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Homeplug AV and IEEE 1901 A Handbook for PLC Designers and Users,9780470410738
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Homeplug AV and IEEE 1901 A Handbook for PLC Designers and Users

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780470410738

ISBN10:
0470410736
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/18/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley-IEEE Press
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Summary

The HomePlug AV provides an affordable, secure alternative to WiFi in buildings where WiFi reception is poor. Providing for the first time a chance for non-members of the HomePlug Alliance to read information about the HomePlug standards, this groundbreaking resource is the only authorized book explaining the HomePlug networking standards. Providing a clear and simple description of the HomePlug standards, this essential tool presents HomePlug AV standard in terms more readily understood by a much wider audience, including nontechnical managers, engineers, students, and HomePlug designers.

Author Biography

Dr. HANIPH A. LATCHMAN is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Florida. A Rhodes Scholar and Senior Member of the IEEE, Dr. Latchman is the recipient of numerous teaching awards and has published over 180 technical articles and four books in the areas of control and communication systems and networks.

Dr. SRINIVAS KATAR is Principal Engineer at Qualcomm Atheros, Inc. and has extensively contributed to the development of HomePlug AV, IEEE 1901, HomePlug Green PHY, and the HomePlug AV2 standards. He is an inventor of more than fifty issued and pending patents.

Lawrence W. Yonge III is Senior Director of Technology for Qualcomm Atheros, Inc., chairs the HomePlug Technical Working Group, and is an inventor of approximately 100 U.S. patents issued and pending.

SHERMAN GAVETTE was a Principal Scientist for Sharp Laboratories of America prior to retiring. While at Sharp Labs, he was a member of the HomePlug Powerline Alliance board of directors and was vice-chair of the HomePlug AV Specification working group.

Table of Contents

List of Figures xix

List of Tables xxiii

Preface xxvii

Acknowledgments xxix

Biographical Sketches of the Authors xxxi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 HomePlug AVand Its Relationship to IEEE 1901, 2

1.2 Focus of the Book, 3

1.3 The HomePlug Powerline Alliance, 4

1.3.1 HomePlug Specifications, 4

1.3.2 How the HomePlug AV Specification Was Developed, 5

1.3.3 The Regulatory Working Group, 6

1.3.3.1 The United States and the FCC, 6

1.3.3.2 Europe, CISPR, and CENELEC, 7

1.3.3.3 Rest of the World, 8

1.4 The Role of PLC in Multimedia Home Networking and Smart Energy Applications, 8

1.5 Book Outline, 9

2 The HomePlug AV Network Architecture 12

2.1 Introduction, 12

2.2 Protocol Layers, 12

2.3 Network Architecture, 14

2.3.1 Station Roles, 16

2.3.2 Bridging, 16

2.3.3 Channel Access, 16

2.4 Summary, 17

3 Design Approach for Powerline Channels 18

3.1 Introduction, 18

3.2 Channel Characteristics, 19

3.3 Frequency Band, 21

3.3.1 Tone Mask, 22

3.3.2 Amplitude Map, 22

3.4 Windowed OFDM, 23

3.5 Turbo Convolutional Code, 24

3.6 Channel Adaptation, 25

3.6.1 Bit-Loading, 27

3.7 Beacon Period Synchronized to AC Line Cycle, 27

3.7.1 AC Line Cycle Synchronization for TDMA Allocations, 28

3.8 TDMAwith Persistent and Nonpersistent Schedules, 29

3.9 Data Plane: Two-Level Framing, Segmentation, and Reassembly, 30

3.10 PHY Clock Synchronization, 30

3.11 Summary, 31

4 Physical Layer 32

4.1 Introduction, 32

4.1.1 Transceiver Block Diagram, 33

4.2 PPDU, 34

4.2.1 PPDU Formats, 35

4.2.2 PPDU Structure, 36

4.2.3 Symbol Timing, 36

4.3 Preamble, 37

4.4 Frame Control, 38

4.5 Payload, 39

4.5.1 Scrambler, 40

4.5.2 Turbo Convolutional Encoder, 41

4.5.2.1 Constituent Encoders, 41

4.5.2.2 Termination, 41

4.5.2.3 Puncturing, 42

4.5.2.4 Turbo Interleaving, 42

4.5.3 Channel Interleaver, 44

4.5.4 ROBO Modes, 46

4.5.4.1 ROBO Interleaver, 46

4.5.5 Mapping and Tone Maps, 49

4.5.5.1 Empty Tone Filling, 50

4.5.5.2 Last Symbol Padding, 50

4.5.5.3 Mapping Reference, 51

4.5.5.4 Mapping for BPSK, QPSK, 8 QAM, 16 QAM, 64 QAM, 256 QAM, 1024 QAM, 51

4.5.5.5 Mapping for ROBO-AV, 53

4.5.6 Payload Symbols, 54

4.5.7 Windowed OFDM and Symbol Shaping, 55

4.6 Priority Resolution Symbol, 56

4.7 Transmit Power, Tone Mask, and Amplitude Map, 56

4.7.1 Relative Power Levels, 56

4.7.2 Tone Mask, 57

4.7.3 Amplitude Map, 58

4.8 Summary, 60

5 MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) Format 61

5.1 Introduction, 61

5.1.1 General AV Frame Control, 63

5.2 Beacon, 64

5.2.1 Beacon Frame Control, 65

5.2.1.1 Beacon Time Stamp (BTS), 65

5.2.1.2 Beacon Transmission Offset (BTO), 65

5.2.2 Beacon Payload, 65

5.2.2.1 Beacon Type, 65

5.2.2.2 Addressing, 66

5.2.2.3 Neighbor Network Coordination, 67

5.2.2.4 Network Operation Mode, 67

5.2.2.5 CCo Capability, 68

5.2.2.6 Participation in Multiple Networks, 68

5.2.2.7 CCo Handover, 68

5.2.2.8 Beacon Management Information (BMI), 68

5.2.2.9 Beacon Payload Check Sequence (BPCS), 77

5.3 Start-of-Frame (SOF), 77

5.3.1 Start-of-Frame (SOF) Frame Control, 77

5.3.1.1 Addressing-Related Fields, 78

5.3.1.2 Queue-Related Fields, 79

5.3.1.3 Bursting-Related Fields, 79

5.3.1.4 Payload Demodulation-Related Fields, 80

5.3.1.5 TDMA Allocation-Related Fields, 81

5.3.1.6 SACK Retransmission-Related Fields, 81

5.3.1.7 Encryption-Related Fields, 82

5.3.1.8 Detection Status-Related Fields, 82

5.3.1.9 Participation in Multiple Networks-Related Fields, 82

5.3.1.10 Convergence Layer SAP Type (CLST), 83

5.3.2 SOF Payload, 83

5.4 Selective Acknowledgment (SACK), 85

5.4.1 Addressing-Related Field, 85

5.4.2 Queue-Related Field, 86

5.4.3 Bursting-Related Field, 86

5.4.4 TDMA Allocation-Related Fields, 87

5.4.5 Detection Status-Related Field, 87

5.4.6 Version-Related Fields, 87

5.4.7 SACK Data, 87

5.5 Request to Send (RTS)/Clear to Send (CTS), 88

5.5.1 Addressing-Related Fields, 88

5.5.2 Queue-Related Fields, 89

5.5.3 TDMA Allocation-Related Fields, 89

5.5.4 Detection Status Fields, 89

5.5.5 Immediate Grant-Related Fields, 90

5.5.6 Virtual Carrier Sense (VCS)-Related Fields, 90

5.5.7 RTS Flag, 91

5.6 Sound, 91

5.6.1 Sound Frame Control, 91

5.6.1.1 Addressing, 91

5.6.1.2 Queue, 92

5.6.1.3 Bursting, 92

5.6.1.4 Payload Demodulation, 92

5.6.1.5 TDMA Allocations, 93

5.6.1.6 Detection Status-Related Field, 93

5.6.1.7 Sound ACK, 93

5.6.1.8 Sound Complete Flag, 93

5.6.1.9 Sound Reason Code, 93

5.6.1.10 Max Tone Maps, 94

5.6.2 Format of Sound MPDU Payload, 94

5.7 Reverse Start-of-Frame (RSOF), 95

5.7.1 Reverse SOF (RSOF) Frame Control, 95

5.7.1.1 Addressing-Related Field, 95

5.7.1.2 Queue-Related Field, 95

5.7.1.3 Bursting-Related Field, 96

5.7.1.4 TDMA Allocation-Related Fields, 97

5.7.1.5 Detection Status-Related Field, 97

5.7.1.6 Version-Related Fields, 97

5.7.1.7 Selective Acknowledgment-Related Field, 97

5.7.1.8 Payload Demodulation-Related Fields, 97

5.8 Summary, 98

6 MAC Data Plane 99

6.1 Introduction, 99

6.2 MAC Frame Generation, 101

6.3 MAC Frame Streams, 102

6.3.1 Priority of Management Streams, 103

6.4 Segmentation, 104

6.5 Long MPDU Generation, 104

6.6 Reassembly, 106

6.7 Buffer Management and Flow Control, 106

6.7.1 Transmit Buffer Management, 107

6.7.2 Receive Buffer Management, 109

6.8 Communication Between Associated but Unauthenticated STAs, 112

6.9 Communication Between STAs not Associated with the Same AVLN, 112

6.9.1 Multinetwork Broadcast (MNBC), 113

6.10 Data Encryption, 114

6.11 MPDU Bursting, 114

6.12 Bidirectional Bursting, 115

6.12.1 Bidirectional Bursting During CSMA, 116

6.12.2 Connections and Links During Bidirectional Bursts, 118

6.12.3 Encryption of RSOF Payload, 118

6.13 Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), 118

6.13.1 Request SACK Retransmission, 119

6.13.2 Broadcast/Multicast and Partial Acknowledgment, 119

6.14 Summary, 120

7 Central Coordinator 121

7.1 Introduction, 121

7.2 CCo Selection, 122

7.2.1 CCo Selection for a New AVLN, 122

7.2.2 Auto-Selection of CCo, 122

7.2.2.1 CCo Capability, 123

7.2.3 User-Appointed CCo, 124

7.3 Backup CCo and CCo Failure Recovery, 125

7.3.1 Backup CCo, 125

7.3.2 CCo Failure Recovery, 125

7.4 Transfer/Handover of CCo Functions, 125

7.5 CCo Network Management Functions, 127

7.5.1 Network Time Base Synchronization, 127

7.5.1.1 Arrival Time Stamp for MSDU Jitter and Delay Control, 129

7.5.1.2 PHY Clock Correction When Participating in More Than One Network, 129

7.5.2 Discover Process, 130

7.6 Summary, 132

8 Channel Access 133

8.1 Introduction, 133

8.2 Beacon Period and AC Line Cycle Synchronization, 135

8.2.1 Line Cycle Synchronization, 135

8.3 Beacon Period Structure, 135

8.3.1 Beacon Period Structure in CSMA-Only Mode, 139

8.3.2 Beacon Period Structure in Uncoordinated Mode, 141

8.3.3 Beacon Period Structure in Coordinated Mode, 142

8.4 CSMA Channel Access, 143

8.4.1 Carrier Sense Mechanism, 144

8.4.1.1 MAC-Level Acknowledgments, 144

8.4.1.2 Setting of Virtual Carrier Sense (VCS)

Timer, 145

8.4.1.3 RTS/CTS, 146

8.4.2 Contention Procedure, 146

8.4.2.1 Priority Contention, 148

8.5 TDMA Channel Access, 148

8.5.1 Admission Control and Scheduling (Persistent and Nonpersistent), 148

8.6 Summary, 149

9 Connections and Links 150

9.1 Introduction, 150

9.2 Packet Classification, 151

9.3 Connection Specification (CSPEC), 152

9.4 Connections and Links, 154

9.4.1 Link Identifiers, 156

9.4.1.1 Assignment of LIDs, 157

9.4.2 Connection Identifiers, 157

9.5 Connection Services, 157

9.5.1 Connection Setup, 159

9.5.2 Connection Monitoring, 161

9.5.3 Connection Teardown, 161

9.5.4 Connection Reconfiguration, 164

9.5.5 Global Link Reconfiguration Triggered by CCo, 167

9.5.5.1 Squeeze and De-Squeeze, 167

9.6 Bandwidth Management by CCo, 168

9.6.1 Scheduler and Bandwidth Allocation, 168

9.6.2 Connection Admission Control, 171

9.6.3 Beacon Period Configuration, 171

9.7 Summary, 171

10 Security and Network Formation 172

10.1 Introduction, 172

10.2 Power-on Network Discovery Procedure, 172

10.2.1 Unassociated STA Behavior, 174

10.2.2 Unassociated CCo Behavior, 175

10.2.3 Behavior as an STA in an AVLN, 176

10.2.4 Behavior as a CCo in an AVLN, 177

10.3 Forming or Joining an AVLN, 178

10.3.1 AVLN Overview, 178

10.3.1.1 Network Identification, 178

10.3.1.2 Human-Friendly Station and AVLN Names, 178

10.3.1.3 Get Full AVLN Information, 178

10.3.1.4 Get Full STA Information, 178

10.3.2 Association, 179

10.3.2.1 TEI Assignment and Renewal, 179

10.3.3 Method for Authentication, 181

10.3.4 Forming a New AVLN, 181

10.3.4.1 Two Unassociated STAs with Matching NIDs, 183

10.3.4.2 Two Unassociated STAs Form an AVLN Using a DAK-Encrypted NMK, 183

10.3.4.3 Two Unassociated STAs: One in SC-Add and One in SC-Join, 186

10.3.4.4 Two Unassociated STAs: Both in SC-Join, 186

10.3.5 Joining an Existing AVLN, 188

10.3.5.1 Matching NIDs, 189

10.3.5.2 DAK-Encrypted NMK, 189

10.3.5.3 SC-Join and SC-Add, 190

10.3.6 Leaving an AVLN, 192

10.3.7 Removing a Station from an AVLN, 193

10.4 Security Overview, 193

10.4.1 Encryption Keys, Pass Phrases, Nonces, and Their Uses, 194

10.4.1.1 Device Access Key (DAK), 194

10.4.1.2 Device Password (DPW), 194

10.4.1.3 Network Membership Key (NMK), 194

10.4.1.4 Network Password (NPW), 194

10.4.1.5 Network Encryption Key (NEK), 194

10.4.1.6 Temporary Encryption Key (TEK), 195

10.4.1.7 Nonces, 195

10.4.2 Methods for Authorization (NMK Provisioning), 195

10.4.2.1 Security Level, 196

10.4.2.2 Preloaded NMK, 198

10.4.2.3 Direct Entry of the NMK, 198

10.4.2.4 Distribution of NMK Using DAK, 199

10.4.2.5 Distribution of NMK Using Unicast Key Exchange (UKE), 200

10.4.2.6 Distribution of NMK Using Other Key Management Protocols, 202

10.4.2.7 Changing the NMK, 203

10.4.3 NEK Provisioning, 203

10.4.3.1 Provisioning NEK for New STA, 203

10.4.3.2 Provisioning NEK for Part or All of the AVLN, 203

10.4.4 Encryption Key Uses and Protocol Failures, 204

10.4.5 AES Encryption Algorithm and Mode, 207

10.4.5.1 PHY Block-Level Encryption, 207

10.4.5.2 Payload-Level Encryption, 207

10.4.6 Generation of AES Encryption Keys, 208

10.4.6.1 Generation from Passwords, 208

10.4.6.2 Automatic Generation of AES Keys, 208

10.4.6.3 Generation of Nonces, 208

10.4.7 Encrypted Payload Message, 209

10.4.8 User Interface Station (UIS), 210

10.5 Summary, 210

11 Additional MAC Features 211

11.1 Introduction, 211

11.2 Channel Estimation, 211

11.2.1 Channel Estimation Procedure, 212

11.2.2 Initial Channel Estimation, 213

11.2.3 Dynamic Channel Adaptation, 214

11.2.4 Maintenance of Tone Maps, 217

11.2.5 Tone Map Intervals, 218

11.2.6 Priority of Channel Estimation Response, 219

11.2.7 Channel Estimation with Respect to the AC Line Cycle, 219

11.3 Bridging, 219

11.3.1 Acting as an AV Bridge, 220

11.3.2 Communicating Through an AV Bridge, 221

11.3.2.1 Communication with a Known DA, 222

11.3.2.2 Communicating with an Unknown DA, 222

11.4 HomePlug 1.0.1 Coexistence, 223

11.4.1 HomePlug AV Coexistence Modes, 223

11.4.2 Detection and Reporting of Active HomePlug 1.0.1, 224

11.4.3 HomePlug 1.0.1/1.1 Coexistence Mode Changes, 224

11.4.4 HomePlug 1.0.1-Compatible Frame Lengths, 225

11.5 Proxy Networking, 225

11.5.1 Identification of Hidden Stations, 227

11.5.2 Association of Hidden Station, 227

11.5.3 Instantiation of Proxy Network, 229

11.5.4 Proxy Beacons, 229

11.5.5 Provisioning the NMK to Hidden Stations, 229

11.5.6 Provisioning NEK for Hidden Stations (Authenticating the HSTA), 230

11.5.7 Exchange of MMEs Through a PCo, 230

11.5.8 Transitioning from Being a STA to Being an HSTA, 231

11.5.9 Transitioning from Being an HSTA to Being a STA, 231

11.5.10 Recovering from the Loss of a PCo, 232

11.5.11 Proxy Network Shutdown, 232

11.6 Summary, 232

12 Neighbor Networks 233

12.1 Introduction, 233

12.1.1 CSMA-Only Mode, 233

12.1.2 Uncoordinated Mode, 234

12.1.3 Coordinated Mode, 234

12.2 Transition Between Neighbor Network Operating Modes, 234

12.3 Coordinated Mode, 236

12.3.1 Interfering Network List, 237

12.3.2 Group of Networks, 237

12.3.3 Determining a Compatible Schedule, 237

12.3.3.1 Computing the INL Allocation, 238

12.3.4 Communication Between Neighboring CCos, 239

12.3.5 Neighbor Network Instantiation, 240

12.3.5.1 Procedure to Establish a New Network in

Coordinated Mode, 240

12.3.5.2 Changing the Number of Beacon Slots, 242

12.3.5.3 Setting the Value of SlotUsage Field, 244

12.3.6 Procedure to Share Bandwidth in Coordinated Mode, 244

12.3.7 Bandwidth Scheduling Rules, 246

12.3.8 Procedure to Shut Down an AVLN, 246

12.3.9 AC Line Cycle Synchronization in Coordinated Mode, 247

12.4 Passive Coordination in CSMA-Only Mode, 248

12.5 Neighbor Network Bandwidth Sharing Policy, 248

12.6 Summary, 249

13 Management Messages 250

13.1 Introduction, 250

13.2 Management Message Format, 250

13.2.1 Original Destination Address (ODA), 250

13.2.2 Original Source Address (OSA), 251

13.2.3 VLAN Tag, 251

13.2.4 MTYPE, 251

13.2.5 Management Message Version (MMV), 251

13.2.6 Management Message Type (MMTYPE), 251

13.2.7 Fragment Management Information, 252

13.2.8 Management Message Entry Data (MME), 254

13.2.9 MMEPAD, 254

13.3 Station–Central Coordination (CCo), 254

13.4 Proxy Coordinator (PCO) Messages, 260

13.5 Central Coordinator–Central Coordinator, 260

13.6 Station–Station, 262

13.7 Manufacturer-Specific Messages, 266

13.8 Vendor-Specific Messages, 267

13.9 Summary, 267

14 IEEE 1901 268

14.1 Introduction, 268

14.2 FFT, 269

14.2.1 30–50 MHz Frequency Band, 269

14.2.2 Additional Guard Intervals, 270

14.2.3 4096 QAM, 271

14.2.4 16/18 Code Rate, 271

14.2.5 SNID Reuse, 271

14.2.6 Repeating and Routing, 272

14.2.6.1 Repeating and Routing of Unicast MSDUs, 272

14.2.6.2 Repeating and Routing of Broadcast/Multicast MSDUs, 273

14.3 Wavelet, 274

14.3.1 Baseband PHY, 274

14.3.2 Bandpass PHY, 274

14.3.2.1 Wavelet MAC, 274

14.3.3 Transceiver Block Diagram, 275

14.3.4 PPDU Format, 276

14.3.4.1 Overview of the PPDU Encoding/Decoding Process, 277

14.3.4.2 Modulation-Dependent Parameters, 278

14.3.5 PHY Encoder, 278

14.3.5.1 Generator for RCE Frame, 278

14.3.5.2 Scrambler, 278

14.3.5.3 CRC Encoder for FL, 279

14.3.5.4 Concatenated Encoder, 279

14.3.5.5 Convolutional Codes Defined by Low-Density Parity-Check Polynomials (Optional), 280

14.3.5.6 FEC Type Field, 281

14.3.5.7 Interleaver, 281

14.3.5.8 Wavelet Process, 282

14.3.5.9 Major Specifications, 292

14.3.5.10 Notch and Power Control, 293

14.3.5.11 System Clock Frequency Tolerance, 294

14.4 Coexistence, 294

14.4.1 Coexistence Signals, 294

14.4.2 ISP Signaling Scheme, 295

14.4.2.1 ISP Fields, 296

14.4.2.2 Network Status, 298

14.4.3 Coexistence Resources, 298

14.4.3.1 FDM, 298

14.4.3.2 TDM, 298

14.4.4 ISP Resource Allocation, 299

14.4.5 ISP Parameters, 301

14.4.6 Management Messages, 301

14.5 Summary, 301

15 HomePlug Green PHY 302

15.1 Introduction, 302

15.2 Physical Layer, 302

15.3 MAC Layer, 303

15.3.1 Power Save, 304

15.3.1.1 Distribution of Power Save State Information, 306

15.3.1.2 CCo Power Save, 307

15.3.2 Bandwidth Sharing Between Green PHYand HomePlug AVand IEEE, 307

15.3.2.1 Green PHY Preferred Allocation, 307

15.3.2.2 Distributed Bandwidth Control, 308

15.3.3 PEV–EVSE Association, 309

15.3.3.1 PEV–EVSE Association Procedure, 310

15.4 Summary, 311

16 HomePlug AV2 312

16.1 Introduction, 312

16.2 MIMO, 312

16.3 Extended Frequency Band, 315

16.3.1 Power BackOff, 316

16.4 Efficient Notching, 316

16.5 Short Delimiter and Delayed Acknowledgment, 316

16.5.1 Short Delimiter, 317

16.5.2 Delayed Acknowledgment, 320

16.5.3 TCP and UDP Efficiency Improvements, 320

16.6 Immediate Repeating, 321

16.7 Power Save, 322

16.8 Summary, 323

Appendix A Acronyms 325

Appendix B HomePlug AV Parameter Specification 332

References 334

Index 337



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