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The History of English: An Introduction



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A History of English: Language Contact and Changeprovides a chronological analysis of the linguistic, social and cultural development of the English language from before its establishment in Britain around the year 350 to the present. Each chapter represents a new stage in the development of the language from Old English through Middle English to Modern Global English, all illustrated with a rich and diverse selection of primary texts showing changes in language resulting from contact, conquest and domination, and the expansion of English around the world. A History of English goes beyond the usual focus on English in the UK and the US to include the wider global course of the language during and following the Early Modern English period. This perspective therefore also includes a historical review of English in its pidgin and creole varieties and as a Native and/or Second Language in the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, and Australasia. Designed to be user-friendly,A History of Englishcontains: Chapter introductions and conclusions to assist study Over 80 textual examples demonstrating linguistic change accompanied by translations and/or glosses where appropriate Study questions on the social, cultural and linguistic background of the chapter topics Further reading from key texts to extend or deepen the focus Just under a hundred supporting figures, tables and maps to support and illuminate the text A 16-page colour plate section of exemplary texts, relevant artefacts, or examples of language usage including Germanic runes, the opening page of Beowulf, the New England Primer, and the Treaty of Waitangi An extensive glossary of linguistically relevant terms An index for easy access to the topics covered in the book A companion website supports the textbook and features: Links to supporting websites which enhance and explain material introduced in the book An extended view of some of the aspects of language development as well as synopses of material dealt with in more than one chapter Further sample texts including examples from Chaucer, eighteenth-century pamphlet literature, and twenty-first century novels Additional exercises to help users expand their insights and apply background knowledge Sample answers to study questions in the textbook An interactive timeline of important historical events and developments and interactive maps for each period A History of Englishis essential reading for any student of the English Language.

Author Biography

Stephan Gramley is Studiendirektor at Bielefeld University, Germany, in the Department of Linguistics and Literary Studies.

Table of Contents

List of illustrationsp. ix
List of textsp. xiii
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
The origins of English (before 450)p. 1
Chapter overviewp. 1
The origins of human languagep. 1
Language changep. 5
Changes in Germanic before the invasions of Britainp. 8
The world of the Germanic peoplesp. 11
The Germanic migrationsp. 14
Summaryp. 17
Study questionsp. 18
Further readingp. 19
Old English: early Germanic Britain (450-700)p. 20
Chapter overviewp. 20
The first peoplesp. 21
The Germanic incursionsp. 24
Introduction to Old Englishp. 28
The Christianization of Englandp. 33
Literature in the early Old English periodp. 36
Summaryp. 43
Study questionsp. 43
Further readingp. 44
Old English: the Viking invasions and their consequences (700-1066/1100)p. 45
Chapter overviewp. 45
The Viking invasionsp. 46
Linguistic influence of Old Norsep. 51
Creolizationp. 56
Alfred's reforms and the West Saxon standardp. 60
Monastic reform, linguistic developments, and literary genresp. 61
Summaryp. 63
Study questionsp. 64
Further readingp. 65
Middle English: the non-standard period (1066/1100-1350)p. 66
Chapter overviewp. 66
Dynastic conflict and the Norman Conquestp. 67
Linguistic features of Middle English in the non-standard periodp. 74
French influence on Middle English and the question of creolizationp. 89
English literaturep. 90
Dialectal diversity in early MEp. 91
Summaryp. 93
Study questionsp. 94
Further readingp. 94
Middle English: the emergence of Standard English (1350-1500)p. 95
Chapter overviewp. 95
Political and social turmoil and demographic developmentsp. 96
The expansion of domainsp. 99
Chancery English (Chancery Standard)p. 105
Literaturep. 112
Variationp. 118
Summaryp. 120
Study questionsp. 121
Further readingp. 121
The Early Modern English period (1500-1700)p. 123
Chapter overviewp. 123
The Early Modern English periodp. 124
Early Modern Englishp. 128
Regulation and codificationp. 132
Religious and scientific prose and belles lettresp. 142
Variation: South and Northp. 151
Summaryp. 153
Study questionsp. 154
Further readingp. 154
The spread of English (since the late sixteenth century)p. 155
Chapter overviewp. 155
Social-historical backgroundp. 156
Language policyp. 160
The emergence of General English (GenE)p. 161
Transplantationp. 164
Linguistic correlates of European expansionp. 166
Summaryp. 176
Study questionsp. 177
Further readingp. 178
English in Great Britain and Ireland (since 1700)p. 179
Chapter overviewp. 179
Social and historical developments in Britain and Irelandp. 179
England and Walesp. 182
Scotlandp. 199
Irelandp. 202
Urban varietiesp. 206
Summaryp. 209
Study questionsp. 209
Further readingp. 210
English pidgins, English Creoles, and English (since the early seventeenth century)p. 211
Chapter overviewp. 211
European expansion and the slave tradep. 212
Language contactp. 215
Pidginsp. 218
Creolesp. 224
Theories of originsp. 228
Summaryp. 240
Study questionsp. 241
Further readingp. 242
English in North America (since the early seventeenth century)p. 243
Chapter overviewp. 243
The beginnings of English in North Americap. 243
Colonial Englishp. 246
Development of North American English after American independencep. 251
Non-standard GenEp. 258
Ethnic variety within AmEp. 264
Summaryp. 274
Study questionsp. 274
Further readingp. 275
English in the ENL communities of the Southern Hemisphere (since 1788)p. 277
Chapter overviewp. 277
Social-historical backgroundp. 278
Southern Hemisphere English: grammarp. 284
Southern Hemisphere English: pronunciationp. 288
Southern Hemisphere English: vocabulary and pragmaticsp. 292
Regional and ethnic variationp. 300
Summaryp. 303
Study questionsp. 303
Further readingp. 304
English in the ESL countries of Africa and Asia (since 1795)p. 305
Chapter overviewp. 305
English as a Second Languagep. 306
Language planning and policyp. 315
Linguistic features of ESLp. 317
Substrate influencep. 324
Identitarian function of languagep. 332
Summaryp. 334
Study questionsp. 335
Further readingp. 335
Global English (since 1945)p. 337
Chapter overviewp. 337
The beginnings of Global Englishp. 337
Media dominancep. 339
Features of medialized languagep. 343
ENL, ESL, and ELF/EFLp. 351
The identitarian role of the multiplicity of Englishesp. 358
Summaryp. 361
Study questionsp. 361
Further readingp. 362
The International Phonetic Alphabetp. 363
Glossaryp. 364
Bibliographyp. 392
Indexp. 405
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