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How It's Done : An Invitation to Social Research,9780534533250
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How It's Done : An Invitation to Social Research

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780534533250

ISBN10:
0534533256
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/4/1999
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 1/4/1999.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

This text contains an accessible format, engaging language, focus on real researchers, and student exercises. The book gives students first-hand experience with the research process, provides them with a behind-the-scenes glimpse of how professional researchers have done their work, and presents social science research in a clear and inviting manner.

Table of Contents

The Uses of Social Research
1(16)
Introduction
3(2)
Research Versus Other Ways of Knowing
5(12)
Knowledge from Authorities
5(1)
Knowledge from Personal Inquiry
6(1)
Strengths of the Scientific Method
6(3)
The Purposes of Social Research
9(1)
Exploratory Research
9(1)
Descriptive Research
9(1)
Explanatory Research
10(1)
Critical Research
11(1)
Applied Research
12(5)
Theory and Research
17(14)
Introduction
19(3)
Concepts, Variables, and Hypotheses
19(3)
The Relationship Between Theory and Research
22(9)
Excerpt from ``Explaining Rape Victim Blame''
22(1)
Excerpt from ``Social Reproduction and the Corporate Other: The Institutionalization of Afterschool Activities''
23(1)
Deductive Reasoning
24(2)
Inductive Reasoning
26(1)
The Cyclical Model of Science
27(4)
Selecting Researchable Topics and Questions
31(26)
Introduction
33(7)
Studying Women's Lives After College Graduation
35(5)
Sources of Research Questions
40(4)
Values and Science
40(1)
Personal Factors
40(1)
Research and the Social, Political, and Economic Climates
41(2)
Research Funding
43(1)
Developing a Researchable Question
44(13)
Reviewing the Literature
45(4)
Practical Matters
49(8)
Ethics and Social Research
57(28)
Introduction
59(7)
Conducting Ethical Research
59(1)
An Historical Perspective on Research Ethics
59(2)
Personal Reflections on Researching HIV Disease
61(5)
Principles for Doing Ethical Research
66(9)
Principles Regarding Participants in Research
66(8)
Ethical Issues Concerning Colleagues and the General Public
74(1)
Ethical Conflicts and Dilemmas
75(10)
Conflict Between Ethical Principles
75(1)
Conflicts Between Ethical Concerns and Legal Matters
76(2)
Conflict Between Ethical Principles and Research Interests
78(1)
Making Decisions: Maximize Benefit, Minimize Risk
79(6)
Sampling
85(34)
Introduction
87(9)
Why Sample?
87(2)
Probability versus Nonprobability Samples
89(1)
Do ``Instant Polls'' Hit the Spot? Phone-In versus Random Sampling of Public Opinion
90(6)
Sources of Bias and Error in Sampling
96(8)
Sampling Variability and Sampling Distributions: An Illustration
99(5)
Types of Probability Sampling
104(7)
Simple Random Sampling
104(2)
Systematic Sampling
106(1)
Stratified Sampling
107(2)
Cluster Sampling
109(1)
Multistage Sampling
109(2)
Types of Nonprobability Sampling Designs
111(2)
Purposive Samples
111(1)
Quota Sampling
111(1)
Snowball Sampling
112(1)
Convenience Sampling
112(1)
Choosing a Sampling Technique
113(6)
Measurement
119(28)
Introduction
121(8)
Suicide Misclassification in an International Context
122(7)
Conceptualization and Operationalization
129(6)
An Example of Conceptualization and Operationalization
131(2)
Composite Measures
133(2)
Level of Measurement
135(3)
Nominal Level Variables
135(1)
Ordinal Level Variables
136(1)
Interval Level Variables
136(1)
Ratio Level Variables
137(1)
The Practical Significance of Level of Measurement
137(1)
Quality of Measurement
138(9)
Reliability
139(1)
Validity
140(7)
Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal and Case Study Designs
147(26)
Introduction
149(9)
Study Design
149(1)
Connections Between Purposes of Research, Theory, and Study Design
150(1)
The Effect of Age Desegregation on Environmental Quality for Elderly Living in Public/Publicly Subsidized Housing
151(7)
Study Design Choices
158(15)
Cross-Sectional Study Design
159(1)
Cross-Sectional Studies and Causal Relationships
160(1)
Longitudinal Designs
161(6)
The Case Study
167(2)
Summary of Case, Cross-Sectional, and Longitudinal Designs
169(4)
Experimental Research
173(28)
Introduction
175(9)
Causal Hypotheses and Experimental Designs
175(1)
The Classic Experiment: Data Collection Technique or Study Design?
176(1)
The History of One Experiment
177(1)
A Literature-Based Approach to Teaching Values to Adolescents: Does it Work?
177(7)
The Reading Project as an Experiment
184(2)
Experimental Designs
186(9)
The Classic Controlled Experiment
186(3)
The Field Experiment
189(1)
Laboratory Experiments
190(1)
Internal Validity and Experiments
191(1)
Extended Experimental Design
191(1)
Quasi-Experiments
192(3)
Experimental and Other Designs
195(6)
Summary of Experimental Designs
197(4)
Questionnaires and Structured Interviews
201(32)
Introduction
203(7)
Explaining Rape Victim Blame: A Test of Attribution Theory
204(6)
The Uses of Questionnaires and Structured Interview Schedules
210(3)
Survey Participation
213(1)
Choices of Method
214(6)
Kinds of Questionnaires
214(2)
Questionnaire Concerns
216(2)
In-Person and Phone Interviews
218(1)
Issues for Structured Interviews
219(1)
Constructing Questions
220(7)
Types of Questions
220(3)
How to Ask Questions
223(4)
Technology and the Self-report
227(6)
Qualitative Interviews
233(38)
Introduction
235(12)
Managing Motherhood in Prison
236(11)
Qualitative versus Structured Interviews
247(1)
Variations in Qualitative Interviews
248(4)
Number and Length of Interviews
248(1)
Semi-Structured and Unstructured Interviews
248(2)
Joint Interviewers
250(1)
Group Interviews and Focus Groups
250(2)
Locating Respondents and Presenting the Project
252(3)
Planning the Interview
255(4)
Using Consent Forms
255(1)
Constructing an Interview Guide or Schedule
255(3)
Speaking the Same Language
258(1)
Conducting the Interview
259(5)
Where and How to Interview
259(1)
Recording the Interview
259(1)
Being ``Real'' in the Interview
259(2)
Interviewing Across the Great Divides
261(3)
Issues of Validity
264(1)
After the Interview's Over
264(7)
Analyzing Interview Data
265(6)
Observation Techniques
271(34)
Introduction
273(10)
Social Reproduction and the Corporate Other: The Institutionalization of Afterschool Activities1
273(10)
Observational Techniques Defined
283(2)
Uses of Observations
285(1)
Observer Roles
286(3)
Getting Ready for Observation
289(6)
Gaining Access
292(2)
Gathering the Data
294(1)
Analyzing the Data
295(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Observational Techniques
298(7)
Using Available Data
305(28)
Introduction
307(9)
Television Violence and Violent Crime: An Aggregate Analysis
308(8)
Sources of Available Data
316(8)
Governments
317(2)
Nongovernmental Agencies or Researchers
319(2)
The World at Large
321(1)
The Internet
322(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Available Data
324(9)
Content Analysis
333(22)
Introduction
335(6)
Engendering Junior: Changing Images in Children's Books
335(6)
Appropriate Topics for Content Analysis
341(1)
Units of Analysis
342(2)
Sampling
344(1)
Creating Meaningful Variables
344(2)
Quantitative or Qualitative Content Analysis?
346(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Content Analysis
347(8)
Evaluation Research
355(31)
Introduction
357(17)
Kinds of Research
357(1)
The Need for Applied Research
358(1)
Social Problems and Social Solutions
358(2)
Truth and DARE: Tracking Drug Education to Graduation and as Symbolic Politics
360(14)
Types of Evaluation and Research Questions
374(3)
Outcome Evaluation
374(1)
Cost-Benefit Analysis
375(1)
Evaluations for Other Purposes
376(1)
Designing an Evaluation
377(8)
Who Is the Study for?
377(1)
Selecting and Measuring Goals
377(4)
Selecting a Study Design
381(3)
Populations and Samples
384(1)
Politics and Evaluation Research
385(1)
The Political Nature of Research
385(1)
Trust and Mistrust
385(1)
Having an Impact
386(7)
Quantitative Data Analysis
393(38)
Introduction
394(1)
Quantitative or Qualitative?
394(2)
Quantitative Data Analysis
396(35)
Coding
396(5)
Elementary Quantitative Analyses
401(1)
Univariate Analyses
402(5)
Bivariate Analyses
407(7)
Multivariate Analysis and the Elaboration Model
414(17)
Qualitative Data Analysis
431(26)
Introduction
433(1)
Are There Predictable Steps in Qualitative Data Analysis?
434(23)
Data Collection and Transcription
435(3)
Data Reduction
438(4)
Data Displays
442(4)
Conclusion Drawing and Verification
446(11)
Summing Up
457(36)
Introduction
459(1)
Planning Research
459(6)
The Research Question
459(1)
Working Inductively or Deductively?
460(1)
Concepts, Variables, and Hypotheses
460(1)
Practical Matters and Ethical Considerations
461(1)
Selecting a Sample
462(1)
Purposes of Research and Study Designs
462(1)
Measurement and Methods of Data Collection
463(2)
Comparison of Data Collection Methods
465(4)
Making Observations
466(1)
Asking Questions
467(1)
Available Data and Content Analysis
467(1)
Multiple Methods
468(1)
Writing the Research Report
469(2)
Summary: Endings and Beginnings
471(2)
Appendixes
A Random Number Table
473(2)
B Questionnaires
475(8)
C Hoffnung Questionnaire
483(2)
D Code of Ethics
485(8)
Glossary 493(10)
References 503(18)
Index 521


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