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Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time,9780495012047
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Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780495012047

ISBN10:
0495012041
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/10/2006
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

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Summary

HISTORICAL GEOLOGY teaches students basic geologic principles as well as how scientists apply these principles to unravel Earth's history. Wicander and Monroe present a balanced overview of both the geological and biological history of Earth as a continuum of inter-related events. These events reflect the underlying principles and processes that have shaped our planet. The authors also explain the historical development of these basic principles and processes, and their importance in deciphering Earth history. Three major themes time, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics are woven together throughout the book. These themes help students link essential material to enhance their understanding of historical geology.

Table of Contents

The Dynamic and Evolving Earth
1(15)
Introduction
2(2)
What Is Geology?
4(1)
Perspective 1.1 Interpreting Earth History
5(1)
Historical Geology and the Formulation of Theories
5(1)
Origin of the Universe and Solar System, and Earth's Place in Them
6(3)
Origin of the Universe---Did It Begin with a Big Bang?
6(1)
Our Solar System---Its Origin and Evolution
6(2)
Earth---Its Place in Our Solar System
8(1)
Forming the Earth---Moon System
8(1)
Why Is Earth a Dynamic and Evolving Planet?
9(2)
Organic Evolution and the History of Life
11(1)
Geologic Time and Uniformitarianism
11(2)
How Does the Study of Historical Geology Benefit Us?
13(1)
Summary
13(3)
Earth Materials---Minerals and Rocks
16(19)
Introduction
17(1)
Matter and Its Composition
18(2)
Elements and Atoms
18(1)
Bonding and Compounds
18(2)
Minerals---The Building Blocks of Rocks
20(1)
How Many Minerals Are There?
21(1)
Silicate Minerals
21(1)
Other Mineral Groups
21(1)
Rock-Forming Minerals and the Rock Cycle
22(1)
Igneous Rocks
23(3)
Texture and Composition of Igneous Rocks
23(1)
Classifying Igneous Rocks
23(3)
Sedimentary Rocks
26(3)
Sediment Transport, Deposition, and Lithification
26(1)
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
26(3)
Metamorphic Rocks
29(2)
The Agents of Metamorphism
29(1)
Types of Metamorphism
30(1)
Classifying Metamorphic Rock
30(1)
Plate Tectonics and the Rock Cycle
31(2)
Earth Materials and Historical Geology
33(1)
Summary
33(2)
Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory
35(25)
Introduction
36(1)
Early Ideas About Continental Drift
36(1)
Perspective 3.1 Oil, Plate Tectonics, and Politics
37(4)
Alfred Wegener and the Continental Drift Hypothesis
38(1)
Additional Support for Continental Drift
38(3)
Paleomagnetism and Polar Wandering
41(1)
How Do Magnetic Reversals Relate to Seafloor Spreading?
42(3)
Plate Tectonics and Plate Boundaries
45(7)
Divergent Boundaries
46(1)
An Example of Ancient Rifting
47(1)
Convergent Boundaries
48(3)
Recognizing Ancient Convergent Boundaries
51(1)
Transform Boundaries
51(1)
What Are Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes?
52(1)
How Are Plate Movement and Motion Determined?
52(1)
What Is The Driving Mechanism of Plate Tectonics?
53(2)
How Are Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building Related?
55(1)
Terrane Tectonics
55(1)
How Does Plate Tectonics Affect the Distribution of Life?
55(2)
How Does Plate Tectonics Affect the Distribution of Natural Resources?
57(1)
Summary
58(2)
Geologic Time: Concepts and Principles
60(17)
Introduction
61(1)
How Is Geologic Time Measured?
61(1)
How Has the Concept of Geologic Time and Earth's Age Changed Throughout Human History?
62(1)
Perspective 4.1 Geologic Time and Climate Change
63(1)
What Are Relative Dating Methods, and Why Are They Important?
64(2)
Fundamental Principles of Relative Dating
64(2)
Establishment of Geology as a Science---The Triumph of Uniformitarianism over Neptunism and Catastrophism
66(2)
Neptunism and Catastrophism
66(1)
Uniformitarianism
66(1)
Modern View of Uniformitarianism
67(1)
Lord Kelvin and a Crisis in Geology
68(1)
What Are Absolute Dating Methods, and Why Are They Important?
68(6)
Atoms and Isotopes
68(1)
Radioactive Decay and Half-Lives
69(3)
Long-Lived Radioactive Isotope Pairs
72(1)
Fission Track Dating
72(1)
Radiocarbon and Tree Ring Dating
73(1)
Summary
74(3)
Rocks, Fossils, and Time---Making Sense of the Geologic Record
77(24)
Introduction
78(1)
Stratigraphy
79(6)
Vertical Stratigraphic Relationships
79(2)
Lateral Relationships---Facies
81(1)
Marine Transgressions and Regressions
81(3)
Extent, Rates, and Causes of Marine Transgressions and Regressions
84(1)
Fossilization and Fossils
85(2)
How Do Fossils Form?
86(1)
Perspective 5.1 Fossils and Uniformitarianism
87(4)
Fossils and Telling Time
88(3)
The Relative Geologic Time Scale
91(2)
Stratigraphic Terminology
93(1)
Correlation
94(3)
Absolute Dates and the Relative Geologic Time Scale Summary
97(1)
Summary
98(3)
Sedimentary Rocks---The Archives of Earth History
101(21)
Introduction
102(1)
Sedimentary Rock Properties
102(5)
Composition and Texture
103(1)
Sedimentary Structures
104(3)
Perspective 6.1 Determining the Relative Ages of Deformed Sedimentary Rocks
107(2)
Geometry of Sedimentary Rocks
108(1)
Fossils---The Biologic Content of Sedimentary Rocks
109(1)
Depositional Environments
109(8)
Continental Environments
109(2)
Transitional Environments
111(3)
Marine Environments
114(3)
Interpreting Depositional Environments
117(2)
Paleogeography
119(1)
Summary
120(2)
Evolution---The Theory and Its Supporting Evidence
122(25)
Introduction
123(1)
Evolution: What Does It Mean?
124(3)
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and His Ideas on Evolution
125(1)
The Contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
126(1)
Perspective 7.1 The Tragic Lysenko Affair
127(1)
Natural Selection---What Is Its Significance?
128(1)
Mendel and the Birth of Genetics
128(2)
Mendel's Experiments
128(1)
Genes and Chromosomes
129(1)
The Modern View of Evolution
130(7)
What Brings About Variation?
130(1)
Speciation and the Rate of Evolution
131(2)
Divergent, Convergent, and Parallel Evolution
133(1)
Microevolution and Macroevolution
134(1)
Cladistics and Cladograms
135(1)
Evolutionary Trends and Mosaic Evolution
135(2)
Extinctions
137(1)
What Kinds of Evidence Support Evolutionary Theory?
137(6)
Classification---A Nested Pattern of Similarities
138(2)
How Does Biological Evidence Support Evolution?
140(1)
Fossils: What Do We Learn from Them?
141(2)
Perspective 7.2 The Fossil Record and Missing Links
143(1)
The Evidence---A Summary
144(1)
Summary
144(3)
Precambrian Earth and Life History---The Archean Eon
147(19)
Introduction
148(1)
What Happened During the Eoarchean?
149(1)
Continental Foundations---Shields, Platforms, and Craton
150(3)
Archean Rocks
152(1)
Greenstone Belts
152(1)
Perspective 8.1 Geology of Grand Teton National Park
153(3)
Evolution of Greenstone Belts
154(2)
Archean Plate Tecontics and the Origin of Cratons
156(1)
The Atmosphere and Hydrosphere
157(2)
How Did the Atmosphere Form and Evolve?
157(1)
Earth's Surface Waters---The Hydrosphere
158(1)
The Origin of Life
159(4)
Experimental Evidence and the Origin of Life
159(2)
Submarine Hydrothermal Vents and the Origin of Life
161(1)
The Oldest Known Organisms
162(1)
Archean Mineral Resources
163(1)
Summary
164(2)
Precambrian Earth and Life History---The Proterozoic Eon
166(23)
Introduction
167(1)
Evolution of Proterozoic Continents
168(4)
Paleoproterozoic History of Laurentia
168(2)
Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic Igneous Activity
170(1)
Mesoproterozoic Orogeny and Rifting
171(1)
Meso- and Neoproterozoic Sedimentation
172(1)
Proterozoic Supercontinents
172(3)
Ancient Glaciers and Their Deposits
175(1)
Paleoproterozoic Glaciers
175(1)
Glaciers of the Neoproterozoic
176(1)
The Evolving Atmosphere
176(2)
Banded Iron Formations (BIFs)
176(1)
Continental Red Beds
177(1)
Important Events in Life History
178(6)
Eukaryotic Cells Evolve
178(1)
Endosymbiosis and the Origin of Eukaryotic Cells
179(1)
The Dawn of Multicelled Organisms
180(2)
Neoproterozoic Animals
182(2)
Proterozoic Mineral Resources
184(1)
Perspective 9.1 Bif: From Mine to Steel Mill
185(1)
Summary
186(3)
Early Paleozoic Earth History
189(20)
Introduction
190(1)
Continental Architecture: Cratons and Mobile Belts
190(1)
Paleozoic Paleogeography
191(3)
Early Paleozoic Global History
193(1)
Early Paleozoic Evolution of North America
194(1)
The Sauk Sequence
195(1)
Perspective 10.1 Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore
196(1)
The Cambrian of the Grand Canyon Region: A Transgressive Facies Model
197(6)
The Tippecanoe Sequence
198(1)
Tippecanoe Reefs and Evaporites
199(4)
The End of The Tippecanoe Sequence
203(1)
The Appalachian Mobile Belt and the Taconic Orogeny
204(2)
Early Paleozoic Mineral Resources
206(1)
Summary
206(3)
Late Paleozoic Earth History
209(22)
Introduction
210(1)
Late Paleozoic Paleogeography
210(4)
The Devonian Period
211(1)
The Carboniferous Period
211(1)
The Permian Period
211(3)
Late Paleozoic Evolution of North America
214(1)
The Kaskaskia Sequence
214(2)
Reef Development in Western Canada
214(2)
Perspective 11.1 The Canning Basin, Australia---A Devonian Great Barrier Reef
216(2)
Black Shales
216(1)
The Late Kaskaskia---A Return to Extensive Carbonate Deposition
217(1)
The Absaroka Sequence
218(4)
What Are Cyclothems, and Why Are They Important?
218(3)
Cratonic Uplift---The Ancestral Rockies
221(1)
The Middle Absaroka---More Evaporite Deposits and Reefs
222(2)
History of the Late Paleozoic Mobile Belts
224(2)
Cordilleran Mobile Belt
224(1)
Ouachita Mobile Belt
224(1)
Appalachian Mobile Belt
224(2)
What Role Did Microplates and Terranes Play in the Formation of Pangaea?
226(1)
Late Paleozoic Mineral Resources
227(1)
Summary
228(3)
Paleozoic Life History: Invertebrates
231(18)
Introduction
232(1)
What Was the Cambrian Explosion?
232(1)
The Emergence of a Shelly Fauna
233(1)
Paleozoic Invertebrate Marine Life
234(8)
The Present Marine Ecosystem
235(2)
Cambrian Marine Community
237(1)
The Burgess Shale Biota
238(1)
Ordovician Marine Community
239(2)
Silurian and Devonian Marine Communities
241(1)
Perspective 12.1 Mass Extinctions and Their Possible Causes
242(3)
Carboniferous and Permian Marine Communities
243(1)
The Permian Mass Extinction
244(1)
Summary
245(4)
Paleozoic Life History: Vertebrates and Plants
249(23)
Introduction
250(1)
Vertebrate Evolution
251(1)
Fish
251(6)
Amphibians---Vertebrates Invade the Land
257(1)
Evolution of the Reptiles---The Land Is Conquered
258(2)
Plant Evolution
260(2)
Perspective 13.1 Palynology: A Link between Geology and Biology
262(6)
Silurian and Devonian Floras
263(3)
Late Carboniferous and Permian Floras
266(2)
Summary
268(4)
Mesozoic Earth History
272(23)
Introduction
273(1)
The Breakup of Pangaea
273(4)
The Effects of the Breakup of Pangaea on Global Climates and Ocean Circulation Patterns
276(1)
Mesozoic History of North America
277(1)
Continental Interior
278(1)
Eastern Coastal Region
279(1)
Gulf Coastal Region
280(2)
Western Region
282(5)
Mesozoic Tectonics
282(2)
Mesozoic Sedimentation
284(3)
Perspective 14.1 Petrified Forest National Park
287(3)
What Role Did Accretion of Terranes Play in the Growth of Western North America?
290(1)
Mesozoic Mineral Resources
291(1)
Summary
292(3)
Life of the Mesozoic Era
295(26)
Introduction
296(1)
Marine Invertebrates and Phytoplankton
297(2)
Aquatic and Semiaquatic Vertebrates---Fish and Amphibians
299(1)
Plants---Primary Producers on Land
300(1)
The Diversification of Reptiles
300(9)
Archosaurs and the Origin of Dinosaurs
301(1)
Dinosaurs
301(4)
Warm-Blooded Dinosaurs?
305(2)
Flying Reptiles
307(1)
Mesozoic Marine Reptiles
307(1)
Crocodiles, Turtles, Lizards, and Snakes
308(1)
Perspective 15.1 Mary Anning and Her Contributions To Paleontology
309(1)
From Reptiles to Birds
309(1)
Origin and Early Evolution of Mammals
310(4)
Cynodonts and the Origin of Mammals
310(2)
Mesozoic Mammals
312(2)
Mesozoic Paleobiogeography
314(2)
Mass Extinctions---A Crisis in the History of Life
316(1)
Summary
317(4)
Cenozoic Geologic History: The Paleogene and Neogene
321(26)
Introduction
322(1)
Cenozoic Plate Tectonics---An Overview
323(2)
Cenozoic Orogenic Belts
325(3)
The Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt
326(2)
The Circum-Pacific Orogenic Belt
328(1)
The North American Cordillera
328(9)
The Laramide Orogeny
329(3)
Cordillera Igneous Activity
332(1)
Basin and Range Province
333(1)
Colorado Plateau
334(1)
The Rio Grande Rift
335(1)
Pacific Coast
335(2)
The Continental Interior
337(1)
Perspective 16.1 Shiprock, New Mexico
338(1)
Cenozoic History of The Appalachian Mountains
339(1)
North America's Southern and Eastern Continental Margins
339(4)
The Gulf Coastal Plain
340(1)
The Atlantic Continental Margin
341(2)
Paleogene and Neogene Mineral Resources
343(1)
Summary
344(3)
Cenozoic Geologic History: The Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs
347(24)
Introduction
348(1)
Pleistocene and Holocene Tectonism and Volcanism
349(1)
Perspective 17.1 Supervolcanoes and the Origin of the Yellowstone Caldera
350(2)
Pleistocene Stratigraphy
352(3)
Terrestrial Stratigraphy
354(1)
Deep-Sea Stratigraphy
354(1)
Onset of the Ice Age
355(2)
Climate of the Pleistocene
355(1)
Glaciers---What Are They and How Do They Form?
356(1)
Glaciation and Its Effects
357(5)
Glacial Landforms
357(1)
Changes in Sea Level
358(1)
Glaciers and Isostasy
358(1)
Pluvial and Proglacial Lakes
359(3)
What Caused Pleistocene Glaciation?
362(4)
The Milankovitch Theory
363(3)
Short-Term Climatic Changes
366(1)
Glaciers Today
366(2)
Pleistocene Mineral Resources
368(1)
Summary
368(3)
Life of the Cenozoic Era
371(26)
Introduction
372(1)
Marine Invertebrates and Phytoplankton
373(1)
Cenozoic Vegetation and Climate
373(4)
Cenozoic Birds
377(1)
The Age of Mammals Begins
377(1)
Diversification of Placental Mammals
378(3)
Paleogene and Neogene Mammals
381(1)
Small Mammals---Insectivores, Rodents, Rabbits, and Bats
381(1)
Perspective 18.1 A Miocene Catastrophe in Nebraska
382(8)
A Brief History of the Primates
383(1)
The Meat Eaters---Carnivorous Mammals
383(2)
The Ungulates Or Hoofed Mammals
385(2)
Giant Land-Dwelling Mammals---Elephants
387(1)
Giant Aquatic Mammals---Whales
388(2)
Pleistocene Faunas
390(3)
Ice Age Mammals
390(1)
Pleistocene Extinctions
391(2)
Intercontinental Migrations
393(1)
Summary
394(3)
Primate and Human Evolution
397(15)
Introduction
398(1)
What are Primates?
398(1)
Prosimians
399(1)
Anthropoids
400(1)
Hominids
401(5)
Australopithecines
404(2)
Perspective 19.1 Footprints At Laetoli
406(4)
The Human Lineage
407(1)
Neanderthals
407(1)
Cro-Magnons
408(2)
Summary
410(2)
Epilogue 412(2)
Appendix A Metric Conversion Chart 414(1)
Appendix B Classification of Organisms 415(5)
Appendix C Mineral Identification 420(3)
Glossary 423(7)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions 430(1)
Index 431


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