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Horticulture : Principles and Practices,9780131144125
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Horticulture : Principles and Practices

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131144125

ISBN10:
013114412X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For undergraduate courses in Introduction to Horticulture, Introduction to Plant Science, and Principles of Crop Production. Written from the point of view of the horticulturalist, this comprehensive introduction to horticulture as a science, art, and business explores the four general areas of horticulture- ornamental horticulture, fruit culture, vegetable culture, and landscape architecture-and covers all the essential principles and practices of horticulture pertaining to indoor and outdoor production. The emphasis throughout is on the underlying science-including current technology-and how it is applied in practical horticulture.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
PART 1 The Underlying Science
1(260)
What Is Horticulture?
3(24)
Purpose
3(1)
Expected Outcomes
3(1)
Key Terms
3(1)
Overview
3(1)
What Is Horticulture?
4(1)
A Brief History
4(4)
Divisions of Horticulture
8(1)
Allied Horticultural Industries
9(1)
Horticulture and Society
10(6)
Horticulture Therapy
16(1)
Computers in Horticulture
17(6)
GIS in Horticulture
23(4)
Summary
25(1)
References and Suggested Reading
25(1)
Practical Experience
25(1)
Outcomes Assessment
26(1)
Classifying and Naming Horticultural Plants
27(27)
Purpose
27(1)
Expected Outcomes
27(1)
Key Terms
27(1)
Overview
27(1)
Scientific and Botanical Systems of Classification
28(1)
Taxonomic Groups
28(4)
Other Classification Systems (Operational)
32(11)
Classification of Ornamental Plants
43(4)
Flowers in Classification
47(2)
Some Families of Horticultural Importance
49(5)
Summary
51(1)
References and Suggested Reading
52(1)
Practical Experience
52(1)
Outcomes Assessment
52(2)
Plant Anatomy
54(35)
Purpose
54(1)
Expected Outcomes
54(1)
Key Terms
54(1)
Overview
55(1)
Cell
55(5)
Types of Plant Cells and Tissues
60(5)
Stem
65(4)
Leaf
69(6)
Roots
75(3)
Structure of Wood
78(2)
Bark
80(1)
Flowers
81(3)
Seed
84(1)
Fruits
85(4)
Summary
85(1)
References and Suggested Reading
86(1)
Practical Experience
86(1)
Outcomes Assessment
87(2)
Plant Growth Environment
89(63)
Purpose
89(1)
Expected Outcomes
89(1)
Key Terms
89(1)
Overview
90(1)
Climate, Weather, and Horticulture
90(1)
Aboveground Environment
91(14)
Belowground (Soil) Environment
105(11)
Fertilizers
116(11)
Soil Organisms
127(1)
Soil Air
128(1)
Soil Temperature
128(1)
Soil Water
129(9)
Field Growing Media
138(3)
Potting Media
141(5)
Soil Sterilization
146(2)
Liquid Media
148(4)
Summary
148(1)
References and Suggested Reading
149(1)
Practical Experience
149(1)
Outcomes Assessment
150(2)
Plant Physiology
152(37)
Purpose
152(1)
Expected Outcomes
152(1)
Key Terms
152(1)
Overview
153(1)
Growth and Development
153(3)
Organic Compounds of Plant Cells
156(4)
Plant Growth Processes
160(14)
Developmental Stages of Growth
174(1)
Phases in the Plant Life Cycle
175(6)
Plant Hormones
181(3)
Nonpathogenic (Physiological) Plant Disorders
184(5)
Summary
186(1)
References and Suggested Reading
187(1)
Practical Experience
187(1)
Outcomes Assessment
187(2)
Plant Genetics and Improvement
189(55)
Purpose
189(1)
Expected Outcomes
189(1)
Key Terms
189(1)
Overview
190(1)
Review of Selected Principles and Concepts of Genetics
190(1)
Genes and Their Action
191(7)
Cellular and Subcellular Bases of Heredity
198(7)
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
205(1)
Extrachromosomal Inheritance
206(1)
Application of Genetics: Conventional Breeding
206(1)
Underlying Principles and Concepts
207(8)
How Breeding Is Done
215(2)
Breeding Methods
217(7)
Mutation Breeding
224(2)
Polyploidy
226(1)
Wide Crossing
227(1)
Duration of a Breeding Program
228(1)
Limitations of Conventional Breeding Methods
228(1)
Parthenocarpy
228(1)
Application of Genetics: Molecular Biotechnology
229(1)
Underlying Principles
229(6)
Selected Applications
235(9)
Summary
241(1)
References and Suggested Reading
242(1)
Practical Experience
242(1)
Outcomes Assessment
242(2)
Postharvest Handling and Marketing of Horticultural Products
244(17)
Purpose
244(1)
Expected Outcomes
244(1)
Key Terms
244(1)
Overview
244(1)
Economic Importance of Postharvest Losses
245(1)
Harvesting
245(4)
Handling
249(1)
Postharvest Changes in Products
250(1)
Storing Unprocessed Products
250(3)
Temperature-induced Injury
253(1)
Fumigation
253(1)
Processing of Horticultural Products
254(1)
Marketing Alternatives
255(3)
The Role of Intermediaries in Marketing
258(1)
Elements of Marketing
258(3)
Summary
259(1)
References and Suggested Reading
259(1)
Outcomes Assessment
259(2)
PART 2 Protecting Horticultural Plants
261(74)
Biological Enemies of Horticultural Plants
263(26)
Purpose
263(1)
Expected Outcomes
263(1)
Key Terms
263(1)
Overview
263(1)
Plants as Pests
264(1)
Weeds
264(2)
Parasitic Plants
266(1)
Selected Common Weeds
267(2)
Summary
268(1)
Outcomes Assessment
268(1)
Animal Pests of Plants
269(1)
Insects
269(8)
Diseases
277(3)
Other Pests of Horticultural Plants
280(2)
How Disease Occurs
282(7)
Summary
287(1)
References and Suggested Reading
287(1)
Outcomes Assessment
287(2)
Principles and Methods of Disease and Pest Control
289(46)
Purpose
289(1)
Expected Outcomes
289(1)
Key Terms
289(1)
Overview
290(1)
Principles of Pest Control
290(1)
Control Strategies
290(4)
Classification of Pesticides
294(2)
Growth Regulators in Pest Control
296(1)
Choosing a Pesticide
296(5)
Integrated Pest Management
301(3)
Summary
303(1)
Practical Experience
303(1)
Outcomes Assessment
303(1)
Biological, Cultural, Legislative, Physical, and Mechanical Control of Plant Pests
304(1)
Rationale of Biological Control
304(1)
Strategies of Biological Control
305(2)
Cultural Control
307(2)
Legislative Control
309(1)
Mechanical and Physical Control
310(2)
Summary
311(1)
Outcomes Assessment
311(1)
Chemical Control of Plant Pests: Insecticides
312(1)
Insecticides and Their Use
312(10)
Summary
320(1)
Outcomes Assessment
320(2)
Chemical Control of Plant Pests: Herbicides
322(1)
Overview
322(1)
Classification of Herbicides
322(2)
Formulations
324(1)
Methods of Application
325(1)
Factors Influencing Herbicide Effectiveness
325(1)
Indoor Weed Control
326(1)
Suggested Herbicides for the Landscape
326(1)
Suggested Herbicides for the Home Garden
326(2)
Summary
326(1)
Practical Experience
327(1)
Outcomes Assessment
327(1)
Greenhouse Pest Control
328(1)
Common Greenhouse Insect Pests
328(1)
Common Greenhouse Diseases
329(1)
Control Methods
330(1)
Control Strategies
331(1)
Preventing Greenhouse Diseases
332(3)
Summary
333(1)
References and Suggested Reading
333(1)
Outcomes Assessment
333(2)
PART 3 Propagating Horticultural Plants
335(60)
Sexual Propagation
337(23)
Purpose
337(1)
Expected Outcomes
337(1)
Key Terms
337(1)
Overview
337(1)
Seed Formation
338(1)
Seed Production and Certification Process
339(1)
Seed Quality Analysis
340(2)
Seed Viability and Longevity
342(1)
Purchasing Seed
343(1)
Seed Dormancy
343(1)
Improving Germination Capacity of Seeds
344(1)
Seed Treatment
345(1)
Environmental Conditions for Seed Germination
346(1)
Seed Germination and Emergence
347(1)
Methods of Seeding
348(3)
Seed Nursery Activities
351(4)
Transplanting
355(5)
Summary
356(2)
References and Suggested Reading
358(1)
Practical Experience
358(1)
Outcomes Assessment
358(2)
Asexual Propagation
360(35)
Purpose
360(1)
Expected Outcomes
360(1)
Key Terms
360(1)
Overview
361(1)
Advantages
361(1)
Disadvantages
362(1)
Adventitious Rooting in Asexual Propagation
362(1)
Apomixis
362(1)
Cuttings
363(1)
Types of Cuttings
363(3)
Factors Affecting Rooting of Cuttings
366(3)
Transplanting
369(1)
Summary
369(1)
Outcomes Assessment
369(1)
Grafting
370(1)
Nature of Grafting
370(1)
When to Use Grafting
371(1)
General Conditions for Success
372(1)
Methods of Grafting
373(5)
Summary
376(1)
Outcomes Assessment
377(1)
Budding
378(1)
Types of Budding
378(2)
Summary
379(1)
Outcomes Assessment
380(1)
Layering
380(1)
Types of Layering
380(6)
Summary
385(1)
Outcomes Assessment
385(1)
Specialized Underground Structures
386(1)
Types of Specialized Underground Structures
386(4)
Summary
389(1)
Outcomes Assessment
389(1)
Micropropagation (Tissue Culture)
390(1)
The Technique
390(1)
Applications
391(4)
References and Suggested Reading
393(2)
PART 4 Growing Plants Indoors
395(138)
Growing Houseplants
397(38)
Purpose
397(1)
Expected Outcomes
397(1)
Key Terms
397(1)
Overview
397(1)
Factors That Influence the Choice of Houseplants
398(1)
Using Plants in the Home
399(7)
Caring for Houseplants
406(10)
Potting Media
416(1)
Potting Plants
417(1)
Repotting
417(5)
Providing Support
422(1)
Diseases and Pests of Houseplants
423(1)
Common Symptoms of Ill Health in Houseplants
423(2)
Common Houseplants
425(10)
Summary
432(1)
References and Suggested Reading
432(1)
Practical Experience
432(1)
Outcomes Assessment
433(2)
Terrarium Culture
435(8)
Purpose
435(1)
Expected Outcomes
435(1)
Key Term
435(1)
Overview
435(1)
Types of Terrariums
436(1)
Designing a Terrarium or Bottle Garden
437(1)
Tools
438(1)
The Planting Medium
439(1)
Planting
439(1)
Care and Maintenance
440(1)
Troubleshooting
441(2)
Summary
441(1)
References and Suggested Reading
441(1)
Outcomes Assessment
441(2)
Bonsai: The Art of Miniature Plant Culture
443(12)
Purpose
443(1)
Expected Outcomes
443(1)
Key Term
443(1)
Overview
443(1)
Principles
444(3)
Creating the Bonsai
447(1)
Training Bonsai
448(3)
Repotting Bonsai
451(1)
Postestablishment Care
452(3)
Summary
453(1)
References and Suggested Reading
454(1)
Outcomes Assessment
454(1)
Controlled-Environment Horticulture
455(65)
Purpose
455(1)
Expected Outcomes
455(1)
Key Terms
455(1)
Controlled-Environment Facilities and Their Operation
456(1)
Overview
456(1)
What Is a Greenhouse?
456(1)
Greenhouse Design and Construction
457(14)
Internal Environmental Control
471(18)
Greenhouse Pests
489(4)
Summary
490(1)
References and Suggested Reading
491(1)
Practical Experience
491(1)
Outcomes Assessment
491(1)
Greenhouse Production
492(1)
Overview
492(1)
Production Costs
493(1)
Production Regions of the United States
493(2)
Production and Marketing Strategies
495(1)
Growing Plants for Festive Occasions
495(1)
The Role of Imports
495(1)
Importance of Greenhouses in Plant Production
495(1)
The Concept and Application of DIF
496(3)
Growing Potted Plants: Poinsettia
497(2)
Poinsettia Culture
499(7)
Summary
502(1)
References and Suggested Reading
502(1)
Outcomes Assessment
503(1)
Growing Bedding Plants
503(3)
Bedding Plant Culture
506(2)
Outcomes Assessment
508(1)
Growing Cut Flowers: Roses
508(1)
Cut Flower Industry
508(6)
Summary
513(1)
References and Suggested Reading
513(1)
Outcomes Assessment
513(1)
Hydroponic Production
514(1)
Basic Principles
514(1)
Types of Soilless Plant Culture
515(5)
Summary
518(1)
References and Suggested Reading
518(1)
Outcomes Assessment
518(2)
Growing Succulents
520(13)
Purpose
520(1)
Expected Outcomes
520(1)
Key Terms
520(1)
Succulents in General and Bromeliads
520(1)
Overview
520(1)
Propagation
521(1)
Growth Requirements
522(1)
Bromeliads
522(4)
Cacti
525(1)
Overview
525(1)
Propagation
526(2)
Care
528(1)
Miniature Rock Garden
528(1)
Grafted Cacti
528(5)
Summary
530(1)
References and Suggested Reading
530(1)
Practical Experience
530(1)
Outcomes Assessment
530(3)
PART 5 Growing Plants Outdoors: Ornamentals
533(166)
Principles of Landscaping
535(23)
Purpose
535(1)
Expected Outcomes
535(1)
Key Terms
535(1)
Overview
535(1)
What Is Landscaping?
536(1)
Categories of Landscaping
537(1)
Landscape Designing
538(8)
Planning a Residential Landscape
546(3)
Planning a Nonresidential Landscape
549(1)
Plants in the Landscape
550(3)
Other Functional Uses of Plants in the Landscape
553(2)
Xeriscaping
555(3)
Summary
556(1)
References and Suggested Reading
556(1)
Outcomes Assessment
557(1)
Nursery Production and Installation of the Landscape
558(45)
Purpose
558(1)
Expected Outcomes
558(1)
Key Terms
558(1)
Overview
559(1)
Landscape Construction
559(3)
Nursery Production
562(1)
The Role of the Nursery worker
562(1)
Location of the Nursery
562(2)
Site Preparation
564(1)
Nursery Structures
564(1)
Economic Considerations
565(1)
Types of Nursery Production
565(5)
Summary
569(1)
References and Suggested Reading
569(1)
Outcomes Assessment
569(1)
Bedding Plants
570(1)
Overview
570(1)
Role of Annual Bedding Plants
570(1)
Designing a Flower Garden
571(3)
Making a Garden Plan
574(3)
Hanging Baskets
577(1)
Common Perennial Bedding Plants
577(2)
Summary
577(1)
References and Suggested Reading
577(1)
Outcomes Assessment
578(1)
Ground Covers and Ornamental Grasses
578(1)
Overview
578(1)
Choosing a Ground Cover
579(3)
Ornamental Grasses
582(1)
Bamboos
583(1)
Sedges
584(1)
Rushes
584(1)
Summary
584(1)
References and Suggested Reading
584(1)
Outcomes Assessment
584(1)
Trees and Shrubs
585(1)
Choosing Trees
585(2)
Purchasing Trees for Planting
587(1)
Preplanting Storage
588(1)
Planting Trees
589(1)
Postplanting Immediate Care
590(3)
Selected Trees for the Landscape
593(1)
Using Trees in the Landscape
594(1)
Installation of Shrubs
594(1)
Using Shrubs in the Landscape
595(2)
Summary
596(1)
References and Suggested Reading
596(1)
Outcomes Assessment
596(1)
Bulbs, Corms, Tubers, and Rhizomes
597(1)
Role in the Landscape
597(1)
Establishment
598(1)
Growing Bulbs Hydroponically
599(1)
Treatment after Dormancy Begins
599(1)
Diseases and Insect Pests
600(1)
Growing Bulbs Indoors
600(1)
Tubers
601(2)
Summary
601(1)
References and Suggested Reading
601(1)
Outcomes Assessment
601(2)
Turf Production and Use
603(23)
Purpose
603(1)
Expected Outcomes
603(1)
Key Terms
603(1)
Overview
603(1)
Purpose of Lawns
604(1)
Establishing a Lawn
605(4)
Planting Turf grass
609(4)
Planting Grass by Vegetative Methods
613(2)
Turf Management
615(7)
Turf for Athletic Purposes
622(4)
Summary
624(1)
References and Suggested Reading
624(1)
Practical Experience
625(1)
Outcomes Assessment
625(1)
Pruning
626(38)
Purpose
626(1)
Expected Outcomes
626(1)
Key Terms
626(1)
Overview
626(1)
General Principles of Pruning and Training
627(1)
Objectives of Pruning
628(1)
Plant Response to Pruning
629(1)
Pruning Tools
630(3)
Pruning Techniques
633(5)
Strategies for Pruning Aboveground Plant Parts
638(3)
Tree Topping
641(1)
Pruning Roots
641(1)
Training Plants
641(1)
Training and Pruning Ornamental Trees
642(3)
Maintenance of Established Trees
645(1)
Renovating Established Trees
646(1)
Special Training and Pruning Techniques
646(3)
Training and Pruning Fruit Trees
649(4)
Common Tree Problems
653(2)
Training and Pruning Small Fruit Trees
655(1)
Pruning Ornamental Plants
656(2)
Pruning Hedges
658(1)
Ornamental Stems
659(1)
Training and Pruning Climbing Plants
660(4)
Summary
662(1)
References and Suggested Reading
663(1)
Outcomes Assessment
663(1)
Maintenance of the Landscape and Garden
664(18)
Purpose
664(1)
Expected Outcomes
664(1)
Key Terms
664(1)
Overview
664(1)
Regular Maintenance
665(4)
Selecting an Irrigation System for the Landscape
669(6)
Seasonal Maintenance
675(1)
Tools for the Landscape
676(3)
Maintenance of Garden Tools
679(3)
Summary
680(1)
References and Suggested Reading
680(1)
Outcomes Assessment
681(1)
Cut and Dried Flowers: Production and Arranging
682(17)
Purpose
682(1)
Expected Outcomes
682(1)
Key Terms
682(1)
Overview
682(1)
Cut Flower Species
683(2)
Culture
685(3)
Flower Arranging
688(3)
Dried Flowers
691(8)
Summary
694(2)
References and Suggested Reading
696(1)
Practical Experience
696(1)
Outcomes Assessment
696(3)
PART 6 Growing Plants Outdoors: Vegetables, Fruits, and Nuts
699(98)
Growing Vegetables
701(37)
Purpose
701(1)
Expected Outcomes
701(1)
Key Terms
701(1)
Overview
701(1)
Overview of Commercial Vegetable Production in the United States
702(3)
General Principles of Vegetable Production
705(1)
Commercial Vegetable Production
705(2)
Characteristics of a Home Garden
707(1)
Benefits of a Home Garden
707(1)
Choosing a Site
707(1)
Designing a Vegetable Garden
708(2)
Garden Tools
710(1)
Growing Popular Garden Crops
710(1)
Garden Insect and Disease Control
711(1)
Use of Herbicides in the Garden
711(1)
Garden Planning Guide
711(1)
Common Garden Problems
711(1)
Increasing Earliness of Vegetable Crops
712(1)
Extending the Harvest
713(2)
Summary
713(1)
References and Suggested Reading
713(1)
Outcomes Assessment
714(1)
Growing Crops with Underground Edible Parts
714(1)
Carrot
715(1)
Sweet Potato
716(1)
Radish
717(1)
Onion
718(2)
Summary
719(1)
Outcomes Assessment
719(1)
Growing Cucurbits
720(1)
Cucumber
720(1)
Watermelon
721(1)
Muskmelon
722(1)
Squash
723(2)
Summary
724(1)
Outcomes Assessment
724(1)
Growing Legumes
725(1)
Snap or Green Bean
725(1)
Lima Bean
726(1)
Pea
727(1)
Summary
727(1)
Outcomes Assessment
728(1)
Growing Cole Crops
728(1)
Cabbage
728(1)
Broccoli
729(1)
Cauliflower
730(2)
Summary
731(1)
Outcomes Assessment
731(1)
Growing Solanaceous Crops
732(1)
Eggplant
732(1)
Pepper
733(2)
Tomato
735(1)
Summary
735(1)
Outcomes Assessment
736(1)
Growing Miscellaneous Garden Crops
736(1)
Sweet Corn
736(2)
Herb Gardening
738(6)
Purpose
738(1)
Expected Outcomes
738(1)
Overview
738(1)
Uses
738(1)
Cultivation
739(5)
Summary
742(1)
References and Suggested Reading
742(1)
Outcomes Assessment
742(2)
Organic Farming
744(17)
Purpose
744(1)
Expected Outcomes
744(1)
Key Terms
744(1)
Overview
744(1)
Principles of Organic Farming
745(6)
Composting
751(10)
Summary
759(1)
References and Suggested Reading
759(1)
Practical Experience
759(1)
Outcomes Assessment
760(1)
Management of Selected Fruit Trees, Nuts, and Small Fruits
761(36)
Production of Fruit and Nut Trees
761(1)
Purpose
761(1)
Expected Outcomes
761(1)
Key Terms
761(1)
Overview
761(1)
Importance of Fruit and Nut Trees
762(2)
Locating a Fruit Orchard
764(1)
Propagation
765(1)
The Annual Cycle of a Fruit Tree
766(1)
Spacing Fruit Trees
767(1)
Fruit Tree Planting Styles
767(1)
Growing Pecan
767(1)
Soil
768(1)
Planting Material
768(1)
Planting
769(1)
Training and Pruning
769(1)
Fertilizing
770(1)
Irrigation
770(1)
Pest Control
770(1)
Harvesting and Storage
770(1)
Growing Apple
771(1)
Site and Soil Preparation
771(1)
Selecting Planting Materials
772(1)
Planting
772(1)
Pruning and Training
773(1)
Fertilizing and Watering
773(1)
Fruit Thinning
773(1)
Pest Control
774(1)
Harvesting and Storage
774(2)
Summary
774(1)
References and Suggested Reading
774(1)
Outcomes Assessment
774(1)
Production of Small Fruits
775(1)
Purpose
775(1)
Expected Outcomes
775(1)
Key Terms
775(1)
Overview
775(1)
Small-Scale Production
776(1)
General Production Principles
776(1)
Growing Strawberry
777(1)
Botany
777(1)
Uses
778(1)
Production
778(6)
Summary
783(1)
Outcomes Assessment
784(1)
Growing Grapes
784(1)
Botany
784(1)
Uses
785(1)
Production
786(2)
Management
788(3)
Summary
790(1)
Outcomes Assessment
790(1)
Growing Blueberry
791(1)
Botany
791(1)
Uses
791(1)
Production
791(6)
Summary
794(1)
Outcomes Assessment
794(3)
Appendix A: Temperature: Converting Between Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 797(2)
Appendix B: Metric Conversion Chart 799(1)
Appendix C: English Units Conversion Chart 800(1)
Appendix D: Common and Scientific Names of Selected Plants 801(3)
Appendix E: Selected Botanical Gardens and Arboreta 804(1)
Glossary 805(10)
Index 815

Excerpts

Horticulture is the area of plant science that caters to the needs of a broad range of people, from the small backyard farmer in the urban area to the large-scale producer. Horticulture's adaptability to the home situation makes it attractive to people from all walks of life, including those who may not wish to study agriculture or be identified as farmers in the way society defines them, but are willing to grow and care for plants. Horticulture is thus a popular instructional program and part-time activity indulged in by many people. The horticulture industry, as explained in the text, is making it increasingly more attractive for nonprofessional plant growers to participate in plant culture at various levels and for various needs. The purpose of this text is to provide a resource for use in instruction in the fundamentals of horticulture and as a reference for hobbyists and professionals. As an instructional text,Horticulture: Principles and Practicesis designed for use at the undergraduate level. Emphasis is placed on instruction in the basic principles and practices of horticulture, thereby minimizing regional and national biases. Horticulture is presented as a science, an art, and a business. The principles discussed are applicable to both small- and large-scale production. A format with unique features is adopted throughout the text. First, the text is divided into parts, within which related topics are treated as chapters. Chapters on broad topics are subdivided into appropriate modules. Each chapter opens with a stated purpose or objective, followed by a list of expected outcomes upon completion of the chapter. The key words and terminologies encountered in the text are listed next, providing an opportunity for the reader to evaluate his or her understanding of the material in the text. An overview is designed to introduce the subjects to be discussed and to define the scope of presentation. Each subject is discussed under clearly defined headings and subheadings. Key words and terminologies in the text are highlighted in boldface and italics and defined or explained. The reader is also frequently referred to other places in the text where certain key terminologies or concepts are presented in detail. The reader is thus able to refresh his or her memory, if need be, to facilitate the learning of the current material. A brief summary at the end of each chapter reviews the main message for emphasis. A list of literature is presented at the end of each chapter to acknowledge the sources consulted by the author in preparing the text and to suggest sources for further information on the topics discussed. If the reader has difficulty in defining or explaining any terminology or key wor4the glossary at the end of the text may be used as a quick reference. Practical activities to enhance the understanding of the material discussed are suggested at the end of the chapters. Finally, the student is provided an opportunity to assess whether the material in the chapter was really understood. The outcomes assessment is conducted at three levels. The first part requires the reader to simply agree or disagree with a statement. The second part is designed to test the understanding of terminologies and concepts and requires the student to provide specific information. Lastly, part three of the outcomes assessment requires the student to think a little harder and to discuss, explains or describe events, concepts, principles, or methodologies and to communicate effectively in writing. The presentation includes many photographs, line drawings, and tables to facilitate the comprehension of the material and can be used for a quick reference. The materials included in this textbook were chosen to provide the student and the user a complete introduction to the four general areas of horticulture: ornamental horticulture, fruit culture, vegetable culture, and landscape architecture. Part 1 is devoted to describing the


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