9781412937429

How to Teach Balanced Reading and Writing

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781412937429

  • ISBN10:

    1412937426

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-05-16
  • Publisher: Corwin Pr

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Summary

Presenting best practices in an easy-to-use format, literacy expert Bonnie Burns provides practical, research-based strategies for all aspects of literacy education.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Publisher's Acknowledgments xvii
About the Author xix
Balanced Reading and Writing
1(11)
The Reading Wars
2(1)
Combined Approaches
2(1)
Whole-Part-Whole Model of Instruction
3(4)
The First Whole in Literacy Instruction
4(1)
The Parts of Literacy Instruction
4(1)
The Final Whole in Literacy Instruction
5(2)
Teaching With a Whole-Part-Whole Approach
7(1)
Continuing to Define Balanced Instruction
7(1)
Integrating the Language Arts
8(1)
Levels of Support and Intensity of Instruction
9(1)
Balancing Student- and Teacher-Centered Instruction
10(2)
Getting Ready to Read
12(20)
Concept of Reading
12(2)
Language Acquisition
14(4)
Vocabulary Growth
15(1)
English Language Learners
16(1)
Activities for Language Development
17(1)
Sociocultural and Other Factors That Affect Reading
18(1)
Emergent Literacy
18(2)
Patterned Books
18(1)
Echo Reading
19(1)
Language Experience Activities
19(1)
Choral Reading
20(1)
Letter and Word Recognition
20(3)
Alphabet Knowledge
20(1)
Word Recognition
21(1)
Words With Text Support
22(1)
Comprehension and Beginning Readers
23(3)
Comprehension Development
23(1)
Monitoring Comprehension
24(1)
Miscues
25(1)
Practice, Practice, Practice
25(1)
Choosing Texts for Beginning Readers
26(3)
Predictable Text
26(1)
Decodable Text
27(1)
Texts With High-Frequency Words
27(1)
Aesthetically Constructed Text
28(1)
Vocabulary Control, Repetition, and Sentence Structure
28(1)
Emergent Writing
29(2)
Modeled Writing
29(1)
Shared Writing
29(1)
Genres and Purposes in Primary Writing
30(1)
Success in First Grade Is Critical
31(1)
Developing Phonemic Awareness
32(18)
Developing Phonemic Awareness
33(1)
The Alphabetic Principle
34(1)
Phonological Awareness and Alphabet Knowledge
35(1)
Alphabet Knowledge
35(1)
Rhyming
35(1)
Phonemic Awareness Skills
35(2)
Phoneme Identity and Phoneme Isolation
36(1)
Differentiating, or Odd One Out
36(1)
Blending
36(1)
Full Segmentation
36(1)
Sound Deletion
37(1)
Sound Substitution
37(1)
When Should Phonemic Awareness Be Taught?
37(1)
Balancing Phonemic Awareness
38(1)
Initial Activities for Learning Phonological Awareness
39(2)
Environmental Sounds, Whole Words, and Syllables
39(1)
Rhyming
40(1)
Phonemic Awareness Activities
41(5)
Phoneme Isolation
41(1)
Differentiating, or Odd One Out
41(1)
Phoneme Identity and Partial Segmentation
42(2)
Blending
44(1)
Full Segmentation
45(1)
Sound Deletion and Sound Substitution
45(1)
At-Risk Readers
46(2)
The Matthew Effect
47(1)
Early Intervention
47(1)
Resources for Phonemic Awareness
48(2)
Teaching Word Recognition
50(21)
The Debate About Phonics
50(2)
How Does Word Recognition Develop
52(5)
Visual Features
53(1)
Using the Context for Word Recognition
53(1)
Sight Words
53(1)
Letter-Sound Correspondence, or Phonics
53(1)
General Progression in Learning Phonics
54(2)
Word Families, Pattern, and Analogy
56(1)
Sight Words: The Stage of Automatic Decoding
56(1)
Syllabication and Morphology
57(1)
Word Recognition in a Balanced Reading Program
57(2)
Approaches to Teaching Phonics
59(1)
Activities to Teach Word Recognition
60(9)
Using Context
60(1)
Sounds to Words
60(1)
Words to Sounds
61(2)
Manipulating Words
63(1)
Manipulatives
64(1)
Technology
64(1)
Word Families, Phonograms, and Analogies
65(3)
Vowels
68(1)
Syllables
68(1)
Writing and Invented Spelling
69(1)
Phonics and Older Students Who Struggle With Reading
69(1)
Assessing Sound-Symbol Relationships
70(1)
Fluency
71(10)
Fluency Is Linked to Comprehension
71(1)
Assessing Fluency
72(1)
Factors Affecting Fluency
72(1)
Individual Methods for Improving Fluency
73(2)
Repeated Reading
73(1)
Assisted Reading and Other Similar Plans
74(1)
Whole-Class Methods for Improving Fluency
75(3)
Modeling
75(1)
Echo and Choral Reading
75(1)
Readers' Theatre
76(1)
Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction
77(1)
Fluency Prompts
77(1)
Repeated Reading in the Content Classroom
78(1)
Reading Rates
78(1)
Other Fluency Issues
78(2)
Thinking About Rate for Older Students
80(1)
Guided Reading
81(15)
What Is Guided Reading?
82(1)
Guided Reading Provides Scaffolding
82(1)
Benefits of Guided Reading
83(1)
Leveled Groups
83(1)
Planning and Logistical Management
84(1)
Procedures
85(2)
Teaching Comprehension During Guided Reading
87(1)
Modeling With Think-Alouds
87(1)
Questioning
87(6)
Literal, or ``Right There,'' Questions
88(1)
Think and Search Questions
88(1)
Inferential, or ``Author and You,'' Questions
89(1)
Critical, or ``On My Own,'' Questions
90(2)
Using the Levels of Questioning During Guided Reading
92(1)
Variations
93(3)
Directed Reading Thinking Activity
93(1)
Predicting and Visualizing on the Overhead
94(1)
Question Generation
94(2)
Grouping for Reading and Choosing Books
96(21)
Reading Groups
96(1)
Whole-Group Instruction
97(3)
Whole-Group Instruction With a Basal Program
97(1)
Literature Focus Units and Novel Units
97(1)
Scaffolded Reading
98(1)
Study Guides as Scaffolding
99(1)
Essential Questions and Grand Conversations
99(1)
Integrated Language Arts
100(1)
Small-Group Instruction
100(9)
Literature Circles
101(1)
Changing the Classroom Climate With Literature Circles
102(7)
Independent Reading
109(3)
Silent Sustained Reading, Drop Everything and Read, and Incentive Programs
110(1)
Readers' Workshop
110(2)
Responding to Literature
112(1)
Children Need to Read Extensively
112(1)
Choosing Books
113(3)
Determining Readability and Leveling Books
113(1)
Choosing Children's Literature
114(2)
The Advantage of Great Literature
116(1)
Teaching Strategies With Literature
116(1)
Instruction for Comprehension
117(24)
Capable and Less-Capable Readers
117(1)
An Instructional Model for Teaching Comprehension
118(1)
Factors Affecting Comprehension
119(2)
Fluency and Automaticity in Word Recognition
120(1)
Background, Prior Knowledge, and Schema
120(1)
Difficulty of the Text
121(1)
Motivation
121(1)
Comprehension Strategies
121(1)
Comprehension Activities for Before Reading
122(3)
Teaching Unfamiliar Concepts and Content
123(1)
Linking Background to New Content
123(1)
Unknown Vocabulary Words
124(1)
Visualizing, or Mental Imagery
124(1)
Comprehension Skills and Strategies During Reading
125(7)
Predicting and Confirming or Rejecting the Prediction
125(1)
Monitoring Comprehension and Thinking Aloud
126(2)
Monitoring During Independent Reading
128(2)
Generating Questions
130(1)
Using Fix-Up Strategies
130(2)
Comprehension Strategies for After Reading
132(2)
Using Story and Text Structure
132(1)
Summarizing
133(1)
Strategies for Higher Level Thinking: Inferring, Generalizing, Evaluating
134(4)
Inferring
134(1)
Generalizing and Evaluating
135(3)
Putting It All Together
138(1)
Influencing the Attitude and Motivation of Readers
138(3)
Interest
138(1)
Choice
139(1)
Success
139(1)
Providing Time
140(1)
Social Opportunity to Discuss Books
140(1)
The Teacher
140(1)
Vocabulary Instruction
141(20)
Vocabulary Development
142(1)
Depth of Word Knowledge
142(1)
Which Words Are Learned Most Easily?
143(1)
Is It Worthwhile to Teach Vocabulary?
143(1)
Indirect Teaching of Vocabulary
144(1)
Choosing Words for Direct Teaching
144(2)
Lack of Clues by the Author
144(1)
Words Important in General Usage
145(1)
Concept Words
145(1)
Words Used Inappropriately
145(1)
Words Critical to the Story Line
145(1)
Prereading Activities for Teaching Vocabulary Directly
146(6)
Using the Dictionary
147(1)
Enhanced Dictionary Assignments
147(1)
Presenting Vocabulary in Context
148(1)
Word Splash
149(1)
Concept Wheel
149(1)
Story Chain
150(1)
Vocab-o-Gram
150(1)
Possible Sentences
150(1)
Word Sorts
151(1)
Drawing and Labeling Pictures
151(1)
Extension Activities for Directly Teaching Vocabulary
152(4)
Character Trait Maps
152(1)
Semantic Gradient Scales
152(1)
Semantic Mapping
152(3)
Word Wall
155(1)
Frayer Model
155(1)
Word Play
156(1)
Teaching Students Strategies for Learning New Words
156(3)
Scaffolding
157(1)
Zip Cloze
157(1)
Context Clues
157(1)
Root and Affix Clues
158(1)
Reviewing Vocabulary With a Magic Square
159(1)
Assessing Vocabulary
159(2)
Teaching and Learning Spelling
161(18)
Stages of Spelling Development
161(6)
The Precommunicative Stage
162(1)
The Semiphonic Stage
162(1)
The Phonetic Stage
163(1)
The Transitional Stage
164(3)
The Conventional Stage
167(1)
Characteristics of Good and Poor Spellers
167(2)
Spelling Should Be Taught Developmentally
169(1)
Activities to Encourage or Teach Spelling
169(5)
Semiphonic and Phonetic Strategies
169(2)
Spelling by Analogy
171(1)
Word Walls
172(2)
Learning Spelling Through Reading and Writing
174(1)
Techniques for Transitional Spellers
174(2)
Word Sorts
174(1)
Directed Spelling Thinking Activity
174(1)
Spelling Multisyllable Words
175(1)
Resources
175(1)
Wide Reading and Writing
176(1)
Multisensory Techniques
176(1)
Spelling Rules
176(1)
Memorizing the Spelling Demons
176(1)
What About Spelling Tests?
177(2)
Balanced Writing
179(23)
Elements of the Writing Process
179(2)
Prewriting
180(1)
Drafting, Revising, and Editing
180(1)
Publishing
180(1)
Developmental Stages of Writing
181(1)
Kindergarten and First and Second Grades
181(1)
Third, Fourth, and Fifth Grades
182(1)
Older Students
182(1)
Balanced Writing Instruction
182(1)
Writers' Workshop
183(2)
Underlying Structure of Writers' Workshop
183(1)
The Teacher's Role in Writers' Workshop
184(1)
Structured Writing
185(13)
Scales and Rubrics to Judge the Quality of Writing
186(1)
Prewriting and Planning in Structured Writing
187(6)
Using Children's Literature as a Prewriting Activity: A Sample Lesson
193(1)
Drafting
194(1)
Revision
194(2)
Revising With Comparisons
196(1)
Editing
197(1)
Editing for Sentence Structure
197(1)
Audiences and Genres
198(1)
Writing in Response to Reading
198(3)
Genres and Formats
199(1)
Retellings, Summaries, and Other Response Formats
200(1)
Looking Back at Objectives and Balanced Writing
201(1)
Reading and Writing in the Content Areas
202(19)
The Differences Between a Textbook and a Novel
203(4)
Text Structures in Expository Texts
203(2)
Special Features in Textbooks
205(1)
Difficulty of Text
205(2)
Trade Books and Text Sets
207(1)
Removing Obstacles to Comprehension With Prereading Activities
208(2)
Prereading Plan
208(1)
KWL
209(1)
Artifacts and Examples
209(1)
Anticipation Guides
209(1)
Curiosity
210(1)
Structured Overviews
210(1)
Removing the Obstacles of Concept Vocabulary
210(3)
Word Splash
211(1)
Word Sort
212(1)
Webs and Semantic Maps for Vocabulary and Concepts
212(1)
Guiding Comprehension During the Reading Process
213(3)
Study Guides
214(1)
Graphic Organizers as Study Guides
214(2)
T Notes
216(1)
Discussions During or After Reading
216(1)
Responding to Texts After Reading
216(3)
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
216(2)
Open-Ended Responses
218(1)
Predicting Test Questions
218(1)
Formal Written Responses
218(1)
Creative Drama, Newspaper Articles, Diaries, and Letters
219(1)
Writing in Math
219(1)
Standard Techniques That Do Not Work Well
219(2)
Assessment
221(21)
Determining Reading Level With an Informal Reading Inventory
221(2)
Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills
223(1)
Reading Level Self-Assessment
223(1)
Diagnostic Assessment
223(7)
Assessing Word Recognition
223(1)
Running Records
224(1)
Miscue Analysis
225(3)
Assessing Comprehension
228(1)
Retelling and Summarizing
229(1)
Probing for Comprehension
230(1)
Informal Classroom Assessment
230(7)
Observation, Checklists, and Anecdotal Records
231(1)
Assignments as Assessment
231(1)
Writing as an Assessment of Reading
231(1)
Drawing as an Assessment of Reading
232(1)
Performance Assessment
232(3)
Rubrics
235(1)
Tests
236(1)
Self-Evaluation
236(1)
Standardized Assessment
237(4)
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
237(1)
High-Stakes Testing
238(2)
Test Preparation That Makes a Difference
240(1)
Assessing Assessment
241(1)
References 242(17)
Index 259

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