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How Languages Are Learned,9780194370004

How Languages Are Learned

by ;
Edition:
Revised
ISBN13:

9780194370004

ISBN10:
0194370003
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press, USA
List Price: $23.75
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Summary

Provides a comprehensive and readable introduction to first and secondlanguage acquisition. The authors believe that by understanding research andtheories on how languages are learned, teachers will be better able to judge themerits of different teaching methodologies and textbooks, and to make the mostof the time they spend with learners. This very popular book has now beenrevised and updated.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xi
Introduction xiii
Learning a first language
1(30)
Milestones and patterns in development
1(2)
Early childhood bilingualism
3(1)
Developmental sequences
4(5)
Grammatical morphemes
4(1)
Negation
5(1)
Questions
6(3)
Summary
9(1)
Theoretical approaches to explaining first language learning
9(16)
Behaviourism: Say what I say
9(1)
Activity: Analysing children's speech
10(5)
Innatism: It's all in your mind
15(7)
The interactionist position: A little help from my friends
22(2)
Child-directed speech
24(1)
Summary
25(6)
Theoretical approaches to explaining second language learning
31(18)
Activity: Learner profiles
32(3)
Behaviourism
35(1)
Innatism
36(5)
Universal Grammar
36(2)
Krashen's `monitor model'
38(3)
Recent psychological theories
41(1)
Information processing
41(1)
Connectionism
42(1)
The interactionist position
42(3)
Summary
45(4)
Factors affecting second language learning
49(22)
Activity: Characteristics of the `good language learner'
49(2)
Research on learner characteristics
51(17)
Intelligence
52(1)
Aptitude
53(1)
Personality
54(2)
Motivation and attitudes
56(2)
Learner preferences
58(1)
Learner beliefs
59(1)
Age of acquisition
60(6)
Activity: Comparing child, adolescent, and adult language learners
66(2)
Summary
68(3)
Learner language
71(20)
The concept of learner language
72(4)
Activity: The Great Toy Robbery
74(2)
Developmental sequences
76(9)
Grammatical morphemes
76(1)
Negation
77(1)
Questions
78(2)
Activity: Learners' questions
80(1)
Activity: More about questions
80(3)
Relative clauses
83(1)
Reference to past
84(1)
Movement through developmental sequences
85(1)
New ways of looking at first language influence
85(2)
Summary
87(4)
Observing second language teaching
91(26)
Comparing instructional and natural settings for language learning
91(10)
Activity: Natural and instructional settings
91(5)
Activity: Classroom comparisons: teacher-student interactions
96(5)
Classroom observation schemes
101(2)
Activity: Observing the kinds of questions you ask your students
102(1)
Feedback in the classroom
103(10)
Activity: Analysing classroom interaction
106(7)
Summary of transcripts
113(2)
Activity: Observing how you respond to students' errors
113(2)
Summary
115(2)
Second language learning in the classroom
117(44)
Five proposals for classroom teaching
117(32)
Get it right from the beginning
118(4)
Say what you mean and mean what you say
122(6)
Just listen...and read
128(7)
Teach what is teachable
135(6)
Get it right in the end
141(8)
The implications of classroom research for teaching
149(3)
Summary
152(9)
Popular ideas about language learning: Facts and opinions
161(10)
Languages are learned mainly through imitation
161(1)
Parents usually correct young children when they make grammatical errors
162(1)
People with high IQs are good language learners
163(1)
The most important factor in second language acquisition success is motivation
163(1)
The earlier a second language is introduced in school programs, the greater the likelihood of success
164(1)
Most of the mistakes which second language learners make are due to interference from their first language
165(1)
Teachers should present grammatical rules one at a time
165(1)
Teachers should teach simple structures before complex ones
166(1)
Learners' errors should be corrected as soon as they are made in order to prevent bad habits
167(1)
Teachers should use materials that expose students only to language structures they have already been taught
168(1)
When learners are allowed to interact freely they learn each others' mistakes
168(1)
Students learn what they are taught
169(1)
Conclusion
169(2)
Glossary 171(9)
Bibliography 180(10)
Index 190


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