For one/two-semester survey courses in Roman History. This 4th edition of the popular text continues to provide a comprehensive analytical survey of Roman history from its prehistoric roots in Italy and the wider Mediterranean world to the dissolution of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity in A.D. 600. Clearly organized and eminently readable, its explanatory narrative of major political and military events provides a chronological and conceptual framework for the social, economic, and cultural developments of the periods presented. Major topics are treated separately so that students can easily grasp key concepts and ideas.
I. PRE-ROMAN ITALY AND THE RISE OF ROME.
1. The Foundations of Early Rome and Italy.
2. Phoenicians, Etruscans, and Greeks in Pre-Roman Italy.
3. Early Rome to 500 B.C.
4. Early Roman Society, Religion, and Values.
5. The Rise of the Roman Republic, 509 to 287 B.C.
6. The Roman Conquest of Italy and Its Impact, 509 to 264 B.C.
II. THE HIGH POINT OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC.
7. The First Punic War and the Beginning of Overseas Imperialism, 264 to 241 B.C.
8. Between the Wars, 241 to 218 B.C.
9. The Second Punic War, 218 to 201 B.C.
10. War and Imperialism in the Hellenic East, 200 to 133 B.C.
11. Roman Imperialism in the West, 200 to 133 B.C.
12. The Transformation of Roman Life, 264 to 133 B.C.
13. The Great Cultural Synthesis, 264 to 133 B.C.
III. THE WORLD OF THE LATE REPUBLIC.
14. The Gracchi and the Struggle over Land Reform, 133 to 121 B.C.
15. The Breakdown of the System, 121 to 88 B.C.
16. Marius and Sulla: Civil War and Reaction, 88 to 78 B.C.
17. Personal Ambitions and Public Crises, 78 to 60 B.C.
18. The Rise of Caesar, 60 to 52 B.C.
19. Caeser Wins and Is Lost, Mid-50s to 44 B.C.
20. The Last Days of the Republic, 44 to 30 B.C.
21. Social, Economic, and Cultural Life in the Late Republic, ca. 133 to 30 B.C.
IV. THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE.
22. The Establishment of the Principate, 29 B.C. to A.D. 14.
23. Systematic Reform under Augustus.
24. Imperial Stabilization under Augustus.
25. The Impact of Augustus on Roman Imperial Life and Culture.
26. The First Two Julio-Claudian Emperors: Tiberius and Gaius (Caligula), A.D. 14 to 41.
27. Claudius, Nero, and the End of the Julio-Claudians, A.D. 41 to 68.
28. The Crisis of the Principate and Recovery under the Flavians, A.D. 69 to 96.
29. The “Good” Emperors of the Second Century, A.D. 96 to 180.
30. Imperial Culture and Society in the First Two Centuries A.D.
V. CRISIS, CONTINUITY, AND CHANGE IN THE THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES.
31. Changes and Conflict in the Early Third Century, A.D. 180 to 235.
32. The Third-Century Anarchy, A.D. 235 to 285.
33. Changes in Roman Life and Culture during the Third Century.
34. Diocletian: Creating the Fourth-Century Empire, A.D. 285 to 305.
35. Constantine the Great and Christianity, A.D. 306 to 337.
36. From Constantine's Dynasty to Theodosius the Great, A.D. 337 to 395.
37. The Evolving World of Late Antiquity in the Fourth Century A.D.
38. Christianity and Classical Culture in the Fourth Century.
VI. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ROMAN WORLD IN LATE ANTIQUITY.
39. The Fifth-Century West: The Localization of Imperial Power under Germanic Kings.
40. Fifth-Century Empresses and the Survival of the Empire in the East, A.D. 395 to 518.
41. Justin and the Establishment of Justinian's Autocracy, A.D. 518 to 532.
42. The Impossible Dream of Universal Empire, A.D. 532 to 602.
43. The Transformation of the Late Antique Roman World, A.D. 395 to 600.
44. The Church and the Legacy of Rome.
The third edition ofA History of the Roman Peoplesought to incorporate recent research that had reshaped our understanding of Rome's origins and early development and had put the history of the late Roman Empire in a completely new light politically, socially, economically, and culturally. It also incorporated new themes, paradigms, and perspectives produced in fields such as women's studies, social history, literary criticism, and art history in order to present a more complete understanding of Roman society and culture in all periods. Accordingly, women, slaves, common citizens, provincial subjects, and other marginalized groups occupied a much larger share of the text beside the highly educated and articulate aristocratic males who monopolized historians' attention in the past. The third edition also adopted a multicultural perspective and emphasized the constant interaction between Romans and non-Romans that constituted one of the major dynamics in the evolution of Roman civilization.While reinforcing these features in the fourth edition, I have tried to eliminate any earlier errors of fact or typography. I hope that I have strengthened and clarified the presentation of the difficult and often problematical material on early Rome. Chapter II places the origin of Rome as a city and a state more squarely i1i the broad context of early first-millennium B.C. developments in the Mediterranean world by giving the Phoenicians equal emphasis beside the Greeks and Etruscans. Chapters III and IV have been reworked to clarify the nature of classes in Roman society, the thorny issues surrounding the identity of the patricians and plebeians, and the complexities of constitutional development.This edition gives greater coverage to Rome's activities in the East from 88 B.C. to A.D. 96, which shaped the important role that the eastern provinces and kingdoms played during the subsequent history of the Empire. The chapters covering the political history of the first three centuries A.D. have been extensively revised to present a much more balanced and sophisticated understanding of the relevant emperors and events in the light of recent scholarship. I have also tried to streamline the narrative of the third-century anarchy and highlight the general trends that the unfortunately large number of emperors illustrates.Throughout the book, the emphasis remains on people within the larger historical context. People make and experience history. Readers are interested in how people contributed to and were affected by historical trends and events. I have tried, therefore, to present enough factual data and biographical information to enable the reader to find answers to the basic questions ofwho, what, where,andwhenwithout the use of other books; to demonstrate thewhyandhowof larger political, social, economic, and cultural developments; and to make understandable the behavior of the people involved. The result, admittedly, is a large amount of specific information. Students will find it less daunting if they keep in mind that the most important things to remember are the general ideas and themes, which, once grasped, can be supported by selecting only some of the specific evidence necessary to make the case in the text.The great strength of history as a discipline is its insistence that the general be supported by the specific and that the specific is r meaningful only in the context of the general. Therefore, I have tried always to strike a balance between the two, even at the expense of brevity. I have also maintained and even reinforced the previous editions' chronological organization and frequent citation of dates. My experience is that students are not familiar enough with the basic sequence of events to avoid being confused by a purely topical or thematic presentation. They need frequent repetition of chronological signposts to make the important ones familiar.I have electe