium
87(1)
Supercooled water
88(1)
Amorphous ice polymorphism: high-density and low-density
89(2)
Diffraction study
91(1)
LDA ice, ice Ih and quenched water: vibrational spectra
91(1)
VHDA ice
92(1)
Deuterium at high pressure: Saturn's core
93(3)
Deuterium in Mars
94(1)
D/H ratios in minerals
95(1)
D/H ratio in extraterrestrial and subsurface water
95(1)
Alkali metals: Li to Cs
96(2)
``Nearly-free electron'' behaviour
97(1)
Fermi pressure in lithium isotopes
98(1)
CO2
98(2)
Stability of CO2 polymorphs: CO2-V quartz-like
99(1)
H2O--CO2 mixture
99(1)
Carbon in space and in the Earth
100(27)
Fullerites and nano-crystallites
102(2)
Carbon polymorphs
104(1)
Carbon in the Earth
104(1)
Carbon in high P--T: stability
105(2)
C, Si and Ge
107(1)
Carbon-bonding structure
108(1)
Graphite and diamond phases
109(1)
Superhard graphite
109(1)
Resistivity and phase transition
110(1)
Pre-solar nano-diamonds
110(1)
Terrestrial occurrence
111(3)
Carbon isotopes
114(1)
Oxygen and carbon-12 (C-12) evolution on the Earth
115(1)
12C/13C ratios: interstellar
115(1)
Raman line: P, T calibration
115(1)
14C diamond: elastic moduli
116(1)
Optical behaviour of diamond: flow and pressure-luminescence
116(2)
Carbon clusters
118(1)
Charged carbon clusters: low-P diamond
118(1)
C-nanotubes
119(1)
Fullerenes
119(5)
Organic minerals in meteorites: shock loading
124(2)
Amino-acid racemization: chirality retention
126(1)
Vitrinite maturation
127(1)
Nitrogen
127(1)
Sulphur
128(3)
Terrestrial Planets
129(2)
Early geochemical evolution
131(2)
Chondritic character of terrestrial bodies
131(1)
Chemical differentiation: siderophile elements
132(1)
Accretionary evolution of the Earth
133(1)
Compositional characteristics of the Earth
134(5)
Magma ocean generation and crustal fractionation in early Earth
135(1)
Early crust
136(3)
Fluids within the Earth
139(6)
Water in the Earth
139(2)
Water in the magmatic processes
141(1)
Fluids in the lower crust: granulites
142(1)
Mantle fluids
142(1)
Atmospheric noble gases in mantle melts
143(1)
Inert gases: solar-like?
144(1)
Ar, Kr and Xe
144(1)
Ar solubility
144(1)
The ``missing xenon problem''
145(1)
Potassium budget in the Earth's mantle
145(2)
K-feldspar/Hollandite
145(1)
Phlogopite
146(1)
Clinopyroxene
146(1)
K2O in mantle solidus: seismic attenuation
146(1)
Mantle isotopes
147(7)
Sm--Nd ratios
147(1)
Eu anomaly
148(1)
Sr, Nd and Hf
148(1)
Osmium
148(1)
187Re and 187Os
148(1)
U--Pb and Re--Os ratio
149(1)
Isotopes in MORB and hotspots
150(1)
Isotopes in UHP rocks
151(1)
18O isotopes: non-equilibration
152(1)
δ18O: an example for isotope separation
152(2)
3He/4He reservoirs
154(3)
Heavy Element Compounds
155(2)
Ferrous metals in rocky planets
157(1)
Element distribution in mineral system
157(3)
Partitioning of elements
158(1)
Siderophile elements
158(1)
Incompatible elements
159(1)
Transition metals in magmas: CFSE
160(10)
Principles of metal distribution in magmatic differentiation
161(2)
Transition-element partitioning in mineral systems
163(1)
Ni2+ and Co2+: pressure partitioning
164(1)
Cr3+, Ni2+, Fe3+ and Ti4+ ions
165(1)
Cr2+, Ni2+ and Co3+ ions
165(1)
Ni--Co partitioning
166(1)
Plutonic rocks and metal concentration
167(1)
Highly siderophile elements
168(2)
Ca--Al and Mg--Si proportionation in the mantle
170(2)
Critical ratios
171(1)
Core differentiation / heterogeneous accretion
172(3)
182W fractionation and Hf/W ratio
173(1)
Hf/W in early history
173(2)
Core:Re/Os
175(1)
40K in the core
175(2)
Petro-Tectonic Features of Terrestrial Planets
177(106)
Introduction
177(1)
The Earth models
178(10)
The PREM model
178(2)
Seismological models
180(1)
Elastic constants
181(1)
Petrological models
181(3)
Pyrolite model
184(1)
Piclogite model
184(1)
Convection model
185(2)
Mantle convection at Archean--Proterozoic transition
187(1)
Mantle Raleigh number and flush instability at late Archean
188(1)
Physical parameters
188(5)
Parameter changes with depths
189(1)
Lithosphere
190(2)
Parameterized PREM model: EOS
192(1)
Seismic model: discontinuities
193(2)
Seismic discontinuities: Moho to the D'' zone
194(1)
Thermal structures of the Earth's mantle
195(8)
Temperature--depth relation
196(3)
Heat sources and heat flow
199(1)
Thermal anomalies
200(1)
Upper mantle
200(1)
Lower mantle
200(1)
Thermal structure of the core and CMB
201(1)
Adiabatic gradient
202(1)
Deviations from adiabaticity
203(1)
Heat flow and plate tectonics
203(1)
Elastic parameters of the Earth's interior
203(18)
Stress and strain
204(1)
Strain tensor
205(1)
Zero-pressure bulk modulus, K0: Eulerian strain
205(1)
Seismic waves
206(1)
P- and S-waves in seismic discontinuities and in the core
207(1)
Minor discontinuities (reflective)
208(1)
Wave velocities in the lower crust
208(1)
Wave velocities in lower mantle: T effects
209(1)
Crustal plates and earthquakes
210(2)
Strain transients and earthquakes, co- and post-seismic
212(3)
Precursors to earthquakes
215(2)
Acoustic and ultrasonic wave-velocities
217(1)
Ultrasonic velocities and Q in porous rocks
217(1)
Subcrustal stress fields: ore localization
218(1)
Gravitational field models: degree harmonics and mantle flow
218(1)
Tools for sub-surface studies
219(1)
GPS in tectonic studies
219(1)
Mars global surveyor (MGS)
220(1)
The crust and cratons (``keels'')
221(2)
Continental lithosphere
221(1)
Subcontinental mantle
221(1)
Plate tectonics, magmatism and hotspots
222(1)
The mantle
223(6)
Geochemistry
223(1)
Mantle end members
224(1)
Petro-tectonics
225(1)
Xenoliths
226(1)
Deep-mantle flow and Wilson cycle: American Cordillera
226(1)
Diversification of rock types
226(1)
Petrogeny's residua system
226(1)
Effusive rocks
227(1)
Calc-alkaline magmatism: LIL enrichment and ``Pb paradox''
228(1)
Earth's rheology and dynamism
229(4)
Lithospheric rheology and dynamism
229(2)
Mantle rheology
231(1)
Decompression and magma fragmentation
231(1)
Seismic tomography: Iceland hotspot and Nazca plate
231(1)
Anomalous low-velocity zone
232(1)
Convergent plate boundaries
233(11)
Subducting slabs
233(2)
Slab tomography: volatiles and partial melting
235(1)
Deflections of seismic discontinuities: NW Pacific subduction
235(1)
Deep-focus earthquakes: fossil slab at transition zone
236(1)
Subducting mafic, ultramafic rocks and sediments
237(1)
Subduction of oceanic lithosphere: upper to lower mantle
237(2)
Mid-oceanic ridge basalt
239(2)
Mantle wedge
241(1)
Arc magmatism: alkali and H2O activity
242(1)
Hotspots and mantle plumes: OIB versus MORB
243(1)
Iceland mantle plume
243(1)
Plumes and underplating
244(1)
Megaplumes
244(1)
Upper mantle
244(12)
Upper-mantle anisotropy
246(1)
Mantle minerals versus discontinuities
247(2)
Upper mantle
249(1)
400, 520 and 670 km discontinuities
249(1)
Ca-phases in mantle discontinuities
250(1)
Mantle melting and extraction
250(1)
Deep-mantle melting: melt sinking
251(1)
Depletion and mixing: non-Newtonian high-viscosity blobs
251(1)
Peridotite mineralogy at depths
252(1)
Mantle silicate framework
253(3)
Lower mantle
256(4)
Phases
256(2)
Solidus in the lower mantle
258(1)
Fe, Si enrichment in the lower mantle
258(1)
Effects of Fe
259(1)
P- and S-velocities and shear modulus
260(1)
Core-mantle boundary
260(7)
Minerals at CMB
261(1)
Hotspots and CMB
262(1)
Anisotropic structures at CMB
263(1)
Seismic anisotropy in D'' layer
263(3)
Anisotropy caused by paleo-slabs
266(1)
Carribbean and Pacific evidence
266(1)
Reaction between mantle and liquid-core
267(3)
Ultra-low-velocity zone
269(1)
The Earth's magnetism and orbital obliquity
270(1)
Mantle plume and geomagnetic reversals
270(1)
Mars
271(9)
Crust and mantle
271(1)
SNC and LHB: ALH 84001
272(1)
Martian mantle composition
272(3)
Mantle geochemistry: SNC
275(1)
Mantle-phase stability: MB versus KLB
276(1)
Fe-rich Martian mantle: density increase
277(2)
Olivine--spinel phase transition
279(1)
Mantle-flow: viscosity
279(1)
Magmatic water in Mars
279(1)
Magnetism
280(1)
Core formation and magnetism
280(1)
Venus
280(1)
Gabbro → eclogite transition in Venus
281(1)
Mercury
281(1)
Galilean satellites
282(1)
Interplanetary flights of planetary materials
282(1)
Structural Types of Major Phases: AB, AB2, A2B3, ABX3, ABX4, AB2X4 and A2B2X7
283(38)
AB structures
283(11)
NaCl (B1): alkali halides
286(1)
Exciton in alkali halides
287(2)
NaCl structure at lower mantle
289(2)
CsCl (B2) structure
291(1)
Cs-halide (B2), CsI: metallization
291(1)
Convergence with rare gas: solid Xe
291(2)
NiAs (B8) structure
293(1)
Chemical bonding
293(1)
Hexagonal close packing and c/a ratio
294(1)
AB2 structure
294(8)
SiO2 polymorphs
296(1)
Si-coordination
297(1)
Polarization and chirality
297(1)
TiO2
298(2)
Cotunnite type: hardest polymorph
300(1)
Crystallographic shear (cs) planes
300(1)
Post-stishovite phase
300(1)
Stishovite(TiO2) → α-PbO2 structural transformation
301(1)
Baddeleyite-type structure
301(1)
A2B3 structure
302(5)
Fe2O3
303(1)
Structural and spin transition
304(1)
X-ray emission spectra
305(1)
Al2O3
306(1)
Quadrupole polarizability
307(1)
ABX3
307(2)
Perovskite--ilmenite
307(1)
Ilmenite structure: stability
308(1)
Polymorphism of FeTiO3: LiNbO3 structure
309(1)
Ilmenite solution in olivine: Alpe Arami massif
309(1)
ABX4
309(4)
Berlinite/scheelite structure: AWO4
310(1)
Berlinite and crystobalite: AlPO4
310(3)
GaPO4 and AlAsO4
313(1)
A2BX4 structure
313(3)
Tetragonal structure: K2NiO4
313(2)
Spinel structure
315(1)
A2B2X7
316(5)
Pyrochlore structure
316(1)
Frustration and magnetic ``spin ice''
316(1)
Tl2Mn2O7: GMR
317(4)
Section C: Basics for Pressures Studies
Principles of Techniques
321(80)
Introduction
321(12)
Insulator--metal transition
322(4)
Mott insulators
326(1)
High-pressure techniques
326(3)
Synchrotron source
329(1)
Synchrotron radiation
329(1)
Multi-anvil and DAC
330(2)
Measurement techniques
332(1)
Diamond-anvil cell
333(7)
Properties of the gaskets
333(1)
Pressure medium and calibration
334(2)
Quasi-hydrostatic stress
336(1)
Shear stress (σ)
336(1)
Reference-phase transitions
337(1)
CaO--MgO--SiO2 system
337(1)
Temperature control
338(1)
Cryogenic methods
338(1)
Laser heating
338(1)
Ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+) calibration
338(2)
Diamond window
340(1)
Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell
340(1)
Pressure calibration
340(1)
Diffraction and spectroscopic techniques in pressure studies
341(46)
Optical spectroscopy
341(1)
Crystal-field under pressure: theory
342(4)
Transition-metal compounds: ionic model
346(2)
Pressure on crystal-field parameters
348(1)
Racah parameters and band shifts
349(1)
Examples: Cr3+ -bearing minerals
350(2)
Intervalence charge transfer
352(1)
O → M charge transfer
352(1)
M--M bonding and Cr dimerization
353(1)
Crystal-field effect on transition pressure
353(1)
Exchange-coupled pair bands
354(1)
CFSE and elastic property change: Fe2+
355(1)
Volume compressibility and crystal-field splitting
355(1)
Vibrational spectroscopy
356(2)
Soft modes
358(1)
Pressure relationship
359(1)
Infrared
360(2)
Raman spectroscopy
362(4)
Second-order Raman scattering: disordering
366(1)
Non-linear optical methods
367(1)
Brillouin scattering
367(2)
Ultrasound spectroscopy
369(2)
Instrumentation
371(1)
Fluorescence spectroscopy
371(1)
Experiments
372(1)
Side-band fluorescence ultrasonic technique
372(2)
Photoluminescence spectroscopy
374(1)
Photo-emission method
375(1)
X-ray diffraction
375(2)
Radial X-ray diffraction (RXD): deviatoric stress
377(3)
Density determination
380(1)
High-pressure XRD (powder) study: An example of MgSiO3 ilmenite
380(1)
Mossbauer spectroscopy
380(2)
Pressure dependence of isomer shift (δ0)
382(1)
Quadrupole splitting (ΔEQ)
383(1)
NMR spectroscopy
384(1)
Pressure effects on proton NMR spectra
385(1)
Thermoluminescence
386(1)
ZnS phosphor
387(1)
Trap depths
387(1)
Computational simulations
387(11)
Introduction
387(1)
Ab initio methods
388(1)
First-principles approximations
388(2)
Density functional theory: Kohn--Sham equations
390(1)
LCAO model
391(1)
Molecular dynamics simulation
392(1)
Inter-atomic potential
393(1)
Tight-binding total-energy model
393(1)
Potential-induced breathing model
394(1)
Variationally induced breathing model: MgO
394(1)
Electronic approximations: ``Muffin tin'', KSS and Bloch's theorem
395(1)
Double exchange (DE) model
396(2)
LMTO method vs. APW and KKR
398(1)
Average pair correlation function for NN geometry: SiO2 glass
398(1)
Shock pressure studies
398(3)
(Crystalline) Materials Under High Pressure
401(114)
Material properties
401(18)
Thermodynamics, equilibrium and time interval
404(1)
Many-body systems and broken symmetry
404(1)
Crystalline symmetries: 5-fold symmetry, icosahedra and quasi-crystals
404(1)
Broken symmetry
405(1)
Electron excitations and band gaps
406(1)
Dielectric properties
407(1)
Electronic and magnetic behaviour
407(1)
Ionicity in bonding: Madelung forces
408(1)
Covalent bonding and hardness
409(1)
Hardness and bulk moduli
409(1)
Phonon-s and band states
409(1)
Elasticity
410(1)
Elastic anisotropy
411(1)
Elastic constants: crystal systems
412(3)
Cauchy relation and its violations
415(1)
Born's stability criteria: B1, B2 and B3
416(2)
Thermoelasticity
418(1)
Atomic vibrations in crystals: phonon-s
419(5)
Elastic waves in crystals
420(1)
Shock waves
420(1)
Shock velocity and particle velocity
421(2)
Shock-induced transitions
423(1)
Inelastic and non-hydrostatic states
424(4)
Stress states
424(1)
Non-hydrostatic stress
425(1)
Crystallographic shear
426(1)
Shear and deformational twinning
427(1)
Strain anisotropy in crystalline mass: e.g., hcp iron
427(1)
Spontaneous strain
428(3)
Spontaneous strain and order parameter
429(2)
Strain tensor
431(1)
Bulk modulus of ionic compounds
432(1)
Molar volume
432(1)
Shear modulus: mantle perovskite
432(1)
Magnetic features
433(4)
Ferromagnetism
433(1)
Curie temperature
433(1)
Ferrimagnetism
434(1)
Spin states of iron
434(1)
Electronic/magnetic ordering: examples
435(1)
Magnetic collapse: oxides and perovskites
435(1)
Magnetism in phase stability
436(1)
Magnetic frustration
437(1)
Polyhedral changes
437(21)
Elasticity of MgO6 and SiO6 octahedra: MgSiO3 ilmenite
440(1)
Anisotropic deformation: decompression
441(1)
Radius ratio and coordination changes
442(1)
Five-fold coordination: silicon and titanium
443(3)
Thermal expansivity and deformation equivalence (α/β)
446(2)
Volume compressibility: negative
448(1)
Relative compressibilities
449(1)
Thermodynamic parameters and EOS
449(1)
P--V--T data and EOS
449(1)
Birch EOS
450(1)
Equations of state: density ratio
451(2)
Bulk moduli: isothermal and isentropic
453(1)
K of mineral mixture: Reuss bound and Voigt bound
454(1)
Crystal-field spectra
454(1)
Velocity--volume relationship
455(1)
Velocity--density relationship: rules
455(1)
Stretch densification
456(1)
Compressibility and Si--O--Si bending
457(1)
Ionic compressibilities
457(1)
Free and thermal energies: phase boundaries
458(17)
Free energy
459(1)
Free energy change and phase boundary
460(1)
Volume change and ΔH
461(1)
Activation volume and activation enthalpy
461(1)
Communal entropy: fluid
462(2)
Heat capacity, entropy and phase boundaries
464(2)
Thermal-expansion coefficient
466(1)
α values: spectroscopic vs. volumetric
467(2)
Gruneisen parameter (γ)
469(1)
Mode Gruneisen (M-G) parameter
469(1)
Thermal Gruneisen parameter (γth)
469(1)
Density and Gruneisen parameter
470(1)
Debye model
471(1)
Anderson--Gruneisen parameter
471(1)
Vinet equation
471(1)
Holzapfel equation
472(1)
Logarithmic equation
472(1)
Microscopic and macroscopic
472(1)
Thermal expansion and crystal-field changes
473(1)
Radiative-heat transport
473(1)
Thermal pressure: Eularian strain
474(1)
Thermal pressure as a function of volume
475(1)
Phase transitions
475(21)
Mixed and quasi-stable phases
476(4)
Lattice disorder
480(1)
Silicon: β-tin → hcp
480(1)
Cation distribution and order--disorder
480(1)
Incommensurate phases
481(1)
Order of transition: first order and second order
481(1)
Order parameters
482(1)
Superlattice ordering
482(1)
Structural changes
482(1)
Phase changes: principles and types
483(1)
Thermal transformations
484(1)
Soft modes
484(1)
Order parameter (η). Free energy and transition temperature
484(2)
Landau theory
486(2)
Landau order parameter
488(1)
Origin of doubled-well potential, V(η)
489(1)
Rigid-unit mode: ``split atoms'' and energy spectra
489(1)
Pressure-induced order--disorder
490(1)
Fe--Mg ordering in silicates
491(1)
Structural disordering and twinning
492(1)
Free energy and order parameter (Q)
493(1)
Order parameter (Q) and strain (ε) in phase transition
494(1)
Isosymmetric transitions
494(1)
Energetics of iso-symmetric transition
495(1)
Growth rates
495(1)
Charge distribution in ionic solids: valence and core states
496(9)
Ionic solid under compression: MgO
498(1)
Band-gap change: implication in lower mantle
498(1)
High-spin--low-spin transition
499(1)
Energy change in spin transition
499(4)
Spin-pairing in the lower mantle
503(1)
Pressure dissolution and substitution
504(1)
Amorphization
505(10)
Pressure-induced amorphization
505(2)
Metastability and reversible amorphization
507(1)
Non-hydrostatic pressure and amorphization
507(1)
Disordering and amorphization: Raman scattering
508(1)
Non-bonded atoms and steric hindrances
508(1)
Memory glass: AlPO4
509(1)
Solid--liquid (melt) stability boundary
509(1)
Law of melting: Lindemann
509(6)
Section D: Mineral Systems
MgO--FeO--SiO2 (MFS) System: Olivines and Pyroxenes
515(98)
Introduction
515(8)
Stability of binary oxides and ternary phases
518(2)
MgO--FeO--SiO2: thermodynamic data and phase equilibria in the mantle
520(3)
MFS system in Mars
523(1)
Mg-olivines
524(30)
Olivines in the mantle: pyrolite model
525(2)
Mg2SiO4--Fe2SiO4 system: binary loop in the mantle
527(3)
Fe--Mg in α--β phases: ordering
530(1)
Thermal properties of MgO--SiO2 system
531(1)
Nucleation rates
532(1)
Elasticity
533(1)
San Carlos olivine
534(3)
Mode-Gruneisen parameter
537(1)
(Mn, Fe, Co) olivines: compressibility
537(1)
Post-spinel transitions: phase-boundary study
538(1)
OH-- ions
539(1)
OH-bearing planar defects
540(2)
Inter-diffusion and activation volume, V*
542(1)
Seismic and acoustic velocities: Vp and Vs
542(1)
α--β system
543(2)
Fe/Mg in velocity relation
545(1)
Minor element partitioning in α → β transformation
546(1)
Cr3+ and Al3+ in wadsleyite
547(1)
Ti4+ in olivine/wadsleyite
548(1)
Cr2+ in olivine structure
548(1)
Partition coefficients: olivine--melt
548(1)
Al3+ partitioning: Onuma diagram
549(2)
Compressibility and amorphization
551(3)
β-Mg2SiO4 (wadsleyite)
554(10)
Single-crystal elasticity
554(3)
Hydrous wadsleyite, β-Mg2-xSiHexO4 (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.25)
557(3)
H2O in α--β transition
560(2)
Mg-vacant structural module
562(1)
Fe in wadsleyite II
563(1)
Fe3+ in protonation
563(1)
Olivine → spinel transition: CFS
564(10)
Oxygen sublattice transformation (hcp → fcc): partial dislocations
565(1)
Olivine--spinel compressibility
566(1)
γ-Mg2SiO4 (ringwoodite and inverse ringwoodite)
567(1)
Under pressure
568(2)
Thermodynamics
570(1)
Symmetry analysis
571(2)
Olivine-(enstatite)--spinel nucleation in subducting lithosphere
573(1)
Hydrous ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4)
573(1)
Fe2SiO4 systems
574(4)
γ-Fe2SiO4 spinel
575(1)
Fe2SiO4--Fe3O4 system
575(1)
Cr2SiO4: Cr2+ orthosilicates
576(1)
XRD and electronic spectroscopy
576(1)
M--M bonding and Cr dimerization
577(1)
Compressional anisotropy
577(1)
Ni2SiO4: deformation
577(1)
Mg2GeO4 olivine
577(1)
Pyroxenes
578(35)
Structural chains and angles
581(1)
MgSiO3--FeSiO3 system
581(1)
MgSiO3 orthopyroxene
582(3)
Orthoenstitite--clinoenstatite: LCLEN → HCLEN
585(3)
Aluminous orthopyroxene: elasticity and velocities
588(1)
MD simulation
589(1)
Ab initio simulation: Hartree--Fock
590(1)
Clinopyroxene
590(1)
C2/c clinoenstatite
591(1)
Diopside--hedenbergite join
592(7)
Enstatite--diopside--jadeite join: garnet
599(3)
Clinopyroxene and anorthite
602(1)
Potassium in clinopyroxene
602(1)
Pyroxene--garnet transition: Martian mantle
603(3)
FeSiO3: clinoferrosilite
606(4)
Na-pyroxene
610(2)
Akermanite, CaMgSi2O7: incommensurate to normal phase transition
612(1)
(K2O, Na2O, CaO)--Al2O3--SiO2 System
613(26)
KAlSi3O8--NaAlSi3O8--CaAlSi3O8 felspars
613(7)
Bulk moduli
615(2)
Compressibilities: M--O and <T--O--T>
617(2)
Unit strains in felspars
619(1)
KAlSi3O8 system
620(3)
Stability
621(1)
Phase relations
622(1)
Displacive-phase transition
623(1)
Hollandite-type compounds
623(2)
Pb--hollandite
624(1)
Anorthoclase (KAlSi3O8--NaAlSi3O8)
625(1)
Phase relations
625(1)
Plagioclase felspars (NaAlSi3O8--CaAl2Si2O8)
626(11)
Albite, NaAlSi3O8
626(1)
Al--Si order--disorder
627(1)
Low albite: <Al--O--Si> change
628(1)
Anorthite, CaAl2Si2O8
629(1)
Al--Si order--disorder
630(1)
Structure
631(1)
Phase diagram
632(2)
P1 ↔ P1 transition: non-ferroic displacive
634(1)
Amorphization
635(1)
Shock transition to glass: Raman results
635(1)
P1 ↔ I1 29Si MAS-NMR spectroscopic study
636(1)
Reedmergnerite, NaBSiO8
637(2)
Al2O3--SiO2 and (CaO--MgO)--Al2O3--SiO2 Systems
639(34)
Al2O3--SiO2 system
639(7)
Sillimanite and andalusite
641(1)
Kyanite
642(3)
Bulk modulus
645(1)
dP/dT slope and stability
646(1)
CaO--MgO--Al2O3--SiO2 (CMAS) system
646(27)
Thermodynamic equilibria parameters of CMAS system
648(1)
Garnet structure
649(3)
Andradite
652(1)
Pyrope Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
652(2)
Pyrope → ilmenite → perovskite transformation: Al-content
654(1)
Almandine (Fe3Al2Si3O12) break-down
654(1)
Factors for garnet compression
655(1)
Bulk moduli
656(1)
Thermal expansion
657(1)
YAG
658(1)
Mg--Cr--garnet
658(2)
Cr, Al fractionation in garnets
660(1)
Tetragonal garnets
661(1)
Majorite garnet
662(6)
Compressibility
668(1)
Bulk modulus
668(1)
Vibrational modes: I41/la
669(1)
Ca--garnets
669(1)
Andradite--skiagite solid solution
670(1)
Calderite garnet, Mn3Fe32+Si3O12
671(2)
AB2X4 Structure
673(38)
Oxide Spinels
675(2)
Introduction
677(8)
Normal/inverse spinels
679(1)
CFSE in spinels
680(1)
JT effect
681(1)
Crystal structure
681(1)
Compressibility
682(1)
High-pressure studies
683(1)
Compressibility
683(2)
Polyhedral bulk moduli, K
685(1)
MgAl2O4 spinel
685(5)
Spectral models
687(1)
Cr3+ in MgAl2O4
688(1)
(MgAl2O4)x (Fe3O4)1--x solid solution
688(1)
Order--disorder (OD): cation partitioning
688(1)
Magnetic behaviour: MS
689(1)
Magnetite, Fe3O4
690(11)
h-Fe3O4
693(1)
EOS and molar volume
694(1)
Neel temperature, TN
695(1)
Pressure dependence of u and a
696(1)
Polyhedral bulk modulus, K
697(1)
Ca-ferrite structure
697(1)
CaMn2O4 and Mn3O4
698(1)
Fe3O4, MgAl2O4 and γ-Ni2SiO4 spinels
698(1)
MgAl2O4 and MgO: elastic constants and sound velocities
699(1)
Electrical resistivity
700(1)
γ-Fe2O3
701(1)
Cr-spinels, MCr2O4 (M = Mg, Mn, Zn): decomposition
701(10)
Oxidation of Cr-spinel
702(1)
OD in Cr-spinels
703(1)
Thermopower (Q) and conductivity
703(1)
Defects and electrical behaviour
704(1)
Shocked chromite
705(1)
Chromite: post-spinel orthorhombic polymorph
706(1)
Chromite: Raman bands
706(1)
Sulfide Spinels
707(2)
ZnCr2S4 spinel
709(2)
ABX3, Perovskite--Ilmenite Structure
711(82)
Introduction
711(16)
Magnetic ordering
713(1)
Perovskite and mantle convection
713(1)
Layered mantle
714(1)
Outlook
714(1)
Structure and types of perovskites
714(4)
Defects in oxide perovskites
718(2)
Fe2O3 perovskite: TM and ``magnetic hardening''
720(1)
MgSiO3 Perovskite
720(1)
Atomistic simulation: MEG
721(1)
Phonon spectrum
721(5)
Perovskite melting and bouyancy
726(1)
MgO--(FeO)--SiO2 system: perovskites
727(22)
Tolerence factor, t
727(2)
Silicate perovskites
729(1)
Orthorhombic--tetragonal--cubic transitions
729(1)
Ferroelectricity
730(1)
MgSiO3--FeSiO3 perovskites
731(1)
Shear moduli: ultrasonic interferometry
731(1)
Vibrational modes
732(2)
Elasticity: modelling
734(2)
Wave velocities: anisotropy
736(1)
Thermoelasticity and expansivity
737(1)
Bulk modulus and EOS
737(2)
Lattice compressibility and KT
739(1)
XRD results
740(1)
(Mg,Fe)SiO3--perovskite
740(1)
Iron in perovskite
741(2)
Fe2+ in perovskites: A-site occupancy
743(3)
Temperature-dependent electron delocalization
746(2)
Defect equilibria and M3+: physical properties
748(1)
Glassy phase
749(1)
Transformations
749(6)
Activation energy
749(1)
Perovskite breakdown: volume change
750(1)
Vibrational models: intrinsic anharmonic effects
750(1)
Raman study
750(1)
Soft-mode transition
751(1)
Ilmenite structure (R3)
752(1)
MgSiO3 ilmenite
752(3)
CaO--SiO2 system
755(3)
CaSiO3 perovskite
755(1)
LAPW calculations: phonon spectrum and transition temperature
756(1)
Density and acoustic velocity
757(1)
Pseudo-wollastonite
757(1)
CaSiO3--CaTiO3 join
758(1)
MgO(CaO)--SiO2(GeO2)--Al2O3 system
758(3)
Ca--Al perovskite
759(1)
Ca--Ge perovskites
760(1)
IR modes: Ca translation
760(1)
Alkaline-earth perovskites
761(4)
Li(Nb,Ta)O3 ferroelectrics
761(2)
Ferroelectric and para-electric structures
763(1)
RE orthoferrites
764(1)
(Sr/Ca) FeO3 perovskite
765(1)
Titanate perovskites and ilmenites
765(26)
CaTiO3--FeTiO3 join
766(2)
MgTiO3--FeTiO3 join
768(3)
MgTiO3, geikielite
771(3)
High-temperature phase transition (without order--disorder)
774(1)
FeTiO3 structure
774(4)
Shocked FeTiO3--ilmenite: Mossbauer study
778(2)
Xenoliths in Kimberlites
780(1)
BaTiO3
781(3)
Ferroelectricity and ferroelasticity
784(2)
Linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) calculations: surface effects
786(1)
Multiple-site model for perovskite ferroelectrics
786(1)
Ferroelectric instability: ``rattling-ion'' model
787(1)
PbTiO3
788(1)
Other titanates
789(1)
MgTi2O5 karrooite: order--disorder
789(1)
Ti/Nb perovskites
790(1)
Mn--oxide perovskites
791(2)
``Ruddlestone-Popper'' series
792(1)
Silicate Melts and Rocks
793(30)
Introduction
793(3)
Magmatic melt under pressure
795(1)
Alumino-silicate melts
796(2)
CaO--Al2O3--SiO2 melts: compressibilities
796(1)
Na2O--Al2O3--SiO2 melts: Ab50NTS50
797(1)
Viscosity: controlling factors
798(5)
Diffusivity: Stokes--Einstein equation
798(1)
Temperature dependence: Arrhenian approximation
798(1)
Alkali oxides
799(1)
Water effect
799(1)
Pressure effects on viscosity
799(1)
Silicate polymerization
800(1)
Density and viscosity determination
801(1)
Melt percolation
801(1)
Crystal--melt phase equilibria
802(1)
fo2, fH2O and aH2O
802(1)
H2O in silicate melts
803(1)
K2O--SiO2--H2O system
803(1)
REE patterns
804(2)
Fe3+ in glass
804(1)
Partition coefficient in melt/solid
804(2)
Rocks under pressure
806(17)
Transformation under shock: pseudotachylites
806(1)
Terrigenous and pelagic sediments under subduction
806(1)
Density change and buoyancy
807(2)
Potassium mobility in subduction pressures
809(1)
Lead paradox
809(1)
Subducting slabs
810(1)
Ultra-high-pressure metamorphism
810(1)
Coesite--diamond
810(1)
Crustal metamorphic regimes
811(1)
Hot and cold eclogites: collision/subduction zones
811(1)
Dabie--Sulu collision zone
812(1)
Alpe Arami UHP lherzolite
813(2)
Exsolutions in VHP minerals
815(1)
Basalts and eclogites
816(1)
Dehydration melting of metabasalt at 0.8--3.2 GPa
817(1)
MORB
818(1)
Komatiite, picrite and lherzolite: CaO--MgO(FeO)--SiO2 systems
819(1)
Garnet peridotites: ``forbidden zone''
820(1)
Exsolutions
821(1)
Emplacement of garnet peridotites
821(2)
Simple Oxides and Carbonates
823(62)
Dioxides: SiO2
823(30)
α-Quartz: structural change
826(2)
Fracture strength
828(1)
Stishovite
828(1)
Structure
829(1)
SiO6: densities
830(1)
Elastic moduli
830(1)
Compressibility
831(1)
Fluorite (CaCl2) structure
832(2)
EOS
834(3)
Theoretical models
837(2)
Columbite (α-PbO2) structure: MD simulation
839(1)
Seismic velocities: discontinuities
840(1)
Cristobalite
840(1)
Structure: phase transition
840(3)
Phase transition: symmetry change
843(1)
Cristobalite III
844(1)
Raman study: I → II transition
844(2)
α-quartz, coesite, stishovite and cristobalite
846(1)
Coesite to quartz transformation kinetics
847(1)
Instability and ferroelastic transition
848(1)
A new phase
849(1)
Amorphization experiments
849(1)
a → c growth rate: magma viscosity
850(1)
SiO2 glass
850(3)
ZrO2--SiO2: shocked
853(1)
TiO2
854(1)
Simple monoxides
854(20)
MgO, FeO, CoO, MnO and NiO
854(1)
MgO and CoO
854(1)
MnO and FeO
855(2)
Normal and inverse NiAs structures
857(1)
FeO in D'' zone
857(1)
MgO
857(4)
Elasticity
861(1)
B1--B2 phase transition
862(1)
Elastic constants
862(1)
FeO at high P -- T
862(4)
Magnetic-phase transition
866(1)
NiAs phase
867(2)
FexO
869(2)
Wustite (Fe1-xO)
871(1)
Fe--FeO system
872(1)
Fe--FeO + diluting elements: solid solution under P
873(1)
Carbonates
874(9)
CaCO3 calcite → aragonite polymorphism
874(2)
Calcite, CaCO3
876(1)
Compressibility and bulk modulus
877(1)
Oxy-anion--cation packing
878(2)
Mg-carbonates
880(2)
Dolomite stability at depths
882(1)
Other carbonates
883(1)
CaO--MgO--SiO2--CO2 system
883(2)
CaO--MgO--SiO2--CO2--H2O system: XCO2
883(2)
Hydrous Minerals
885(82)
Water in primary minerals
885(9)
Introduction
885(3)
Hydrous minerals under pressure
888(1)
Water in subducting slabs
889(4)
H(D)--O bonds in hydroxides
893(1)
OH bonds: dv/dP
893(1)
Geophysical effects of water
894(1)
Creep rate
895(1)
Electrical conductivity
895(1)
H2O in the mantle and magmatic melt
895(2)
H2O in plagioclase crystallization
896(1)
MgO--SiO2--H2O ternary system
897(28)
DHMS phases
898(2)
MgO--SiO2 + volatiles (H2O, F2, Cl2) system
900(2)
Halogens in DHMS phases
902(1)
NMR spectroscopic study
902(1)
Choke point
903(1)
Serpentine and phase A
904(1)
Serpentine, Mg3SiO5(OH)4
904(1)
Phase A (Mg7Si2O8(OH)6)
904(3)
Chrysotile transformations
907(1)
Talc and phase A
908(1)
Discussion
908(1)
10-A phase, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2, n H2O
909(1)
3.65-A phase
909(1)
Anhy-B
909(2)
Octahedral sites: M3 site
911(1)
Phase B
911(1)
NMR study
912(5)
Phase D (MgSi2H2O6)
917(2)
Structure
919(2)
Density and bulk modulus
921(1)
Anisotropic compressibility
922(1)
Phase E (Mg2.08Si1.6H3.2O6)
922(2)
Related phases
924(1)
Phase F(?)
925(1)
Phase G and other MSH phases
925(1)
Humite group minerals
925(2)
Clinohumite and chondrodite
925(1)
Elastic properties
926(1)
Clinohumite-OH and chondrodite-OH
927(1)
MgO--Na2O--SiO2--H2O system: hydrated aenigmatites
927(1)
Hydrated-Na--aenigmatite: crystal structure
928(1)
CaO--Al2O3--SiO2--H2O system
928(7)
Zoisite and clinozoisite, Ca2Al2 (Al1-pFep) (O/OH/Si2O7/SiO4)
928(2)
Compressibility
930(1)
Thermal expansivity
931(1)
δKT/δT and Anderson--Gruneisen parameter
932(1)
Stability
932(1)
Zoisite and lawsonite
933(2)
Subducting andesitic rocks
935(1)
CaO--Al2O3--SiO2--H2O system
935(11)
Amphiboles
935(1)
Kaersutitic amphibole: oxidation--hydrogenation reactions
936(2)
Kaersutite in SNC meteorites: Martian H2O
938(1)
High Fe3+ content and the aH2O
939(1)
Lawsonite, CaAl2Si2O7.H2O
940(2)
K0 and α values
942(1)
Compressibility
943(1)
IR study: Gruneisen parameter and thermal expansion
944(2)
MgO--Al2O3--SiO2--H2O system
946(2)
Muscovite
947(1)
Phlogopite
947(1)
Phase X
948(1)
K2O--MgO--Al2O3--SiO2--H2O system
948(1)
Cold geotherms
948(1)
Al2O3--SiO2--H2O (ASH) system
949(5)
AlSiO3OH, ``phase egg''
950(3)
Discussion
953(1)
Phase egg in subduction zone
954(1)
Clay minerals
954(3)
Structural disorder
955(1)
19- and 15-A hydrate
955(1)
Interlayer cations
956(1)
Kaolinite: Raman study
956(1)
Chlorite
957(1)
Hydrous oxides
957(8)
Hydrous silica: Shergotty and LM
957(1)
AlO(OH), diaspore
958(1)
Mg(OH)2, brucite
959(2)
XRD study
961(1)
IR study
962(1)
Raman study
963(2)
Portlandite (Ca(OH)2)
965(2)
Iron and Siderophile Elements: The Earth's Core
967(74)
Introduction
967(10)
Theories of iron under pressure
968(1)
Energy bands and electron transitions at core
969(1)
Phase predictions from theoretical calculations
970(1)
First-principles approximation: bcc and hcp
971(1)
fcc and hcp phases
972(3)
P--ρ relationship
975(2)
Iron core
977(34)
Core iron
978(1)
Anisotropy
978(1)
EOS and melting
979(1)
Density deficit
980(3)
Iron phases
983(2)
Stability of bcc and fcc phases
985(1)
β-Fe (dhcp) phase
986(2)
ε → Pbcm iron transformation
988(2)
Stability
990(1)
Thermal Gruneisen parameter
990(1)
Vibrational modes
991(1)
Phase boundaries and the triple points
992(1)
α--ε--γ triple point and ε--γ transition
992(3)
ε--γ--l triple point
995(1)
Liquid iron: structural change under P
995(1)
Elasticity and rheology
996(1)
Experimental
996(2)
Shear viscosity
998(1)
Rigid core: slichter modes of translational motion
999(1)
Outer core
999(1)
Inner core
1000(1)
Heat sources
1001(1)
Rotation
1001(1)
Crystalline structure: elastic/seismic behaviour
1002(2)
Anisotropism: axial angle
1004(4)
Discontinuities
1008(1)
Geodynamo: convection and αω-dynamo
1009(1)
Geomagnetic-field propagation
1010(1)
Magnetic field, heat flow and plate tectonics
1011(1)
ε-Fe and paramagnetism
1011(1)
Hugoniot temperature
1012(1)
Iron and tungsten: yield strengths
1012(1)
Fe--Ni alloy
1013(2)
Fe--Si alloy
1015(1)
Fe--H system
1016(1)
Sulphur in the core
1017(1)
Oxygen and sulphur solution in iron
1017(1)
S, Se and Te
1018(1)
Iron sulphides
1018(12)
FeS: five polymorphs
1019(1)
FeS III, monoclinic
1019(1)
FeS IV, hexagonal (2a,c)
1020(2)
FeS V: hexagonal (a,c)
1022(1)
Spin state of ferrous iron
1023(3)
R (Fe--S) change and spin splitting
1026(2)
FeS: Martian CMB and core
1028(1)
Fe--FeS system: eutectic points
1028(1)
Fe3S2, Fe3S, Fe2S
1028(1)
FeS2
1029(1)
FeS2, pyrite
1029(1)
Pyrrhotite: magnetic transition
1030(1)
Fe3S2
1030(1)
Mn--S system
1031(2)
α--MnS
1031(1)
MnS2
1031(1)
(Fe,Mg)S and (Fe,Mn)S
1032(1)
Pressure behaviour of FeS vs. FeO
1033(1)
Fe(Ni)--Cu--S compounds
1033(2)
Nickel sulphides
1033(1)
Cubanite, CuFe2S3
1034(1)
Phosphates
1035(6)
Berlinite, AlPO4: memory glass (?)
1035(2)
Farringtonite--Mg3 (PO4)2-II
1037(1)
Apatite (Ca5(PO4)3, (F,Cl,OH))--monazite topotaxy: REE
1038(1)
Bearthite (Ca2Al(PO4)2OH)
1038(3)
Section E: Transport Properties at Deep Depths & Related Condensed Matter Phenomena
Transport Properties in Deep Depths and Related Condensed-Matter Phenomena
1041(62)
Transport properties under pressure
1041(6)
Introduction
1041(1)
Electrical conductivity
1042(2)
Electrical conductivity and activation energy
1044(1)
Techniques employed
1045(1)
Conductivity of minerals
1045(2)
Electron/hole transfer and magnetic behaviour
1047(3)
Polarons: small and large
1048(1)
Ferroelectricity: regimes and local well potential
1049(1)
Insulator to superconductivity
1050(6)
Superconductivity and magnetism: ``co-habitation''
1051(1)
``Magnetic glue'' and failed spin: ghost magnetism
1052(1)
Novel physics: paramagnetic Meissner effect
1053(1)
Mesoscopic magnetism: frustration and superconducting loop
1053(1)
Double exchange in magnetic transition
1054(1)
``Skutterudites'' and chalcogenides: ``holey'' and ``unholey'' semiconductors
1055(1)
RE-Mn perovskite
1056(8)
La1--xCaxMnO3
1056(1)
Resistivity and magnetism under pressure
1057(2)
CMR: RE1--xAxMnO3
1059(2)
Pressure on polarons, activation energy and charge carrier mobility
1061(1)
Electron--lattice coupling
1062(1)
LaMnO3 perovskite
1063(1)
M--I cohabitation
1063(1)
La1--xSrxMnO3
1064(2)
Pr-manganates
1066(1)
Pr1--xCaxMnO3
1067(1)
(La1--yPry)1--xAxMnO3: short- and long-range order
1067(1)
Fe3+ in perovskite and conductivity
1067(1)
Al2O3 content and conductivity
1068(1)
Conductive TiO2, SiO2, FeO, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4
1069(2)
Thermal conductivity, k
1071(6)
k at mantle depths
1072(1)
Radiative and lattice contribution
1073(1)
k at D'' zone
1074(3)
k and convective power of core
1077(1)
k under shock pressure
1077(1)
Ferroelectric transitions
1077(1)
Ferroelectric phenomena in large planets
1078(1)
Non-elastic transport properties
1078(2)
Power law: fractal distribution
1079(1)
Diffusion: self and co-operative
1080(1)
Defects, dislocations and deformation
1080(4)
Defects
1080(1)
Dislocations
1081(1)
Dislocation recovery
1081(1)
Deformation
1082(1)
Olivine deformation
1083(1)
Deformation: single crystal to polycrystalline mass
1084(1)
Diffusion, creep and viscoplastic deformation
1084(9)
Diffusion
1084(1)
Mg, Fe diffusion: olivine, pyroxene and garnet
1085(1)
Grain-boundary diffusion
1085(1)
Creep
1086(1)
Creep rate
1086(1)
Dislocation (power-law) creep → diffusion creep
1087(2)
Dislocation creep and spinel deformation
1089(1)
Slip systems
1090(1)
Creep, diffusion rate and conduction
1090(1)
Diffusivity and viscosity: Stokes--Einstein diffusivity
1091(1)
Silicate melts: O, Si diffusion
1091(1)
Intrinsic and extrinsic regimes
1092(1)
Cation (Mg, Fe and Ni) diffusion in olivine: α → β γ transition
1093(5)
α β γ transitions and upper-mantle rheology
1094(1)
Chemical diffusion in the slab and transition zone
1095(1)
Homogenization rate in mantle
1096(1)
Diffusion in lower mantle: MgO (Ita and Cohen, 1998)
1096(1)
Rheology of lower mantle: strain rate
1097(1)
Transformational plasticity: partial dislocation, martensitic or synchro-shear mechanism
1098(1)
Oxygen fugacity in the Earth's dynamics
1099(4)
Solid-state diffusion: fO2
1099(1)
Olivine/iron buffer
1099(1)
Ferric iron and redox zone: crustal recycling
1100(1)
Core--mantle partitioning
1100(3)
References 1103(102)
Glossary 1205(18)
Subject Index 1223

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