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A History of the Muslim World to 1405 The Making of a Civilization,9780130983893
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A History of the Muslim World to 1405 The Making of a Civilization

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130983893

ISBN10:
0130983896
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/25/2003
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

This book is an introduction to the history of the Muslim world for readers with little or no knowledge of the subject. It points out the unifying elements that bind together the Muslim world, but stresses the religious and political differences that prevent them from acting as a unit.This book features economic, political, intellectual, and social developments over the wide area of the Muslim world and across many centuries.For readers interested in learning the history of the Muslim world; also, for employees of corporations and businesses that trade with regions ruled by Muslim-dominated governments.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii
NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION AND DATING xv
PART ONE The Formative Period 610-950 1(138)
1. ORIGINS
4(29)
Southwestern Asia in the Seventh Century
4(16)
The Byzantine Empire
5(6)
The Sasanian Empire
11(5)
The Arabian Peninsula
16(4)
The Rise of Islam
20(10)
The Meccan Environment
20(2)
Muhammad
22(5)
A Framework for a New Community
27(3)
Conclusion
30(1)
NOTES
31(1)
FURTHER READING
31(2)
2. ARAB IMPERIALISM
33(29)
Arab Conquests
33(11)
Arabia and the Fertile Crescent
34(4)
Iran
38(3)
North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula
41(2)
Central Asia and the Indus River Valley
43(1)
Umayyad Administration
44(10)
The Caliphate
45(2)
The Administration of Non-Muslims
47(2)
The Administration of Muslims
49(3)
The Rationalization of Society
52(2)
Dissolution of the Arab Empire
54(5)
Conclusion
59(1)
NOTES
60(1)
FURTHER READING
60(2)
3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECTARIANISM
62(23)
Ali and the Politics of Division
62(7)
Political Dissension
63(1)
Ali's Caliphate: Shi'ites and Kharijites
64(2)
Karbala
66(3)
The Abbasid Revott'fio
69(3)
Shi'ite Identities
72(8)
The Ghulat and the Zaydis
73(1)
The Husayni Alids
74(5)
The Shiite Movement
79(1)
The Sunni Consensus
80(3)
Conclusion
83(1)
FURTHER READING
84(1)
4. THE CENTER CANNOT HOLD: THREE CALIPHATES
85(30)
The Abbasid Caliphat
86(8)
The Early Period
86(3)
Military and Economic Problems
89(2)
The Assertion of Regional Autonomy
91(3)
The Fatimid Caliphate
94(4)
Isma'ili Activism
94(2)
A Second Caliphate in the Umma
96(2)
The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba
98(6)
The Consolidation of Umayyad Power
99(3)
A Third Caliphate in the Umma
102(2)
Economic Networks
104(7)
A Single Economy
104(1)
Overland Trade
105(4)
Maritime Commerce
109(2)
Conclusion
111(1)
NOTES
112(1)
FURTHER READING
112(3)
5. SYNTHESIS AND CREATIVITY
The Origins Islamic Law
115(8)
Assimilation and Adaptation
115(1)
Groping Toward an Islamic Jurisprudence
116(1)
The Development of the Sharia
117(6)
Early Sufism
123(4)
The Contemplative Life
123(2)
Testing the Limits of Transcendence
125(2)
The Accommodation of Sufism
127(1)
The Reception of Science and Philosophy
127(6)
Science ("Natural Philosophy")
128(2)
Philosophy
130(3)
The Development of an Islamic Theology
133(4)
The Reception of Rationalism
133(2)
The Critique of Rationalism
135(2)
Conclusion
137(1)
NOTES
138(1)
FURTHER READING
138(1)
PART TWO A Civilization Under Siege, 950-1260 139(118)
6. FILLING THE VACUUM OF POWER, 950-1100
142(30)
The Buyid Sultanate
142(3)
The Advent of the Turks
145(9)
Origins
145(3)
The Saljuq Invasion
148(3)
The Great Saljugs and the Saljugs of Rum
151(3)
The Fatimid Empire
154(6)
The Conquest of Egypt and Palestine
154(2)
Religious Policies
156(2)
The New Egyptian Economy
158(1)
Ominous Developments
159(1)
The Nizaris ("Assassins")
160(2)
The Muslim West
162(7)
Norman Invasions of Muslim Territory
162(1)
The "Hilali Invasion" of Ifriqiya
163(2)
A Berber Empire
165(1)
The Collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Andalus
166(2)
The Incorporation of Andalus into the Maghrib
168(1)
Conclusion
169(1)
FURTHER READING
170(2)
7. BARBARIANS AT THE GATES, 1100-1260
172(27)
The Period of the Crusades
172(10)
The First Crusade
173(5)
The Franks on the Defensive
178(4)
The Loss of Andalus
182(6)
Provisional Solutions: The Great Berber Empires
182(4)
The Disintegration of the Almohads and of Andalus
186(2)
Realignment in the East
188(9)
The Collapse of the Great Saljugs
190(2)
Sunni-Nizari Rapprochement
192(2)
The Mongol Campaigns
194(3)
Conclusion
197(1)
FURTHER READING
198(1)
8. THE CONSOLIDATION OF TRADITIONS
199(30)
Science and Philosophy
199(6)
Mathematics and the Natural Sciences
200(1)
Philosophy
201(3)
The Sunni Resolution to the Tension between Reason and Revelation
204(1)
Consolidating Institutions: Sufism
205(9)
The Emergence of Lodges and Tarigas
206(3)
Speculative Mysticism
209(5)
Consolidation Institutions: Shi'ism
214(5)
Twelver Shi'ites
214(1)
The Isma'ilis
215(2)
The Impact of "the Foreign Sciences" and Jurisprudence
217(2)
The Transmission of Knowledge
219(5)
Schools
219(4)
The Legacy to Europe
223(1)
ENGLISH WORDS DERIVED FROM ARABIC
224(2)
Conclusion
226(1)
NOTES
227(1)
FURTHER READING
227(2)
9. THE MUSLIM COMMONWEALTH
229(28)
Frontiers and Identities
230(11)
Frontiers Defining the Dar al-Islam
230(6)
Frontiers within the Dar al-Islam
236(1)
Identities
237(4)
The City and the Countryside
241(7)
The City
241(5)
The Countryside
246(2)
Conversion to Islam
248(4)
A Muslim Minority
248(1)
The Pace of Conversion Quickens
249(3)
The Issue of Authority in the Muslim World
252(2)
Conclusion
254(1)
NOTES
255(1)
FURTHER READING
255(2)
PART THREE Mongol Hegemony, 1260-1405 257(62)
10. THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION
260(30)
The Mongol Khanates
261(8)
The Qipchaq Khanate
261(3)
The Il-khanate
264(3)
The Chaghatay Khanate
267(2)
New Centers of Islamic Culture
269(13)
The Mamluke Empire
269(4)
The Delhi Sultanate
273(4)
The Ottoman Sultanate
277(5)
Scourges
282(5)
Plague
282(1)
Timur lang
283(4)
Conclusion
287(1)
FURTHER READING
288(2)
11. UNITY AND DIVERSITY IN ISLAMIC TRADITIONS
290(29)
Intellectual Life in the Fourteenth Century
291(11)
The End of the "Golden Age"?
291(2)
Against All Odds
293(9)
Law
302(3)
The Queen of the Sciences
302(1)
The "Closing of the Gate of Ijtihad"?
303(2)
The Varieties of Religious Expression
305(11)
"Orthodoxy" and "Heterodoxy"
306(2)
The Proliferation of Sufi Groups
308(8)
Conclusion
316(1)
FURTHER READING
317(2)
GLOSSARY 319(10)
INDEX 329

Excerpts

This book is an introduction to the history of the Muslim world for readers with little or no knowledge of the subject. I use the termMuslimrather thanIslamicbecause this is a study of the history made by the Muslim peoples rather than a history of the religion of Islam: It is important to make a distinction betweenMuslimandIslamic--properly speaking,Islamicshould refer to elements of the religion, whileMuslimrelates to the adherents of the religion. Thus, not all customs followed by Muslims are Islamic, and although a mosque is an example of Islamic architecture, a palace is not. A generation ago, the great scholar Marshall Hodgson wrestled with this problem and coined the termIslamicateto describe the cultural features of Muslim societies that were not strictly religious, such as secular architecture. The term has not gained widespread acceptance, and this oak will avoid it.If the distinction betweenIslamicandMuslimseems strained, suppose that someone said that the White House is an example of Christian architecture because a Christian designed it, or that Bastille Day is a Christian holiday, since it is celebrated in a country with a Christian majority. No one is tempted to make such assertions, and yet they are equivalent to speaking ofIslamicpalaces orIslamic medicine,as many historians do. Much of the history related in this book is not directly related to Islam, and so it is more appropriately called Muslim history.The phraseMuslim world,as used in this book, refers to regions ruled by Muslim-dominated governments, as well as areas in which the Muslim population is a majority or an influential minority. For several decades in the seventh century, the Muslim world was coterminous with the region often referred to today as the Middle East, but it soon expanded far beyond that heartland. By the tenth century, many of the most important cultural developments in the Muslim world were taking place outside the Middle East. The size of the Muslim world has alternately expanded and contracted over time, and we will be concerned to see how and why that has happened.The themes of the book are tradition and adaptation. The history of any society is one of the preservation of core values and practices, but also one of adaptation to changing conditions. Muslims follow a religion that is strongly anchored in both scripture and authoritative codes of behavior and are conditioned to adhere closely to the canon of their religious tradition. On the other hand, from the very beginning Of their history, Muslims have found ways to adapt elements of their faith to their culture, as well as to adapt their cultural values and practices to the core of their faith. am is no more of a homogeneous world religion than is Christianity or Judaism.The themes of tradition and adaptation allow us to make sense of some import issues in Muslim history. By being aware of the premium placed on faithfulness the scriptures, we can understand more clearly how Muslims were able to maintain a common sense of identity throughout the wide expanse of the world in which they settled. Further, we can more readily appreciate why Muslims have accepted certain features of alien cultures and rejected others. From the first century of the Islamic calendar, when Muslims were having to decide how to administer a huge majority of non-Muslims in the former Byzantine and Sasanian empires, until today, when many Muslims are concerned about the impact of a secular, global economy on their heritage, the tension between adherence to tradition on the one hand and adaptation to changing conditions on the other has been at the center of Muslim concerns.This book treats economic, political, intellectual, and social developments over a wide area and across many centuries. Of these topics, the intellectual and political developments receive more attention than


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