9780195139846

A Historical Introduction to Philosophy Texts and Interactive Guides

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780195139846

  • ISBN10:

    0195139844

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/3/2002
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Offering a unique pedagogical apparatus, A Historical Introduction to Philosophy: Texts and Interactive Guides provides selections from the most influential primary works in philosophy from the Presocratics through the twentieth century, integrating them with substantial commentary and studyquestions. It offers extensive treatment of the Hellenistic and Renaissance periods--which are typically given only minimal coverage in other anthologies--and devotes substantial chapters to nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy. The selections are organized historically and are presented inshort and manageable sections with organizational headings and subheadings; archaic and difficult material has been adapted for clarity. Accompanying commentaries simplify difficult passages, explain technical terminology, and expand upon allusions to unfamiliar literature and arguments. Studyquestions are interspersed throughout the chapters in "Ask Yourself" boxes and vary with respect to format and level of difficulty. They require students to reconstruct arguments, summarize passages, complete blanks in statements and arguments, evaluate the success or viability of a philosophicalpoint, or draw contemporary parallels and applications. The questions are carefully framed so as to avoid commitment to any particular side in controversies. Instructors can assign those questions that will best suit the aims of their courses and aid their students' comprehension of the primarysource material. A Historical Introduction to Philosophy is enhanced by a comprehensive time line, a glossary, and lists of suggested further readings for both primary and secondary sources. This rich and flexible anthology and interactive textbook is ideal for introduction to philosophy and historyof philosophy courses.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Time Line xvii
Early Greek Philosophy
3(34)
Introduction
3(3)
Homer and Hesiod
3(1)
Principal Concerns of the Presocratics
4(2)
The Milesians
6(3)
Thales
6(1)
Anaximander
7(1)
Anaximenes
8(1)
Other Ionians
9(9)
Xenophanes
9(3)
Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans
12(3)
Heraclitus
15(3)
The Eleatics
18(4)
Parmenides
18(2)
Zeno
20(2)
Pluralist Alternatives to Parmenides
22(7)
Empedocles
22(2)
Anaxagoras
24(2)
The Atomists: Parmenides as Pluralist
26(3)
The Sophists: Rhetoric and Virtue for a Price
29(8)
Protagoras and Gorgias
29(8)
Socrates and Plato
37(64)
Socrates
37(34)
The Euthyphro
39(7)
Meno
46(1)
The Apology
47(24)
Plato
71(30)
Introduction to the Theory of Forms
71(2)
Phaedo
73(7)
The Republic
80(17)
Phaedrus
97(4)
Aristotle
101(52)
Logical Works
101(5)
Categories
101(5)
Nature and the Soul
106(7)
Physics
106(5)
On the Soul
111(2)
Ethics
113(40)
Book 1
113(19)
Book 2
132(14)
Book 3
146(7)
Hellenistic Philosophy
153(24)
Epicureanism
153(7)
Atoms and Free Will
154(1)
Fearing the Gods
155(1)
Fear of Death
156(1)
Pleasure and Pain
157(2)
Prudence and Freedom
159(1)
Stoicism
160(7)
Zeno of Citium: Logic, Physics, and Ethics
160(3)
Epictetus
163(4)
Cynicism
167(2)
Antisthenes and Diogenes
168(1)
Skepticism
169(8)
Academics and Pyrrhonians
169(1)
The Goal and Criterion of Skepticism
170(2)
The Ten Modes of Skepticism
172(5)
Medieval Philosophy
177(74)
Augustine (from On Free Choice of the Will)
178(28)
Book 1. God and Evil
179(16)
Book 2. More on the Origin of Evil
195(2)
Book 3. God's Foreknowledge and Freedom: The Great Chain of Being
197(4)
The Confessions: Augustine on Time
201(5)
Anselm
206(5)
Proslogion 1
206(5)
Averroes (from The Decisive Treatise Determining the Nature of the Connection between Religion and Philosophy)
211(10)
Chapter 2: Philosophy and Religion Belong Together
212(8)
Chapter 3: The Elite and Ordinary Believers
220(1)
Moses Maimonides (from The Guide for the Perplexed)
221(6)
God and Biblical Language
222(5)
Thomas Aquinas (from Summa Theologica)
227(24)
The Existence of God
228(8)
Natural Law
236(15)
Renaissance and Early Modern Philosophy
251(68)
Humanism
251(7)
Pico's Oration
251(2)
More's Utopia
253(5)
The Reformation
258(14)
Luther's Appeal
259(2)
Calvin's Institutes
261(11)
Fideism and Skepticism
272(9)
Montaigne's Apology
272(4)
Bayle's Dictionary
276(1)
Pascal's Wager (from Thoughts)
277(4)
Astronomy
281(14)
The Earth-Centered System of the Universe
282(1)
Copernicus (from ``Dedication'' to On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres)
283(4)
Galileo (from The Assayer, ``Letter to Muti,'' ``Letter to Costelli,'' and Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World)
287(5)
Newton (from ``Preface'' to Principia Mathematica and ``Letter to Bentley'')
292(2)
Implications of Modern Astronomy
294(1)
Scientific Method
295(24)
Bacon and Induction (from New Organon)
296(8)
Descartes's Methods (from Discourse)
304(8)
Newton's Method of Investigation (from Principia Mathematica and Optics)
312(2)
Mathematics and Scientific Method
314(5)
Continental Rationalism
319(84)
Rene Descartes 9from Meditations)
319(30)
Meditation 1: Concerning Those Things That Can Be Called into Doubt
320(6)
Meditation 2: Concerning the Nature of the Human Mind: That the Mind Is More Known Than the Body
326(10)
Meditation 3: Of God: That He Exists
336(5)
Meditation 6: Of the Existence of Material Things, and of the Real Distinction between the Soul and Body of Man
341(5)
Supplementary Selections
346(3)
Benedict Spinoza (from the Ethics)
349(6)
God Does Not Willfully Direct the Course of Nature
350(5)
Nicholas de Malebranche (from The Search after Truth)
355(19)
Chapter 1, Section 1: What Is Meant by Ideas; That They Truly Exist, and That They Are Necessary to Perceive All Material Objects
356(1)
Chapter 6: That We See All Things in God
357(8)
Occasionalism
365(9)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (from ``Monadology'' and ``Letter to Clarke'')
374(20)
Monads
374(4)
Human Perception
378(2)
God
380(6)
Body and Soul
386(3)
The Human Spirit
389(2)
Against Atoms and a Vacuum
391(3)
Anne Conway (from Principles)
394(9)
All Creatures Are Changeable
394(5)
Against Descartes, Hobbes, and Spinoza
399(4)
British Empiricism
403(106)
John Locke (from Essay Concerning Human Understanding)
403(32)
No Speculative Innate Principles in the Mind
404(6)
Of Ideas in General and Their Origin
410(5)
Of Simple Ideas
415(2)
Of Simple Ideas of Sense
417(2)
Of Simple Ideas of Diverse Senses
419(1)
Of Simple Ideas of Reflection
419(1)
Of Simple Ideas of Both Sensation and Reflection
420(3)
Some Farther Considerations Concerning Our Simple Ideas
423(4)
Of Complex Ideas
427(3)
Of the Extent of Human Knowledge
430(2)
Of Our Threefold Knowledge of Existence
432(1)
Of Our Knowledge of the Existence of Other Things
433(2)
George Berkeley (from Dialogues)
435(28)
Dialogue One
436(9)
Dialogue Two
445(7)
Dialogue Three
452(11)
David Hume (from Enquiries and Treatise of Human Nature)
463(46)
Section 2: Of the Origin of Ideas
464(5)
Section 3: Of the Association of Ideas
469(2)
Section 7: Of the Idea of Necessary Connection
471(9)
Section 10: Of Miracles
480(11)
Section 12: Of the Academical or Skeptical Philosophy
491(4)
Personal Identity
495(2)
Moral Theory
497(12)
Late Modern and 19th-Century Philosophy
509(110)
Thomas Reid (from Inquiry into the Human Mind)
509(6)
Introduction
510(4)
Of Smelling
514(1)
Immanuel Kant (from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics and The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals)
515(25)
Introduction
516(3)
Preamble on the Peculiarities of All Metaphysical Knowledge
519(5)
How Is Pure Mathematics Possible?
524(2)
How Is the Science of Nature Possible?
526(4)
How Is Metaphysics in General Possible?
530(2)
Kant's Ethical Theory
532(8)
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (from ``Preface'' to Phenomenology of Mind)
540(15)
Introduction
540(1)
Philosophy and History
541(7)
The Unity of Subject and Object
548(5)
History as Rational
553(2)
Soren Kierkegaard (From Either/Or, vol. 1 and 2)
555(17)
Introduction: Kierkegaard's ``Existentialism''
555(1)
The Life of Enjoyment
556(8)
The Ethical Life
564(8)
Mary Wollstonecraft (from A Vindication of the Rights of Women)
572(9)
The Rights of Women; True Virtue and True Social Flourishing
572(6)
Education, Virtue, and the Need for a Revolution in Manners
578(3)
John Stuart Mill (from Utilitarianism)
581(12)
General Remarks
581(2)
What Utilitarianism Is
583(10)
Friedrich Nietzsche (from The Birth of Tragedy, The Dawn of Day, Joyful Wisdom, The Geneaology of Morals, Human, All Too Human, and Thus Spake Zarathustra)
593(26)
Art, Morality, and Religion
593(3)
The Critique of Morality
596(7)
The Death of God
603(16)
20th-Century and Contemporary Philosophy
619(78)
Bertrand Russell (from Problems of Philosophy)
619(10)
Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description
619(10)
Ludwig Wittgenstein (from Philosophical Investigations)
629(18)
Introduction
629(1)
Language and Use
629(18)
Willard Van Orman Quine (from Two Dogmas of Empiricism)
647(13)
The Nature of Modern Empiricism
648(1)
Background for Analyticity
649(2)
Definition
651(1)
Interchangeability
652(2)
The Verification Theory and Reductionism
654(3)
Empiricism without the Dogmas
657(3)
Jean-Paul Sartre (from Existentialism and Humanism)
660(14)
Freedom in a Godless World
661(13)
G. E. M. Anscombe
674(23)
Modern Moral Philosophy
694(3)
Glossary 697(7)
Credits 704(1)
Index 705

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