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How Languages Are Learned,9780194422246

How Languages Are Learned

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780194422246

ISBN10:
0194422240
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
List Price: $47.44

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 1/1/2006.
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Summary

This thoroughly updated third edition presents the main theories of language acquisition, considering their bearing on language teaching. It discusses the effects of factors such as intelligence, personality, and age. It helps teachers assess the merits of different methods and textbooks. This new edition includes more information on theories of first language acquisition and early bilingualism, and the affects of motivation and style.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xi
Preface to the third edition xiii
Introduction xv
Language learning in early childhood
1(28)
The first three years: Milestones and developmental sequences
1(6)
Grammatical morphemes
3(1)
Negation
4(1)
Questions
5(2)
The pre-school years
7(1)
The school years
8(2)
Explaining first language acquisition
10(14)
The behaviourist perspective: Say what I say
10(5)
The innatist perspective: It's all in your mind
15(4)
Interactionist/developmental perspectives: Learning from inside and out
19(5)
Language disorders and delays
24(1)
Childhood bilingualism
25(2)
Summary
27(2)
Explaining second language learning
29(24)
Contexts for language learning
29(5)
Learner characteristics
30(2)
Learning conditions
32(2)
Behaviourism
34(1)
Second language applications: Mimicry and memorization
34(1)
The innatist perspective: Universal Grammar
35(3)
Second language applications: Krashen's `monitor model'
34(4)
Current psychological theories: The cognitive/developmental perspective
38(9)
Information processing
39(2)
Connectionism
41(1)
The competition model
42(1)
Second language applications: Interacting, noticing, and processing
43(4)
The sociocultural perspective
47(2)
Second language applications: Learning by talking
47(2)
Theory into practice
49(4)
Individual differences in second language learning
53(24)
Who is a `good language learner'?
54(1)
Research on learner characteristics
54(20)
Intelligence
57(1)
Aptitude
57(2)
Learning styles
59(1)
Personality
60(3)
Motivation and attitudes
63(2)
Identity and ethnic group affiliation
65(1)
Learner beliefs
66(1)
Age of acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis
67(7)
Summary
74(3)
Learner language
77(32)
Studying the language of second language learners
77(5)
Contrastive analysis, error analysis, and interlanguage
78(4)
Developmental sequences
82(11)
Grammatical morphemes
83(2)
Negation
85(1)
Questions
86(2)
Possessive determiners
88(2)
Relative clauses
90(1)
Reference to past
91(1)
Movement through developmental sequences
92(1)
More about first language influence
93(3)
Vocabulary
96(4)
Pragmatics
100(4)
Phonology
104(5)
Observing learning and teaching in the second language classroom
109(28)
Natural and instructional settings
109(5)
Observation schemes
114(18)
Classroom comparisons: teacher--student interactions
115(6)
Classroom comparisons: student--student interactions
121(4)
Corrective feedback in the classroom
125(5)
Questions in the classroom
130(2)
Ethnography
132(3)
Summary
135(2)
Second language learning in the classroom
137(46)
Six proposals for classroom teaching
137(39)
Get it right from the beginning
138(5)
Just listen . . . and read
143(7)
Let's talk
150(5)
Two for one
155(5)
Teach what is teachable
160(5)
Get it right in the end
165(11)
The implications of classroom research for teaching
176(3)
Summary
179(4)
Popular ideas about language learning revisited
183(12)
Glossary 195(12)
Bibliography 207(22)
Index 229


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