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A History of Modern Psychology With Infotrac

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780534557751

ISBN10:
0534557759
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/2/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $139.00
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Summary

Preface. 1. The Study of the History of Psychology. 2. Philosophical Influences on Psychology. 3. Physiological Influences on Psychology. 4. The New Psychology. 5. Structuralism. 6. Functionalism: Antecedent Influences. 7. Functionalism: Development and Founding. 8. Applied Psychology: The Legacy of Functionalism. 9. Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences. 10. Behaviorism: The Beginnings. 11. Behaviorism: After the Founding. 12. Gestalt Psychology. 13. Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings. 14. Psychoanalysis: After the Founding. 15. Contemporary Developments in Psychology. The Future History of Psychology. Glossary. References. Name Index. Subject Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xvi
The Study of the History of Psychology
1(25)
The Development of Modern Psychology
1(1)
The Relevance of the Past for the Present
2(3)
The Data of History: Reconstructing Psychology's Past
5(5)
Historiography: How We Study History
5(2)
Lost or Suppressed Data
7(1)
Data Distorted in Translation
8(1)
Self-Serving Data
9(1)
Contextual Forces in Psychology
10(8)
Economic Opportunity
11(1)
War
12(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination
12(6)
Conceptions of Scientific History
18(3)
The Personalistic Theory
18(1)
The Naturalistic Theory
18(3)
Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology
21(2)
Plan of the Book
23(1)
Discussion Questions
24(1)
Suggested Readings
24(2)
Philosophical Influences on Psychology
26(36)
The Spirit of Mechanism
26(2)
The Clockwork Universe
28(8)
Determinism and Reductionism
29(1)
Automata
29(3)
People as Machines
32(1)
The Calculating Engine
33(3)
The Beginnings of Modern Science
36(3)
Rene Descartes (1596--1650)
37(2)
The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
39(5)
The Nature of the Body
40(2)
The Mind-Body Interaction
42(1)
The Doctrine of Ideas
42(2)
Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism
44(15)
Auguste Comte (1798--1857)
44(1)
John Locke (1632--1704)
45(2)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Empiricism from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
47(4)
John Locke
George Berkeley (1685--1753)
51(2)
David Hume (1711--1776)
53(2)
David Hartley (1705--1757)
55(1)
James Mill (1773--1836)
56(1)
John Stuart Mill (1806--1873)
57(2)
Contributions of Empiricism to Psychology
59(1)
Discussion Questions
59(1)
Suggested Readings
60(2)
Physiological Influences on Psychology
62(25)
The Importance of the Human Observer
62(2)
Developments in Early Physiology
64(6)
Research on Brain Functions: Mapping from the Inside
65(1)
Research on Brain Functions: Mapping from the Outside
66(3)
Research on the Nervous System
69(1)
The Mechanistic Spirit
70(1)
The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology
70(3)
Why Germany?
71(2)
Hermann von Helmholtz (1821--1894)
73(3)
Helmholtz's Life
73(1)
Helmholtz's Contributions: The Neural Impulse, Vision, and Audition
74(2)
Ernst Weber (1795--1878)
76(1)
Two-Point Thresholds
76(1)
Just Noticeable Differences
76(1)
Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801--1887)
77(7)
Fechner's Life
78(1)
Mind and Body: A Quantitative Relationship
79(2)
Methods of Psychophysics
81(1)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Psychophysics from Elements of Psychophysics (1860)
82(2)
Gustav Fechner
The Formal Founding of Psychology
84(1)
Discussion Questions
85(1)
Suggested Readings
85(2)
The New Psychology
87(30)
The Founding Father of Modern Psychology
87(1)
Wilhelm Wundt (1832--1920)
88(14)
Wundt's Life
88(2)
The Leipzig Years
90(1)
Cultural Psychology
91(2)
The Study of Conscious Experience
93(2)
The Method of Introspection
95(1)
Elements of Conscious Experience
96(2)
Organizing the Elements of Conscious Experience
98(1)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on the Law of Psychic Resultants and the Principle of Creative Synthesis from Outline of Psychology (1896)
98(2)
Wilhelm Wundt
The Fate of Wundt's Psychology in Germany
100(1)
Criticisms of Wundtian Psychology
100(1)
Wundt's Legacy
101(1)
Other Developments in German Psychology
102(1)
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850--1909)
103(5)
Ebbinghaus's Life
103(1)
Research on Learning
104(1)
Research with Nonsense Syllables
105(2)
Ebbinghaus's Other Contributions to Psychology
107(1)
Franz Brentano (1838--1917)
108(2)
The Study of Mental Acts
109(1)
Carl Stumpf (1848--1936)
110(1)
Phenomenology
111(1)
Oswald Kulpe (1862--1915)
111(3)
Kulpe's Differences with Wundt
112(1)
Systematic Experimental Introspection
112(1)
Imageless Thought
113(1)
Research Topics of the Wurzburg Laboratory
114(1)
Comment
114(1)
Discussion Questions
115(1)
Suggested Readings
116(1)
Structuralism
117(19)
Edward Bradford Titchener (1867--1927)
118(12)
Titchener's Life
118(2)
Titchener's Experimentalists: No Women Allowed!
120(2)
The Content of Conscious Experience
122(1)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Structuralism from A Textbook of Psychology (1909)
123(2)
E. B. Titchener
Introspection
125(2)
The Elements of Consciousness
127(3)
Criticisms of Structuralism
130(3)
Criticisms of Introspection
130(3)
Additional Criticisms of Titchener's System
133(1)
Contributions of Structuralism
133(1)
Discussion Questions
134(1)
Suggested Readings
135(1)
Functionalism: Antecedent Influences
136(35)
The Functionalist Protest
136(1)
Forerunners of Functionalism
137(1)
The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809--1882)
137(16)
Darwin's Life
140(3)
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
143(4)
The Finches' Beaks: Evolution at Work
147(1)
The Evolution of Machines
148(2)
Darwin's Influence on Psychology
150(1)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material from The Autobiography of Charles Darwin (1876)
151(2)
Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822--1911)
153(10)
Galton's Life
153(1)
Mental Inheritance
154(2)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material from Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry Into Its Laws and Consequences (1869)
156(1)
Francis Galton
Statistical Methods
157(1)
Mental Tests
158(2)
The Association of Ideas
160(1)
Mental Imagery
161(1)
Arithmetic by Smell and Other Topics
161(1)
Comment
162(1)
Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism
163(5)
George John Romanes (1848--1894)
164(2)
C. Lloyd Morgan (1852--1936)
166(2)
Comment
168(1)
Discussion Questions
168(1)
Suggested Readings
169(2)
Functionalism: Development and Founding
171(36)
Evolution Comes to America
171(1)
Herbert Spencer (1820--1903)
171(3)
Social Darwinism
172(2)
Synthetic Philosophy
174(1)
The Continuing Evolution of Machines
174(1)
Henry Hollerith and the Punched Cards
175(1)
William James (1842--1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
175(13)
James's Life
176(6)
The Principles of Psychology
182(1)
The Subject Matter of Psychology: A New Look at Consciousness
182(2)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Consciousness from Psychology (Briefer Course) (1892)
184(2)
William James
The Methods of Psychology
186(1)
Pragmatism
186(1)
The Theory of Emotions
186(1)
Habit
187(1)
The Functional Inequality of Women
188(4)
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863--1930)
188(2)
Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley (1874--1947)
190(1)
Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886--1939)
191(1)
The Founding of Functionalism
192(1)
The Chicago School
193(1)
John Dewey (1859--1952)
194(2)
The Reflex Arc
194(1)
Comment
195(1)
James Rowland Angell (1869--1949)
196(2)
Angell's Life
196(1)
The Province of Functional Psychology
196(1)
Comment
197(1)
Harvey A. Carr (1873--1954)
198(1)
Functionalism: The Final Form
198(2)
Functionalism at Columbia University
200(1)
Robert Sessions Woodworth (1869--1962)
200(2)
Woodworth's Life
200(1)
Dynamic Psychology
201(1)
Criticisms of Functionalism
202(2)
Contributions of Functionalism
204(1)
Discussion Questions
204(1)
Suggested Readings
205(2)
Applied Psychology: The Legacy of Functionalism
207(51)
Toward a Practical Psychology
207(4)
The Growth of American Psychology
208(2)
Economic Influences on Applied Psychology
210(1)
Granville Stanley Hall (1844--1924)
211(7)
Hall's Life
212(4)
Evolution and the Recapitulation Theory of Development
216(2)
Comment
218(1)
James McKeen Cattell (1860--1944)
218(6)
Cattell's Life
218(4)
Mental Testing
222(1)
Comment
223(1)
The Psychological Testing Movement
224(9)
Binet, Terman, and the IQ Test
224(2)
World War I and Group Testing
226(3)
Ideas from Medicine and Engineering
229(1)
Racial Differences in Intelligence
229(3)
Contributions of Women to the Testing Movement
232(1)
Lightner Witmer (1867--1956)
233(4)
Witmer's Life
234(2)
Clinics for Child Evaluation
236(1)
Comment
237(1)
The Clinical Psychology Movement
237(2)
Walter Dill Scott (1869--1955)
239(4)
Scott's Life
239(2)
Advertising and Human Suggestibility
241(1)
Employee Selection
241(1)
Comment
242(1)
The Industrial-Organizational Psychology Movement
243(3)
The Impact of the World Wars
243(1)
The Hawthorne Studies and Organizational Issues
243(2)
Contributions of Women to Industrial-Organizational Psychology
245(1)
Hugo Munsterberg (1863--1916)
246(6)
Munsterberg's Life
247(2)
Forensic Psychology and Eyewitness Testimony
249(1)
Psychotherapy
250(1)
Industrial Psychology
251(1)
Comment
252(1)
Applied Psychology in the United States: A National Mania
252(2)
Comment
254(1)
Discussion Questions
255(1)
Suggested Readings
256(2)
Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences
258(31)
Toward a Science of Behavior
258(2)
The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism
260(7)
Jacques Loeb (1859--1924)
260(1)
Rats, Ants, and the Animal Mind
261(3)
Clever Hans, the Clever Horse
264(3)
Edward Lee Thorndike (1874--1949)
267(6)
Thorndike's Life
268(1)
Connectionism
269(1)
The Puzzle Box
270(1)
Laws of Learning
271(1)
Comment
272(1)
Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849--1936)
273(9)
Pavlov's Life
273(3)
Conditioned Reflexes
276(3)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
279(1)
Ivan Pavlov
A Note on E. B. Twitmyer
280(1)
Comment
281(1)
Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857--1927)
282(2)
Associated Reflexes
283(1)
Animal Psychology and the Animal Rights Movement
284(1)
The Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism
285(2)
Discussion Questions
287(1)
Suggested Readings
287(2)
Behaviorism: The Beginnings
289(31)
John B. Watson (1878--1958)
289(11)
Watson's Life
289(8)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Behaviorism from Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913)
297(3)
John B. Watson
The Reaction to Watson's Program
300(1)
The Methods of Behaviorism
301(2)
The Subject Matter of Behaviorism
303(5)
Instincts
304(1)
Emotions
305(2)
Thought Processes
307(1)
Behaviorism's Popular Appeal
308(3)
An Outbreak of Psychology
311(1)
Watson and the Animal Rights Movement
312(1)
Karl Lashley (1890--1958)
313(1)
Criticisms of Watson's Behaviorism
314(2)
William McDougall (1871--1938)
314(2)
Contributions of Watson's Behaviorism
316(1)
Discussion Questions
317(1)
Suggested Readings
318(2)
Behaviorism: After the Founding
320(37)
Three Stages of Behaviorism
320(1)
Operationism
321(1)
Edward Chace Tolman (1886--1959)
322(4)
Purposive Behaviorism
323(1)
Intervening Variables
323(1)
Learning Theory
324(1)
Comment
325(1)
Clark Leonard Hull (1884--1952)
326(4)
Hull's Life
326(1)
The Spirit of Mechanism
327(1)
Objective Methodology and Quantification
328(1)
Drives
328(1)
Learning
329(1)
Comment
330(1)
B. F. Skinner (1904--1990)
330(15)
Skinner's Life
331(2)
Skinner's Behaviorism
333(1)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material from Science and Human Behavior (1953)
334(2)
B. F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning
336(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
337(1)
Verbal Behavior
338(1)
Aircribs, Teaching Machines, and Pigeon-Guided Missiles
339(1)
Walden Two---A Behaviorist Society
340(1)
Behavior Modification
341(1)
Applied Animal Psychology: The IQ Zoo
342(1)
Criticisms of Skinner's Behaviorism
343(1)
Contributions of Skinner's Behaviorism
344(1)
Sociobehaviorism: The Cognitive Challenge
345(1)
Albert Bandura (1925--)
345(4)
Social Cognitive Theory
345(2)
Self-Efficacy
347(1)
Behavior Modification
348(1)
Comment
349(1)
Julian Rotter (1916 --)
349(5)
Cognitive Processes
350(1)
Locus of Control
351(2)
Comment
353(1)
The Fate of Behaviorism
354(1)
Discussion Questions
354(1)
Suggested Readings
355(2)
Gestalt Psychology
357(34)
The Gestalt Revolt
357(3)
More to Perception than Meets the Eye
358(2)
Antecedent Influences on Gestalt Psychology
360(1)
The Changing Zeitgeist in Physics
361(1)
The Phi Phenomenon: A Challenge to Wundtian Psychology
362(1)
Max Wertheimer (1880--1943)
363(2)
Kurt Koffka (1886--1941)
365(2)
Wolfgang Kohler (1887--1967)
367(2)
The Nature of the Gestalt Revolt
369(1)
Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization
370(3)
Gestalt Studies of Learning: Insight and the Mentality of Apes
373(5)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Gestalt Psychology from The Mentality of Apes (1927)
374(3)
Wolfgang Kohler
Comment
377(1)
Productive Thinking in Humans
378(1)
Isomorphism
379(1)
The Spread of Gestalt Psychology
380(2)
The Battle with Behaviorism
381(1)
Gestalt Psychology in Nazi Germany
382(1)
Field Theory: Kurt Lewin (1890--1947)
382(5)
Lewin's Life
383(1)
The Life Space
384(1)
Motivation and the Zeigarnik Effect
385(1)
Social Psychology
386(1)
Criticisms of Gestalt Psychology
387(1)
Contributions of Gestalt Psychology
388(1)
Discussion Questions
388(1)
Suggested Readings
389(2)
Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings
391(45)
The Development of Psychoanalysis
391(2)
Antecedent Influences on Psychoanalysis
393(8)
Theories of the Unconscious Mind
393(1)
Early Ideas about Psychopathology
394(5)
The Influence of Charles Darwin
399(1)
Additional Influences
400(1)
Sigmund Freud (1856--1939) and the Development of Psychoanalysis
401(16)
The Case of Anna O.
403(2)
The Sexual Basis of Neurosis
405(1)
Studies on Hysteria
406(1)
The Childhood Seduction Controversy
407(3)
Dream Analysis
410(1)
The Pinnacle of Success
410(4)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Hysteria from Sigmund Freud's First Lecture at Clark University, September 9, 1909
414(3)
Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment
417(3)
Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality
420(6)
Instincts
420(1)
Levels of Personality
421(2)
Anxiety
423(1)
Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
423(3)
Mechanism and Determinism in Freud's System
426(1)
Relations between Psychoanalysis and Psychology
426(2)
The Scientific Validation of Psychoanalytic Concepts
428(2)
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
430(2)
Contributions of Psychoanalysis
432(1)
Discussion Questions
433(1)
Suggested Readings
434(2)
Psychoanalysis: After the Founding
436(41)
Competing Factions
436(1)
The Neo-Freudians and Ego Psychology
437(1)
Anna Freud (1895--1982)
437(3)
Child Analysis
438(1)
Comment
439(1)
Object Relations Theories
440(1)
Melanie Klein (1882--1960)
440(1)
Heinz Kohut (1913--1981)
441(1)
Carl Jung (1875--1961)
441(8)
Jung's Life
442(2)
Analytical Psychology
444(1)
The Collective Unconscious
445(1)
Archetypes
445(2)
Introversion and Extraversion
447(1)
Psychological Types: The Functions and Attitudes
447(1)
Comment
447(2)
Social Psychological Theories: The Zeitgeist Strikes Again
449(1)
Alfred Adler (1870--1937)
449(6)
Adler's Life
449(2)
Individual Psychology
451(1)
Inferiority Feelings
451(1)
Style of Life
452(1)
The Creative Power of the Self
452(1)
Birth Order
452(1)
Comment
453(2)
Karen Horney (1885--1952)
455(4)
Horney's Life
455(1)
Disagreements with Freud
456(1)
Basic Anxiety
456(1)
Neurotic Needs
457(1)
The Idealized Self-Image
458(1)
Comment
458(1)
The Evolution of Personality Theory: Humanistic Psychology
459(2)
Antecedent Influences on Humanistic Psychology
460(1)
The Nature of Humanistic Psychology
461(1)
Abraham Maslow (1908--1970)
461(6)
Maslow's Life
462(1)
Self-Actualization
463(1)
In Their Own Words: Original Source Material on Humanistic Psychology from Motivation and Personality (1970)
464(2)
Abraham Maslow
Comment
466(1)
Carl Rogers (1902--1987)
467(3)
Rogers's Life
468(1)
Self-Actualization
468(1)
Comment
469(1)
The Fate of Humanistic Psychology
470(1)
Positive Psychology
471(2)
The Psychoanalytic Tradition in History
473(1)
Discussion Questions
474(1)
Suggested Readings
475(2)
Contemporary Developments in Psychology
477(29)
Schools of Thought in Perspective
477(3)
The Cognitive Movement in Psychology
480(4)
Antecedent Influences on Cognitive Psychology
481(1)
The Changing Zeitgeist in Physics
482(1)
The Founding of Cognitive Psychology
483(1)
George Miller (1920--)
484(2)
The Center for Cognitive Studies
485(1)
Ulric Neisser (1928--)
486(2)
The Computer Metaphor
488(1)
The Development of the Modern Computer
489(1)
Artificial Intelligence
489(3)
The Nature of Cognitive Psychology
492(7)
Cognitive Neuroscience
493(1)
The Role of Introspection
493(1)
Unconscious Cognition
494(1)
Animal Cognition
495(2)
Current Status
497(2)
Evolutionary Psychology
499(5)
Antecedent Influences on Evolutionary Psychology
500(1)
The Influence of Sociobiology
501(1)
Current Status of Evolutionary Psychology
502(1)
Comment
503(1)
Discussion Questions
504(1)
Suggested Readings
504(2)
Glossary 506(4)
References 510(16)
Name Index 526(5)
Subject Index 531


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