9780534556570

How Should We Live? An Introduction to Ethics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780534556570

  • ISBN10:

    0534556574

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 8/3/2004
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing

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Summary

Explore central questions in moral philosophy with HOW SHOULD WE LIVE? With a focus on the question of why or how we should be moral in a time plagued by relativism, this philosophy text covers the three most seminal ethical theories: utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue-based ethics. End of chapter discussion questions and bibliography assist you in contemplating the most central issues encountered in the text and in pursuing additional research.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
A Word to the Student: Why Study Ethics? xiv
Why Do We Need Morality?
1(18)
A Reflection on Lord of the Flies
1(3)
Why Do We Need Morality?
4(2)
A Hobbesian Account
4(2)
The Purposes of Morality
6(3)
The Nature of Moral Principles
9(3)
Prescriptivity
10(1)
Universalizability
10(1)
Overridingness
10(1)
Publicity
11(1)
Practicability
11(1)
Conclusion
12(1)
For Further Reflection
13(3)
For Further Reading
16(1)
Notes
17(2)
Why Should I Be Moral? Is the Good Good For You?
19(28)
The Egoist and the Altruist
19(5)
The Religious Answer
20(1)
The Socratic Answer
21(1)
The Existentialist Answer
22(1)
The Rationalist Split-Level Answer
22(2)
The Ayn Rand Argument for the Virtue of Selfishness
24(5)
The Paradox of Egoism
29(1)
The Prisoner's Dilemma
30(6)
The Quasi Moralist
36(2)
Evolution and Altruism: The Parable of the Birds
38(3)
Conclusion
41(1)
For Further Reflection
42(1)
For Further Reading
43(1)
Notes
44(3)
Who's to Judge? Ethical Relativism
47(18)
The Diversity of Morals
47(2)
An Analysis of Relativism
49(3)
The Diversity Thesis
50(1)
The Dependency Thesis
50(2)
Subjective Ethical Relativism (Subjectivism)
52(2)
Conventional Ethical Relativism (Conventionalism)
54(5)
An Assessment of Ethical Relativism
59(3)
Conclusion
62(1)
For Further Reflection
62(1)
For Further Reading
63(1)
Notes
64(1)
The Case for Ethical Objectivism
65(24)
Twenty Moral Questions
65(4)
Natural Law
69(7)
Moderate Objectivism
76(10)
The Core Morality
77(9)
Conclusion
86(1)
For Further Reflection
87(1)
For Further Reading
87(1)
Notes
88(1)
Religion and Ethics
89(18)
Thesis 1. Religion Is Irrelevant for Ethics
90(3)
Thesis 2. Religion Is Necessary for Ethics: The Divine Command Theory
93(5)
Thesis 3. Religion Can Enhance Morality
98(5)
If God Exists, Then Good Will Win Out over Evil
99(1)
If God Exists, Then Cosmic Justice Reigns in the Universe
99(1)
If Theism Is True, Then Moral Reasons Always Override Nonmoral Reasons
100(1)
If Theism Is True, Then God Loves and Cares for Us---His Love Inspires Us
100(1)
If God Created Us in His Image, Then All Persons Are of Equal Worth
101(1)
Religious Faith Has Inspired Some of the Most Altruistic Behavior the World Has Ever Seen
101(2)
Conclusion
103(1)
For Further Reflection
103(1)
For Further Reading
104(1)
Notes
105(2)
Utilitarianism
107(30)
Some Thought Experiments
107(4)
What Is Utilitarianism?
111(4)
Two Types of Utilitarianism
115(5)
The Strengths and Weaknesses of Utilitarianism
120(2)
Problems in Formulating Utilitarianism
120(1)
The Problem of Knowing the Comparative Consequences of Actions
121(1)
External Criticisms of Utilitarianism
122(4)
Problem 1: The No-Rest Objection
123(1)
Problem 2: The Absurd-Implications Objection
123(1)
Problem 3: The Integrity Objection
124(1)
Problem 4: The Justice Objection
125(1)
Problem 5: The Publicity Objection
125(1)
Utilitarian Responses to Standard Objections
126(5)
A General Defense
126(1)
Response to Problem 1: The No-Rest Objection
127(1)
Response to Problem 2: The Absurd-Implications Objection
127(1)
Response to Problem 3: The Integrity Objection
128(1)
Response to Problem 4: The Justice Objection
128(2)
Response to Problem 5: The Publicity Objection
130(1)
Conclusion
131(1)
For Further Reflection
132(2)
For Further Reading
134(1)
Notes
135(2)
Deontological Ethics: Intuitionism and Kantian Ethics
137(28)
Act-Deontological Theories
138(1)
Rule-Deontological Theories
139(3)
Kant's Rule-Deontological System
142(15)
The Categorical Imperative
143(6)
An Analysis of the First Formulation of Kant's Categorical Imperative
149(5)
Kant's Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative: Respect for Persons
154(2)
Kant's Third Formulation of the Categorical Imperative: The Principle of Autonomy
156(1)
An Assessment of Kant's System
157(1)
A Reconciliation Project
157(2)
For Further Reflection
159(2)
For Further Reading
161(1)
Notes
162(3)
Virtue-Based Ethical Theory
165(28)
Aretaic Ethics
166(3)
The Aretaic Critique of Action-Based Ethics
169(3)
Action-Based Ethics Lack a Motivational Component
169(1)
Action-Based Ethics Often Ignore the Spiritual Dimension of Ethics
170(2)
Aristotle's Virtue Ethics
172(2)
What Is the Relationship between Virtue and Principles?
174(10)
Pure Aretaic Ethics
175(2)
The Standard Deontic View: The Correspondence Thesis
177(4)
Complementarity (Pluralistic) Ethics
181(3)
Feminism and the Ethics of Care
184(2)
Care and Particularism
186(1)
Conclusion
187(1)
For Further Reflection
188(1)
For Further Reading
189(1)
Notes
190(3)
Human Rights
193(16)
Seba's Story
193(2)
The Moral Basis of Human Rights
195(2)
What Are Rights?
197(1)
Universal Basic Rights
198(2)
Kant's Thesis: Institutions Are Vehicles for Moral Progress
200(2)
The Limits of Rights
202(3)
Conclusion
205(1)
For Further Reflection
205(1)
For Further Reading
206(1)
Notes
207(2)
Conclusion: How Should We Live? 209(4)
Glossary 213(7)
Index 220

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