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History of Psychology, A: Ideas and Context,9780205335824
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History of Psychology, A: Ideas and Context

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205335824

ISBN10:
0205335829
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $123.60
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Summary

A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Third Edition, is a comprehensive history of psychology tracing psychological thought from ancient times through late twentieth-century developments.The reader is presented with a framework for interpreting the pedagogy of philosophy through the development of historiography and philosophical problems in the opening chapters. The book gives in-depth coverage to the intellectual trends that preceded the formal founding of psychology, coupled with an analysis of the major classical systems of thought and the key developments in the history of basic and applied psychology. The final epilogue focuses on the major trends in psychology in the latter half of the twentieth century.Designed for anyone interested in the history of psychology, systems of psychology or systematic psychology.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Historical Studies: Some Issues
1(12)
Why Study History?
1(2)
History as a Key to Understanding the Future
1(1)
History as a Way to Enrich the Present
1(1)
History as a Contribution to Liberal Education
2(1)
History Teaches Humility
2(1)
History Teaches a Healthy Skepticism
2(1)
History Influences Human Thought Processes
3(1)
Some Problems in Historiography
3(7)
The Development of Historical Consciousness
3(1)
What Is History?
4(1)
Can History Be Objective?
4(2)
Presentism versus Historicism
6(1)
Is There a Pattern or Direction in History?
7(2)
What Makes History?
9(1)
The History of the History of Psychology
10(2)
Internal and External History
12(1)
Review Questions
12(1)
Philosophical Issues
13(23)
Epistemology
13(11)
A Priori and A Posteriori Knowledge
13(1)
Nativism versus Empiricism
14(1)
Instinct versus Learning
14(1)
What Are the Criteria by Which We Claim to Know the Truth?
15(3)
Other Epistemologies
18(1)
The Role of Emotions in Knowledge
18(1)
Science and Epistemology
19(5)
Relevance of Epistemology to Psychology
24(1)
The Problem of Causality
24(2)
Free Will and Determinism
26(3)
The Mind-Body Problem
29(5)
Monism
29(1)
Dualism
30(2)
Pluralism
32(1)
Psychogeny
33(1)
Review Questions
34(2)
Ancient Psychological Thought
36(26)
Early Chinese Psychologies
36(1)
Babylonia
37(1)
Egypt
38(1)
Other Ancient Eastern Psychologies
38(1)
The Hebrews
39(1)
Persia
40(1)
Greece
40(21)
The Cosmologists
41(5)
Early Greek Concepts of Illness
46(2)
Relativism
48(1)
The Golden Age of Greece
49(11)
Psychological Thought Following Aristotle
60(1)
Review Questions
61(1)
The Roman Period and the Middle Ages
62(25)
Roman Medicine
63(1)
Galen
63(1)
Roman Philosophy
64(5)
Stoicism
65(1)
Epicureanism
66(1)
Neo-Platonism
67(2)
Skepticism
69(1)
The Fall of Rome
69(1)
The Early Christian Faith
70(1)
The Medieval Period
70(16)
Aurelius Augustine
72(3)
Boethius
75(1)
Islam
75(3)
Judaism in the Middle Ages
78(1)
The Rise of the European Universities
79(6)
Closing Comment
85(1)
Review Questions
86(1)
The Renaissance
87(21)
Effect of the Plague
87(1)
Expanding Geographic Knowledge
88(1)
Influence of the Greek Classics
89(1)
Diffusion of Authority
89(1)
Growth of Empirical Studies
90(1)
Quantification
90(1)
Changing Visions of the World
91(3)
The Heliocentric Theory
92(1)
Galileo Galilei
92(2)
The Larger Meaning of the Copernican Revolution
94(1)
Psychological Thought in the Renaissance
94(13)
Petrarch
95(1)
Niccolo Machiavelli
95(2)
Juan Luis Vives
97(2)
Leonardo da Vinci
99(1)
Paracelsus
100(1)
Julius Caesar Scaliger
101(1)
Michel de Montaigne
102(3)
Oliva Sabuco
105(1)
Juan Huarte
106(1)
Review Questions
107(1)
Empiricism, Associationism, and Utilitarianism
108(25)
Empiricism
108(14)
Francis Bacon
108(4)
John Locke
112(4)
George Berkeley
116(3)
David Hume
119(3)
Empiricism on the Continent
122(2)
Etienne Bonnot de Condillac
123(1)
Claude-Adrien Helvetius
124(1)
Associationism and Utilitarianism
124(8)
David Hartley
124(1)
Jeremy Bentham
125(1)
Mary Wollstonecraft
126(2)
James Mill
128(1)
John Stuart Mill
129(3)
Review Questions
132(1)
Rationalism
133(16)
Emphasis on A Priori Knowledge
133(1)
Theory of the Active Mind
133(1)
Deduction versus Induction
133(1)
Rene Descartes
134(3)
Descartes's Method
136(1)
Baruch Spinoza
137(3)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
140(3)
Monadology
141(1)
Christian von Wolff
142(1)
Immanuel Kant
143(2)
Sense Experience and Reason
144(1)
Social Psychology
144(1)
Johann Friedrich Herbart
145(1)
Thomas Reid and Commonsense Philosophy
146(1)
Enfranchising Curiosity
147(1)
Review Questions
148(1)
Mechanization and Quantification
149(22)
Thomas Hobbes
149(3)
Rene Descartes Revisited
152(2)
Jan Swammerdam
154(1)
Neils Stensen
155(1)
Stephen Hales
156(1)
Robert Whytt
156(1)
Johann August Unzer
157(1)
Julien Offray de La Metrie
158(1)
Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis
158(1)
Mapping the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
159(11)
Localization of Function
159(5)
Extending the Powers of Observation
164(1)
Speed of a Nervous Impulse
165(1)
Measuring Behavior
166(3)
Applications of the New Measurement Techniques
169(1)
Review Questions
170(1)
Naturalism and Humanitarian Reform
171(32)
Evolutionary Theory
171(8)
Evolution of the Solar System
171(1)
Geological Evolution
172(1)
Evolution in Other Arenas of Intellectual Discourse
173(1)
Organic Evolution
173(3)
Charles Darwin
176(3)
Significance of Evolutionary Theory for Psychology
179(4)
Comparative Psychology
180(1)
Developmental Psychology
181(1)
Emphasis on Adaptation
182(1)
Individual Differences
182(1)
Herbert Spencer
183(1)
Naturalistic Approaches to Emotional Disorders
183(5)
Demonology
184(1)
The Witches' Hammer
184(3)
The Demise of Witchcraft
187(1)
Humanitarian Reform
188(13)
Reform in the Treatment of Emotional Disorders
188(7)
Reform in Other Places
195(1)
Reform Becomes a Social Movement: Dorothea Dix
195(3)
Reform in the Care and Treatment of Mental Deficiency
198(1)
Women's Reform Movements
199(2)
Review Questions
201(2)
Psychophysics and the Formal Founding of Psychology
203(21)
Psychophysics
203(9)
Ernst Heinrich Weber
204(1)
Weber's Work on the Sense of Touch
204(1)
Gustav Theodor Fechner
205(3)
Rudolph Hermann Lotze
208(1)
Hermann von Helmholtz
209(3)
Wilhelm Wundt
212(11)
General Characteristics of Wundt's Thought
216(2)
The Laboratory and the Broader Vision
218(1)
Some Key Concepts in Wundt's System
219(2)
Wundt's Legacy
221(1)
The Legacy of Wundt's Students in Applied Psychology
222(1)
Review Questions
223(1)
Developments After the Founding
224(24)
Systems
224(2)
Edward Bradford Titchener
226(8)
Titchener's Psychology
228(6)
Margaret Floy Washburn: A Broader Psychology
234(1)
Franz Brentano and Act Psychology
235(3)
Brentano's Psychology
236(2)
Carl Stumpf
238(2)
Georg Elias Muller
240(1)
Oswald Kulpe and the Wurzburg School
241(2)
Hermann Ebbinghaus
243(3)
Wundt's Contemporaries and Applied Psychology
246(1)
Review Questions
246(2)
Functionalism
248(30)
William James and Harvard University
248(10)
General Characteristics of James's Thought
251(3)
Jamesian Psychology
254(4)
James's Legacy
258(1)
Hugo Munsterberg
258(2)
Munsterberg's Psychology
259(1)
G. Stanley Hall and Clark University
260(4)
Hall's Psychology
262(2)
Functionalism and the University of Chicago
264(4)
John Dewey
264(1)
James Rowland Angell
265(2)
Harvey A. Carr
267(1)
Psychology at Columbia University
268(4)
James McKeen Cattell
268(2)
Robert Sessions Woodworth
270(2)
Mary Whiton Calkins
272(1)
The Growth of Applied Psychology
273(3)
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
273(1)
Helen Wooley
274(1)
Binet and Intelligence Testing
274(1)
Walter Dill Scott
275(1)
Influence of Functionalism: An Evaluation
276(1)
Review Questions
277(1)
Behaviorism
278(23)
Antecedents of Behaviorism
278(12)
Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov
279(1)
Ivan Pavlov
280(6)
Other Russian Psychologies
286(1)
Edward Lee Thorndike
287(3)
Formal Founding of American Behaviorism
290(9)
John B. Watson
290(9)
Behaviorism and Applied Psychology
299(1)
Review Questions
299(2)
Other Behavioral Psychologies
301(27)
Importance of Learning
301(1)
Importance of Precision and Clarity
301(2)
Importance of Experimentation
303(1)
Early Behavioristic Psychologies
303(7)
Max Frederick Meyer
304(1)
William McDougall
305(1)
Edwin Bissell Holt
306(1)
Albert Paul Weiss
306(1)
Walter Samuel Hunter
307(1)
Karl Spencer Lashley
308(2)
Neobehaviorism
310(15)
Clark Leonard Hull
310(3)
Edwin Ray Guthrie
313(3)
Edward Chace Tolman
316(3)
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
319(6)
Further Contributions to Applied Psychology from Neobehaviorism
325(1)
Review Questions
326(2)
Gestalt Psychology
328(25)
Max Wertheimer
328(1)
Wolfgang Kohler
329(2)
Kurt Koffka
331(1)
Intellectual Background of Gestalt Psychology
331(2)
Philosophy
331(1)
Science
332(1)
Psychology
333(1)
The Fundamentals of Gestalt Psychology
333(7)
Thinking
334(1)
Principles of Perceptual Organization
335(2)
Learning
337(1)
Insight: A Further Challenge of the S-R Formula
338(1)
Developmental Concepts
338(1)
Primitive Phenomena
339(1)
Gestalt Perspectives on Scientific Method
340(1)
Mind and Brain
341(1)
Isomorphism
342(1)
The Influence of Gestalt Psychology
342(1)
Kurt Lewin and Field Theory
343(5)
Lewin's Field Theory
344(1)
Tension Systems and Recall
345(1)
Group Dynamics
345(1)
Lewin's Influence
346(1)
The Second Generation of Gestalt Psychologists
346(2)
Some Common Misunderstandings of Gestalt Psychology
348(1)
Gestalt Psychology and Gestalt Therapy
348(1)
Gestalt Psychology and Scientific Analysis
348(1)
Gestalt Psychology and Nativism
348(1)
The Role of Past Experience
349(1)
Gestalt Psychology and Applied Psychology
349(1)
The Continuing Relevance of Gestalt Psychology
350(1)
Review Questions
351(2)
Psychoanalysis
353(30)
Sigmund Freud
353(4)
General Characteristics of Freud's Thought
356(1)
Freud's System of Psychology
357(14)
Life's Major Goal and Its Inevitable Frustration
357(2)
The Structure of Personality
359(1)
Motivation and Unconscious Processes
360(3)
Anxiety
363(1)
Defense Mechanisms of the Ego
364(1)
Stages of Psychosexual Development
365(2)
Psychoanalysis as a Therapeutic Technique
367(2)
Freud's Social Psychology
369(1)
Appreciative Overview
370(1)
Critical Overview
370(1)
Post-Freudian Analytic Psychologies
371(1)
Alfred Adler
371(3)
Adler's System of Psychology
372(2)
Carl Gustav Jung
374(4)
Jung's System of Thought
375(2)
Evaluation
377(1)
Karen Danielsen Horney
378(3)
Horney's System of Thought
378(3)
Other Developments
381(1)
Review Questions
381(2)
Humanistic Psychologies
383(21)
Intellectual Traditions
384(6)
William James
384(1)
Existentialism
385(4)
Phenomenology
389(1)
The Formal Emergence of Humanistic Psychologies
390(10)
Abraham Maslow
391(3)
Gordon Allport
394(2)
Carl R. Rogers
396(1)
Viktor Frankl
397(2)
Joseph R. Rychlak
399(1)
Overview of Third-Force Psychologies: Major Positions and Criticisms
400(2)
Review Questions
402(2)
EPILOGUE: LATE-TWENTIETH-CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS 404(13)
The Systems of Psychology in Retrospect
404(3)
Psychoanalysis
404(1)
Humanistic Psychology
405(1)
Neobehaviorism and the Psychology of Learning
406(1)
Cognitive Psychology
407(7)
Intellectual Traditions
407(4)
Themes and Content Areas of Cognitive Psychology
411(1)
Critical Appraisal of Cognitive Psychology
412(2)
Diversity and Pluralism in Modern Psychology
414(2)
Review Questions
416(1)
Glossary 417(26)
References 443(35)
Name Index 478(9)
Subject Index 487


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