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How to Conduct Surveys : A Step-by-Step Guide

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9781452203874

ISBN10:
1452203873
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/12/2012
Publisher(s):
SAGE Publications, Inc
List Price: $52.00

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Summary

The fifth edition of this book shares the same goals as the first, second, third and fourth editions: to guide readers in developing their own rigorous surveys and in evaluating the credibility and usefulness of surveys created by others. This edition, like previous editions, also gives practical step-by-step guidance on how to achieve the goals. The guidance centers on choosing the appropriate type of survey, writing survey questions and responses, formatting the survey, deciding on the characteristics and numbers of respondents to include and how often they should be surveyed, and analyzing and reporting the results.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
About the Authorp. xix
Conducting Surveys: Everyone Is Doing Itp. 1
Overviewp. 1
What Is a Survey?p. 2
Examples: Surveys to Meet Policy or Program Needsp. 2
Examples: Surveys in Evaluations of Programsp. 2
Examples: Surveys for Researchp. 3
When Is a Survey Best?p. 3
Examples: From an Overly Ambitious Self-Administered Questionnairep. 3
Examples: Surveys Combined with Other Information Sourcesp. 5
Self-Administered Questionnaires and Interviews: The Heart of the Matterp. 5
Questions and Responsesp. 5
Example: Forced-Choice Questionp. 5
Example: Open-Ended Questionp. 5
Survey Sample and Designp. 6
Planning for Data Analysisp. 7
Pilot Testingp. 7
Response Ratep. 8
Reporting Resultsp. 8
Example 1: The Look of Survey Resultsp. 8
Example 2: The Look of Survey Resultsp. 9
Example 3: The Look of Survey Resultsp. 9
The Friendly Competitionp. 10
Reliability and Validityp. 10
Usefulness or Credibility of Resultsp. 10
Costsp. 10
The Special Case of Online Surveysp. 11
Checklist for Deciding the Best Uses for Online Surveysp. 11
Guidelines for Surveyors Who Work with Commercial Survey Companiesp. 13
The Special Case of Cell or Mobile Phonesp. 13
Making the Decisionp. 14
A Survey Continuum: From Specific to General Usep. 16
Example: Survey with a Specific Usep. 16
Example: Survey with a General Usep. 16
Ethics, Privacy, and Confidentialityp. 17
Informed Consentp. 18
Contents of an Informed-Consent Formp. 18
The Internet and Ethical Surveysp. 18
Example Questionnaire: Maintaining an Ethically Sound Online Surveyp. 21
Example: Informed-Consent Form for an Online. Surveyp. 22
Summing Upp. 24
Think About Thisp. 25
Articlesp. 27
The Survey Form: Questions, Scales, and Appearancep. 29
Overviewp. 29
The Content Is the Messagep. 29
Define the Termsp. 30
Select Your Information Needs or Hypothesesp. 30
Make Sure You Can Get the Informationp. 31
Do Not Ask for Information Unless You Can Act on Itp. 31
Example: Plan for Survey of Satisfaction with the Youth Centerp. 31
Writing Questionsp. 32
Open-Ended and Closed Questionsp. 32
Example: Open-Ended Questionp. 32
Example: Closed Questionp. 32
Example: Open-Ended Question for Elementary School Teaching Programp. 32
Example: Closed Question for Elementary School Teaching Programp. 33
Making the Decision: Open-Ended Versus Closed Questionsp. 34
Organizing Responses to Open-Ended Survey Items: Do You Get Any Satisfaction?p. 34
Step 1: Asking Respondents' Opinionsp. 34
Step 2: Coding LB/LL Datap. 34
Example LB/LL: Response Categoriesp. 35
Example LB/LL: Participant Responsesp. 35
Step 3: LB/LL Datap. 35
Example LB/LL: Number of Responses for Each Codep. 35
Example LB/LL: Participants' Response Patternp. 36
Example LB/LL: Summary of Responsesp. 37
Rules for Writing Closed Survey Questionsp. 33
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Length, Clarity, Abbreviations, and Jargonp. 33
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Concrete Questionsp. 39
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Specificity of Questionsp. 39
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Hidden Biasesp. 40
Example: Item- Writing Skills-Hidden Biasesp. 40
Example: Question-Writing Skills-Very Personal Questionsp. 40
Example: Question-Writing Skills-One Thought per Questionp. 41
Responses for Closed Questionsp. 41
Yes and Nop. 41
Example: Yes-and-No Responsesp. 41
Rating Scalesp. 42
Categorical or Continuous? What about Ordinal?p. 42
Example: Categorical Rating Scalep. 42
Example: Ordinal Rating Scalep. 42
Example: Graphic Rating Scale for Assessing a City Council's Effectivenessp. 43
Example: Poor Formatting of Graphic Scalep. 43
Example: Interpreting Graphic Scalesp. 43
Ordinal Scalesp. 44
Example: Ordinal Scalep. 44
Example: Selecting the Number of Categoriesp. 44
Example: Rank Order Scalep. 46
Example: Comparative Rating Scalep. 46
Checklistp. 46
Example: Checklist Responses in which Respondent Must Choose One from a List of Severalp. 46
Example: Checklist Responses that Respondents Answer Yes, No, or Don't Know for Each Item in a Listp. 46
Online Surveysp. 47
Example: Survey Progress Barp. 48
Plain and Simple Survey Questions and Responsesp. 50
Scalingp. 50
Additive Scalesp. 50
Example: A Survey with an Additive Scalep. 51
Example: A Survey of Foreign Language Skillsp. 51
Differential Scalesp. 52
Example: Scoring a Differential Scalep. 52
Summated Scalesp. 52
Example: Creating a Summated Scale for a Self-Esteem Surveyp. 53
Example: Scoring a Summated Scalep. 53
Summing Upp. 54
Think About Thisp. 55
Getting It Together: Some Practical Concernsp. 57
Overviewp. 57
Length Countsp. 58
Example: How a Survey's Circumstances Can Influence Its Lengthp. 58
Getting the Survey in Orderp. 58
Example: An Introduction to a Telephone Survey and Its First Questionp. 58
Example: Ordering Survey Questionsp. 59
Example: Ordering Survey Questionsp. 59
Example: Providing Transitionsp. 60
Checklist to Guide Question Orderp. 60
Questionnaire Format: Aesthetics and Other Concernsp. 60
Response Formatp. 60
Example: Response Formatsp. 60
Branching Questions, or the Infamous "Skip" Patternp. 61
Example: Skip Patterns or Branching Questionsp. 61
Administration: Who Gives What to Whom?p. 61
Self-Administered Questionnairesp. 61
Checklist for Using Self-Administered Questionnairesp. 62
Interviewsp. 63
The Survey Is Put on Trialp. 65
Reliability and Validity: The Quality of Your Surveyp. 65
Is the Survey Reliable?p. 66
Example: Internal Consistency Countsp. 66
Example: Internal Consistency Does Not Countp. 67
Is the Survey Valid?p. 67
Selecting and Adapting Surveysp. 68
Example: Excerpt from a Real Online Service Agreement for Free Survey Items (Names Changed)p. 68
Guidelines for Finding Useable and Useful Surveys in the Research Literaturep. 68
Example: Search for School Dropout Surveys: Sample Findings from the Web of Sciencep. 70
Example: Sample Reports of Reliability and Validity in the Research Literaturep. 71
Finding Surveys on the Webp. 72
Example: Search for Education Surveys: A Sample Page from the National Center for Education Statisticsp. 73
Guidelines for Pilot Testingp. 73
A Far-Reaching World: Surveys, Language, and Culturep. 75
Guidelines for Translating Surveysp. 75
Example: Question about Ethnicityp. 75
Summing Upp. 76
Think About Thisp. 77
Articlesp. 78
Samplingp. 79
Overviewp. 79
Sample Size and Response Rate: Who and How Many?p. 79
Example: Random and Convenience Samplingp. 80
Random Sampling Methodsp. 81
Example: Simple Random Samplingp. 81
Example: Not Random Samplingp. 81
Example: Simple Random Samplingp. 82
Making the Decisionp. 82
Stratified Random Samplingp. 82
Example: Stratified Random Samplingp. 83
Making the Decisionp. 83
Simple Random Cluster Samplingp. 83
Example: Simple Random Cluster Samplingp. 84
Making the Decisionp. 84
Systematic Samplingp. 84
Making the Decisionp. 85
Convenience Samplesp. 85
Making the Decisionp. 86
Other Convenience Sampling Methodsp. 86
Example: Other Convenience Samplesp. 86
Finding the Sample: Who Is In? Who Is Out?p. 87
How Large Should Your Sample Be?p. 88
The Standard Errorp. 88
Statistical Methods: Sampling for Two Groups and an Interventionp. 89
Example: Sample Size Calculations for Sampling Two Groups and an Interventionp. 89
Subgroups, Measures, Resources, and Schedulep. 90
Five Questions to Ask When Determining Sample Sizep. 91
Example: Calculating Sample Size in a Survey of Employees in an Experimental and Control Groupp. 92
Example: Power to Detect Differencesp. 93
Example: 80% Power and Effectp. 93
Example: Sample Size, Effect, and Powerp. 94
Response Ratep. 95
Tips for Improving Response Ratep. 95
Weightingp. 95
Summing Upp. 97
Think About Thisp. 98
Articlesp. 98
Survey Design: Environmental Controlp. 99
Overviewp. 99
Which Designs Are Available?p. 100
Example: Surveys with Differing Designsp. 100
Cross-Sectional Survey Designsp. 101
Example: Cross-Sectional Designp. 101
Making the Decisionp. 102
Longitudinal Surveys or Cohortsp. 103
Example: Cohort Designp. 103
Making the Decisionp. 103
Comparison Group Survey Designs: Quasi- and True Experimentsp. 103
Example: A Quasi-Experimental Designp. 104
Comparison Group and a Longitudinal Designp. 105
Example: A True Experimental Comparison Group Designp. 105
Example: A True Experimental Comparison Group Design and a Longitudinal Designp. 105
Factorial Designs: Special Casesp. 106
Other Survey Designs: Normative and Case Controlp. 107
Making the Decisionp. 107
Normative Survey Designp. 107
Example 1: Normative Designp. 107
Example 2: Normative Design-Comparison to a Modelp. 107
Making the Decisionp. 107
Case Control Designp. 108
Making the Decisionp. 108
Example: Case Control Designp. 108
Survey Design Validityp. 108
Internal Validityp. 109
External Validityp. 110
Surveys, Research Design, and Internal and External Validityp. 110
Example: Cross-Sectional Survey and Threats to Validityp. 111
Example: Cohort Design and Threats to Validityp. 111
Example: Comparison Group Design (True Experiment) and Validityp. 111
Summing Upp. 112
Think About Thisp. 113
Articlesp. 113
Analyzing and Organizing Data from Surveysp. 115
Overviewp. 115
What Is Typical Anyway? Some Commonly Used Methods for Analyzing Survey Datap. 116
Descriptive Statisticsp. 116
Example: Preschool Purposes Questionnairep. 117
Example: Frequency of Questionnaire Responsesp. 117
Example: Grouped Ratings of Preschool Purposes by 50 Directorsp. 117
Averages: Means, Medians, and Modesp. 118
Example: Computing the Median for an Even Number of Scoresp. 119
Example: Computing the Median for an Odd Number of Scoresp. 119
Variation: Range, Variance, and Standard Deviationp. 120
Correlation and Regressionp. 121
Example: Rank Order Correlationp. 121
Differences between Groupsp. 122
Statistical Differencesp. 124
Statistical Significancep. 125
Surveying Differences: Usual Methodsp. 127
Chi-Squarep. 127
Example: Chi-Squarep. 128
The t Testp. 128
Example: t Testp. 128
The Mann-Whitney U Testp. 128
Example: Mann-Whitney U Testp. 129
ANOVAp. 129
Risks and Oddsp. 129
Example: Odds Ratio and Relative Riskp. 129
To Be or Not to Be: Statistician or Qualitative Analyst?p. 130
Content Analysis, Open-Ended Responses, and Commentsp. 131
Hypothetical Content Analysis: Teasing Boys and Girlsp. 131
Putting the Horse in Front of the Cart: Selecting Analysis Methodsp. 131
Data Managementp. 131
Creating a Code Book or Operational Manualp. 135
Example: Excerpt from the CARPS, a Survey to Detect Binge Drinking in College Studentsp. 135
Example: Excerpt from the Code Book for the CARPS, a Survey to Detect Binge Drinkingp. 136
Establishing Reliable Codingp. 137
Measuring Agreement: The Kappap. 137
Measuring Agreement between Two Coders: The Kappa Statisticp. 138
Reviewing Surveys for Missing Datap. 138
Entering the Datap. 139
Example: Survey Responses from Six Peoplep. 140
Cleaning the Datap. 141
Validating Survey Datap. 141
Summing Upp. 142
Think About Thisp. 143
Presenting the Survey Resultsp. 145
Overviewp. 145
Reproducing the Questionnairep. 145
Example: Reporting Results with the Questionnairep. 145
Example: Online Survey Statistics in Real Timep. 146
Using Tablesp. 147
Example: Shell Table Describing Children in Two Schoolsp. 147
Example: Shell Table for Comparing Children in Two Schoolsp. 147
Some Table Preparation Rulesp. 148
Drawing Pie Diagramsp. 149
Using Bar Graphsp. 150
Using Line Graphsp. 151
Example: Downloaded Results of a Customer Satisfaction Surveyp. 153
Example: Transferring the Results of One Question into Bar and Line Graphsp. 154
Drawing Diagrams or Picturesp. 155
Example: Words and Diagrams in Survey Reportsp. 155
Writing the Results of a Surveyp. 156
Organizing the Reportp. 156
Example: Structured Abstract of a Survey Reportp. 156
Clear-Writing Tipsp. 158
The Oral Presentationp. 160
Slide Presentationsp. 160
Oral versus Written Reports: A Difference in Conversationp. 162
Example: Table Used in a Written and an Oral Reportp. 162
Written Interpretation of the Tablep. 162
Oral Interpretation of the Tablep. 162
Postersp. 163
Summing Upp. 166
Think About Thisp. 167
Indexp. 169
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