9780123124111

Hormones and Signaling

by ; ; ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780123124111

  • ISBN10:

    0123124115

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1997-09-30
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Hormones and Signaling focuses on the mechanism of gene regulation at the cellular level. It also covers the way hormones act to modulate gene regulation and animal development. Key Features * Includes information on: * Nuclear receptors, coactivators, and corepressors * Membrane receptors, kinases, and phosphorylation on cascades * Hormonal regulation of development * Calcium channels and neurotransmitters * Chromatin, transcription factors, and regulation of gene expression * JAK/STAT pathways * Hormone-regulated development and gene "knock-out"

Table of Contents

Contributors xi(2)
Preface xiii
Glucocorticoids and Oxysterols in Lymphoid Apoptosis
2(40)
E. Brad Thompson
I. Introduction
2(1)
II. Mechanisms of Action of the Glucocorticoid Receptor
3(3)
A. Control of Transcription
3(2)
B. Posttranscriptional Control
5(1)
C. Regulation of Growth Factors
5(1)
III. Actions of Oxysterols on Lymphoid Cells
6(1)
IV. Apoptosis
7(5)
A. DNA Lysis
8(1)
B. Calcium Flux
8(1)
C. Proto-oncogenes
8(2)
D. Cell Shrinkage
10(1)
E. Induced Lethality Genes
10(1)
F. Fas and the Cysteine Proteases
11(1)
G. Summary
12(1)
V. Glucocorticoids and Oxysterols Cause Apoptosis of CEM Cells
12(19)
A. Derivation of CEM Cell Clones
12(2)
B. Both Glucocorticoids and Oxysterols Cause CEM Cell Death by Apoptosis
14(2)
C. The Glucocorticoid Pathway to Apoptosis
16(4)
D. The Role of the GR in Apoptosis: Mapping the GR for Cell Death Domains
20(7)
E. The Oxysterol Path to Apoptosis in CEM Cells
27(4)
VI. Conclusions
31(1)
References
32(10)
RAGE: A Receptor with a Taste for Multiple Ligands and Varied Pathophysiologic States
42(24)
Ann Marie Schmidt
Jean-Luc Wautier
David Stern
Shi Du Yan
I. Introduction
42(1)
II. Identification and Characterization of RAGE
42(5)
III. Expression and Functions of RAGE: Endothelial Cells and Mononuclear Phagocytes
47(4)
A. Endothelial Cells
47(2)
B. Mononuclear Phagocytes
49(2)
IV. RAGE and Diabetes
51(4)
V. RAGE and Amphoterin
55(1)
VI. RAGE and Alzheimer's Disease
56(4)
VII. Hypothesis
60(1)
References
61(5)
The Function and Regulation of the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases
66(24)
Alexander D. Macrae
Robert J. Lefkowitz
I. Introduction
66(1)
II. The Regulation of Cellular Signaling
66(3)
III. The G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases
69(2)
A. Cloning and Structure of the GRKs
69(1)
B. Expression of the GRKs
70(1)
IV. The Regulation of the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases
71(5)
A. Regulation by Membrane Association
71(2)
B. Regulation by Membrane Lipids
73(2)
C. Microsomal Membrane Association
75(1)
D. Regulation by PKC
75(1)
V. Kinase Enzymology
76(1)
VI. Receptor-Kinase Specificity
76(3)
VII. Animal Models
79(2)
A. Animal Studies by Transgenic Gene Expression
79(1)
B. Animal Studies by Gene Deletion
80(1)
VIII. Physiological Significance
81(2)
IX. Conclusions
83(1)
References
83(7)
Characteristics and Function of the Novel Estrogen Receptor XXX
90(23)
George G. J. M. Kuiper
Stefan Nilsson
Jan-Ake Gustafsson
I. Introduction
90(1)
II. Cloning of ERXXX cDNA
91(4)
III. Ligand-Binding Characteristics of ER BETA Protein
95(4)
IV. Transactivation Function of ER BETA Protein
99(2)
V. Expression of ER BETA mRNA
101(2)
VI. Physiological Role of ER BETA Protein
103(3)
A. ER BETA in the ER BETA Knock-Out Mouse
103(2)
B. ER BETA and the Prostate
105(1)
C. ER BETA and Environmental Endocrine Disruptors
106(1)
VII. Concluding Remarks
106(1)
References
107(6)
EGF Family Receptors and Their Ligands in Human Cancer
113(54)
Careen K. Tang
Marc E. Lippman
I. Introduction
113(1)
II. EGF Family Receptors
114(7)
A. Overview
114(2)
B. Structure, Expression, and Transforming Potential of EGF Family Receptors
116(5)
III. EGF-like Growth Factors
121(9)
A. Overview
121(1)
B. Common Structure of EGF-like Growth Factor Family Members
121(1)
C. Function of EGF-like Growth Factors
122(1)
D. Expression and Biological Role of EGF-like Growth Factors
123(7)
IV. Activation of EGF Family Receptors
130(6)
A. Interaction between the EGF Family Receptors and Their Ligands
130(1)
B. The Mechanisms of Receptor Activation
130(4)
C. Heterodimerization, Transphosphorylation
134(2)
V. Clinical Significance of EGF Family Receptors
136(3)
A. EGFR
136(1)
B. ErbB-2
137(1)
C. ErbB-3
138(1)
D. ErbB-4
139(1)
VI. Potential Clinical Application by Targeting of EGF Family Receptor Members and Ligands
139(6)
A. Immuno (Antibody) Therapy
140(1)
B. Coupling of Receptor Antibodies or Ligands to Toxin Molecules
141(2)
C. Antisense Strategies
143(1)
D. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (EGFR PTK Inhibitors)
144(1)
VII. Conclusion
145(1)
References
146(21)
Fertilization: Common Molecular Signaling Pathways across the Species
167(43)
Timothy A. Quill
David L. Garbers
I. Introduction
167(1)
II. Oviductal Transport
168(2)
III. Motility Modulation
170(13)
A. Motility Stimulation (Chemokinesis)
170(5)
B. Egg Peptide Receptors
175(5)
C. Chemotaxis
180(3)
IV. Gamete Adhesion
183(2)
V. Acrosome Reaction
185(7)
VI. Egg Plasma Membrane Interactions and Egg Activation
192(3)
References
195(15)
The JNK Family of MAP Kinases: Regulation and Function
210(26)
Audrey Minden
Michael Karin
I. Introduction
210(2)
II. Regulation of c-Jun Expression and Activity
212(1)
III. Phosphorylation of the c-Jun Amino-Terminal Sites by JNK
213(3)
IV. Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Activation of JNK and Other MAP Kinases
216(6)
V. Other Substrates for the JNKs
222(2)
VI. Biological Functions of JNK and Other MAP Kinase Pathways
224(3)
VII. Conclusions and Future Considerations
227(1)
References
228(8)
PPAR ALPHA: Tempting Fate with Fat
236(23)
Pallavi R. Devchand
Walter Wahli
I. PPAR ALPHA as a Ligand-Activated Transcription Factor
236(1)
II. Lipid Homeostasis: How Complex Can It Be?
237(5)
A. Cell and Lipid Type
238(1)
B. Peroxisomes Are Multifunctional Organelles
238(3)
C. Cross-Talk at the Transcription Factor Level
241(1)
III. PPAR ALPHA Expression during Development and Adulthood
242(1)
IV. PPAR ALPHA and Its Activators: Open Relationships?
243(8)
A. Assays for PPAR Activators
243(2)
B. Fatty Acids
245(1)
C. Channeling Arachidonic Acid
245(4)
D. Peroxisome Proliferators
249(1)
E. Thiazolidinediones
249(1)
F. Species Differences
250(1)
G. Summary of PPAR ALPHA Activation Profile
250(1)
V. PPAR ALPHA Ligands
251(1)
VI. PPAR ALPHA Functions
251(4)
A. Evaluation of PPAR ALPHA Function in Vitro
251(2)
B. PPAR ALPHA Knock-Out Mice
253(2)
VII. Conclusion
255(1)
References
255(4)
Molecular Mechanisms of Neuronal Survival and Apoptosis
259(49)
Sandeep Robert Datta
Michael E. Greenberg
I. The Neurotrophic Theory
259(2)
II. Apoptosis--A Means of Neuronal Death
261(1)
III. Activity, Intracellular Calcium, and Survival
262(1)
IV. The Calcium Set-Point Hypothesis
263(1)
V. Mechanisms of Survival: Neurotrophin Receptors and Second Messengers
264(2)
VI. The Ras-MAPK Pathway
266(4)
VII. The Phosphatidylinositide-3'-OH Kinase/Akt Pathway
270(3)
VIII. Protein Kinase C
273(1)
IX. Neurotrophin-Dependent Pathway Cross-Talk
274(1)
X. Calcium-Dependent Kinase Pathways
274(2)
XI. Interaction of Calcium and Neurotrophin Signaling in Survival
276(2)
XII. Mechanisms of Death
278(1)
XIII. Upstream Events in Neuronal Death and p75
278(3)
XIV. Death and Second Messengers: Ceramide and JNK/p38
281(4)
XV. Signal Integration: The Balance between Life and Death
285(3)
XVI. Caspases and the Bcl-2 Family
288(3)
XVII. Cell-Extrinsic Signaling Meets Cell-Intrinsic Survival and Death Mechanisms
291(1)
XVIII. Frontiers in Neuronal Survival and Death
292(1)
References
292(16)
Nuclear Orphan Receptors: The Search for Novel Ligands and Signaling Pathways
308(51)
Patricia J. Willy
David J. Mangelsdorf
I. Introduction
308(7)
A. Background
308(3)
B. Definition of an Orphan Receptor
311(4)
II. Discovery of Orphan Receptor Ligands
315(4)
A. The Hunt for Ligands
315(1)
B. The Retinoid X Receptors
316(3)
III. Orphan Receptors That Function as RXR Heterodimers
319(8)
A. RXR Heterodimer Partners with Ligands and/or Activators
319(3)
B. RXR Heterodimer Partners with No Known Ligands or Activators
322(1)
C. Receptors That Mediate Retinoid Signaling through Heterodimerization with RXR
323(4)
IV. Orphan Receptors That Function Independently of Dimerization with RXR
327(13)
A. Receptors That Generally Function as Trancriptional Activators
327(7)
B. Receptors That Generally Function as Transcriptional Repressors
334(5)
C. Receptors with Unknown Activation Functions
339(1)
V. Summary and Perspective
340(2)
References
342(17)
Index 359

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