9780120884674

The Human Bone Manual

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780120884674

  • ISBN10:

    0120884674

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 9/29/2005
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Tim White and Pieter Folkens, the team behind the bestselling text, Human Osteology, Second Edition, have created the ideal concise guide for professional anthropologists, osteologists, law enforcement officers, and forensic specialists working with human bones in the field or laboratory. In addition to essential text information, hundreds of photographs are included, showing a maximum amount of anatomical information and providing a valuable tool in comparing specimens for rapid identification across the broad landscapes of law enforcement, forensics, anatomy, archaeology, and paleontology. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Preface 1(1)
Chapter 1 Introduction 1(6)
1.1 Human Osteology
1(1)
1.2 A Guide to the Manual
2(3)
1.3 Resources for the Osteologist
5(1)
1.4 Identifying Bones
5(2)
Chapter 2 Field Procedures for Skeletal Remains 7(14)
2.1 Search
8(1)
2.2 Discovery
8(1)
2.3 Excavation and Retrieval
9(11)
2.4 Transport
20(1)
Chapter 3 Ethics in Osteology 21(10)
3.1 Ethics in Forensic Osteology
21(3)
3.1.1 Boundaries of Evidence
22(1)
3.1.2 The Expert Witness
23(1)
3.2 Ethics in Archeological Osteology
24(7)
3.2.1 Ethics in Collision
25(3)
3.2.2 NAGPRA and Its Effects
28(1)
3.2.3 The Future
28(3)
Chapter 4 Bone Biology & Variation 31(18)
4.1 Variation
31(2)
4.2 A Few Facts about Bone
33(1)
4.3 Bones as Elements of the Musculoskeletal System
33(7)
4.4 Gross Anatomy of Bones
40(2)
4.5 Molecular Structure of Bone
42(1)
4.6 Histology and Metabolism of Bone
42(4)
4.7 Bone Growth
46(2)
4.8 Bone Repair
48(1)
Chapter 5 Postmortem Skeletal Modification 49(18)
5.1 Bone Fracture
50(2)
5.2 Bone Modification by Physical Agents
52(3)
5.2.1 Chemistry
52(2)
5.2.2 Rock, Earth, and Ice
54(1)
5.2.3 Abrasion
54(1)
5.2.4 Fire
54(1)
5.3 Bone Modification by Nonhuman Biological Agents
55(2)
5.3.1 Nonhuman Animal
55(2)
5.3.2 Plant
57(1)
5.4 Bone Modification by Humans
57(10)
5.4.1 Cut marks, Chop marks, and Scrape marks
60(2)
5.4.2 Percussion Marks
62(1)
5.4.3 Projectiles
62(5)
Chapter 6 Anatomical Terminology 67(8)
6.1 Planes of Reference
67(1)
6.2 Directional Terms
68(1)
6.2.1 General
68(1)
6.2.2 Teeth
69(1)
6.2.3 Hands and Feet
69(1)
6.3 Motions of the Body
69(3)
6.3.1 General
71(1)
6.3.2 Hands and Feet
72(1)
6.4 General Bone Features
72(3)
6.4.1 Projections and Parts
73(1)
6.4.2 Depressions
74(1)
Chapter 7 Skull 75(52)
7.1 Handling the Skull
75(2)
7.2 Elements of the Skull
77(7)
7.3 Growth and Architecture, Sutures and Sinuses
84(2)
7.4 Skull Orientation
86(1)
7.5 Learning Cranial Skeletal Anatomy
87(1)
7.6 Frontal
87(5)
7.6.1 Anatomy
87(4)
7.6.2 Growth
91(1)
7.6.3 Possible Confusion
91(1)
7.6.4 Siding
91(1)
7.7 Parietals
92(3)
7.7.1 Anatomy
92(2)
7.7.2 Growth
94(1)
7.7.3 Possible Confusion
94(1)
7.7.4 Siding
94(1)
7.8 Temporals
95(5)
7.8.1 Anatomy
95(3)
7.8.2 Growth
98(1)
7.8.3 Possible Confusion
99(1)
7.8.4 Siding
99(1)
7.9 Auditory Ossicles
100(1)
7.10 Occipital
100(4)
7.10.1 Anatomy
100(3)
7.10.2 Growth
103(1)
7.10.3 Possible Confusion
104(1)
7.10.4 Siding
104(1)
7.11 Maxillae
104(3)
7.11.1 Anatomy
104(2)
7.11.2 Growth
106(1)
7.11.3 Possible Confusion
107(1)
7.11.4 Siding
107(1)
7.12 Palatines
107(2)
7.12.1 Anatomy
107(2)
7.12.2 Growth
109(1)
7.12.3 Possible Confusion
109(1)
7.12.4 Siding
109(1)
7.13 Vomer
109(2)
7.13.1 Anatomy
109(1)
7.13.2 Growth
110(1)
7.13.3 Possible Confusion
110(1)
7.13.4 Siding
110(1)
7.14 Inferior Nasal Conchae
111(1)
7.14.1 Anatomy
111(1)
7.14.2 Growth
111(1)
7.14.3 Possible Confusion
111(1)
7.14.4 Siding
111(1)
7.15 Ethmoid
112(1)
7.15.1 Anatomy
112(1)
7.15.2 Growth
113(1)
7.15.3 Possible Confusion
113(1)
7.15.4 Siding
113(1)
7.16 Lacrimals
113(1)
7.16.1 Anatomy
113(1)
7.16.2 Growth
114(1)
7.16.3 Possible Confusion
114(1)
7.16.4 Siding
114(1)
7.17 Nasals
114(1)
7.17.1 Anatomy
114(1)
7.17.2 Growth
115(1)
7.17.3 Possible Confusion
115(1)
7.17.4 Siding
115(1)
7.18 Zygomatics
115(2)
7.18.1 Anatomy
115(1)
7.18.2 Growth
116(1)
7.18.3 Possible Confusion
116(1)
7.18.4 Siding
116(1)
7.19 Sphenoid
117(5)
7.19.1 Anatomy
117(4)
7.19.2 Growth
121(1)
7.19.3 Possible Confusion
121(1)
7.19.4 Siding
121(1)
7.20 Mandible
122(5)
7.20.1 Anatomy
122(4)
7.20.2 Growth
126(1)
7.20.3 Possible Confusion
126(1)
7.20.4 Siding
126(1)
Chapter 8 Dentition 127(28)
8.1 Dental Form and Function
127(1)
8.2 Dental Terminology
128(2)
8.3 Anatomy of a Tooth
130(1)
8.4 Tooth Identification
131(3)
8.5 To Which Category (Class) Does the Tooth Belong?
134(2)
8.5.1 Incisors
134(1)
8.5.2 Canines
134(2)
8.5.3 Premolars
136(1)
8.5.4 Molars
136(1)
8.6 Is the Tooth Permanent or Deciduous?
136(2)
8.6.1 Diagnostic Criteria
136(1)
8.6.2 Special Cases
136(2)
8.7 Is the Tooth an Upper or a Lower?
138(4)
8.7.1 Upper versus Lower Incisors
139(1)
8.7.2 Upper versus Lower Canines
139(1)
8.7.3 Upper versus Lower Premolars
140(1)
8.7.4 Upper versus Lower Molars
141(1)
8.8 Where in the Arch Is the Tooth Located?
142(6)
8.8.1 Upper Incisors: I versus I
142(1)
8.8.2 Lower Incisors: I versus I
142(2)
8.8.3 Upper Premolars: P versus P4
144(1)
8.8.4 Lower Premolars: P3 versus P4
144(2)
8.8.5 Upper Molars: M versus M versus M
146(1)
8.8.6 Lower Molars: M versus M versus M
147(1)
8.9 Is the Tooth from the Right or the Left Side?
148(7)
8.9.1 Upper Incisors
148(1)
8.9.2 Lower Incisors
148(1)
8.9.3 Upper Canines
148(1)
8.9.4 Lower Canines
149(1)
8.9.5 Upper Premolars
149(1)
8.9.6 Lower Premolars
150(2)
8.9.7 Upper Molars
152(1)
8.9.8 Lower Molars
152(3)
Chapter 9 Hyoid & Vertebrae 155(26)
9.1 Hyoid
155(1)
9.1.1 Anatomy
155(1)
9.1.2 Growth
156(1)
9.1.3 Possible Confusion
156(1)
9.1.4 Siding
156(1)
9.2 General Characteristics of Vertebrae
156(7)
9.2.1 Anatomy
157(5)
9.2.2 Growth
162(1)
9.3 Cervical Vertebrae
163(7)
9.3.1 Identification
163(1)
9.3.2 Special Cervical Vertebrae
163(6)
9.3.3 Siding
169(1)
9.4 Thoracic Vertebrae
170(6)
9.4.1 Identification
170(1)
9.4.2 Special Thoracic Vertebrae
170(6)
9.4.3 Siding
176(1)
9.5 Lumbar Vertebrae
176(5)
9.5.1 Identification
176(4)
9.5.2 Identifying Lumbar Position
180(1)
9.5.3 Siding
180(1)
Chapter 10 Thorax: Sternum & Ribs 181(12)
10.1 Sternum
181(4)
10.1.1 Anatomy
181(3)
10.1.2 Growth
184(1)
10.1.3 Possible Confusion
184(1)
10.1.4 Siding
185(1)
10.2 Ribs
185(8)
10.2.1 Anatomy
185(2)
10.2.2 Special Ribs
187(1)
10.2.3 Growth
187(1)
10.2.4 Possible Confusion
187(5)
10.2.5 Siding
192(1)
Chapter 11 Shoulder Girdle: Clavicle & Scapula 193(10)
11.1 Clavicle
193(2)
11.1.1 Anatomy
193(2)
11.1.2 Growth
195(1)
11.1.3 Possible Confusion
195(1)
11.1.4 Siding
195(1)
11.2 Scapula
195(8)
11.2.1 Anatomy
195(6)
11.2.2 Growth
201(1)
11.2.3 Possible Confusion
201(1)
11.2.4 Siding
202(1)
Chapter 12 Arm: Humerus, Radius, & Ulna 203(22)
12.1 Humerus
208(6)
12.1.1 Anatomy
208(4)
12.1.2 Growth
212(2)
12.1.3 Possible Confusion
214(1)
12.1.4 Siding
214(1)
12.2 Radius
214(5)
12.2.1 Anatomy
214(1)
12.2.2 Growth
215(1)
12.2.3 Possible Confusion
215(1)
12.2.4 Siding
216(3)
12.3 Ulna
219(6)
12.3.1 Anatomy
219(1)
12.3.2 Growth
220(1)
12.3.3 Possible Confusion
220(2)
12.3.4 Siding
222(3)
Chapter 13 Hand: Carpals, Metacarpals, & Phalanges 225(16)
13.1 Carpals
228(5)
13.1.1 Scaphoid
229(1)
13.1.2 Lunate
229(1)
13.1.3 Triquetral
230(1)
13.1.4 Pisiform
230(1)
13.1.5 Trapezium (Greater Multangular)
231(1)
13.1.6 Trapezoid (Lesser Multangular)
231(1)
13.1.7 Capitate
232(1)
13.1.8 Hamate
232(1)
13.1.9 Growth
233(1)
13.1.10 Possible Confusion
233(1)
13.2 Metacarpals
233(6)
13.2.1 First Metacarpal (Thumb)
236(1)
13.2.2 Second Metacarpal
236(1)
13.2.3 Third Metacarpal
236(1)
13.2.4 Fourth Metacarpal
236(2)
13.2.5 Fifth Metacarpal
238(1)
13.2.6 Growth
238(1)
13.2.7 Possible Confusion
239(1)
13.2.8 Siding
239(1)
13.3 Hand Phalanges
239(2)
13.3.1 Proximal Hand Phalanges
240(1)
13.3.2 Intermediate Hand Phalanges
240(1)
13.3.3 Distal Hand Phalanges
240(1)
13.3.4 Growth
240(1)
13.3.5 Possible Confusion
240(1)
13.3.6 Siding
240(1)
Chapter 14 Pelvic Girdle: Sacrum, Coccyx, & Os Coxae 241(14)
14.1 Sacrum
241(4)
14.1.1 Anatomy
241(3)
14.1.2 Growth
244(1)
14.1.3 Possible Confusion
244(1)
14.1.4 Siding
245(1)
14.2 Coccyx
245(1)
14.3 Os Coxae
246(9)
14.3.1 Anatomy
246(6)
14.3.2 Growth
252(1)
14.3.3 Possible Confusion
252(1)
14.3.4 Siding
252(3)
Chapter 15 Leg: Femur, Patella, Tibia, & Fibula 255(32)
15.1 Femur
255(15)
15.1.1 Anatomy
255(12)
15.1.2 Growth
267(1)
15.1.3 Possible Confusion
267(1)
15.1.4 Siding
267(3)
15.2 Patella
270(1)
15.2.1 Anatomy
270(1)
15.2.2 Growth
270(1)
15.2.3 Possible Confusion
270(1)
15.2.4 Siding
271(1)
15.3 Tibia
271(9)
15.3.1 Anatomy
271(8)
15.3.2 Growth
279(1)
15.3.3 Possible Confusion
279(1)
15.3.4 Siding
279(1)
15.4 Fibula
280(7)
15.4.1 Anatomy
280(1)
15.4.2 Growth
281(1)
15.4.3 Possible Confusion
281(1)
15.4.4 Siding
281(6)
Chapter 16 Foot: Tarsals, Metatarsals, & Phalanges 287(22)
16.1 Tarsals
292(8)
16.1.1 Talus
292(2)
16.1.2 Calcaneus
294(2)
16.1.3 Cuboid
296(1)
16.1.4 Navicular
297(1)
16.1.5 Medial (First) Cuneiform
298(1)
16.1.6 Intermediate (Second) Cuneiform
298(1)
16.1.7 Lateral (Third) Cuneiform
298(2)
16.1.8 Growth
300(1)
16.1.9 Possible Confusion
300(1)
16.2 Metatarsals
300(6)
16.2.1 First Metatarsal
300(5)
16.2.2 Second Metatarsal
305(1)
16.2.3 Third Metatarsal
305(1)
16.2.4 Fourth Metatarsal
305(1)
16.2.5 Fifth Metatarsal
305(1)
16.2.6 Growth
306(1)
16.2.7 Possible Confusion
306(1)
16.2.8 Siding
306(1)
16.3 Foot Phalanges
306(3)
16.3.1 Proximal Foot Phalanges
306(1)
16.3.2 Intermediate Foot Phalanges
306(1)
16.3.3 Distal Foot Phalanges
306(1)
16.3.4 Growth
307(1)
16.3.5 Possible Confusion
307(1)
16.3.6 Siding
308(1)
Chapter 17 Osteological & Dental Pathology 309(24)
17.1 Trauma
312(5)
17.1.1 Fracture
312(2)
17.1.2 Dislocation
314(1)
17.1.3 Artificial Deformation
314(1)
17.1.4 Trephination and Amputation
315(2)
17.2 Infectious Diseases and Associated Manifestations
317(3)
17.2.1 Osteomyelitis
318(1)
17.2.2 Periostitis
318(1)
17.2.3 Tuberculosis
318(2)
17.2.4 Treponemal Infections
320(1)
17.3 Circulatory Disturbances and Hematopoietic Disorders
320(3)
17.4 Metabolic and Hormonal Imbalance
323(2)
17.4.1 Scurvy
323(1)
17.4.2 Rickets
323(1)
17.4.3 Osteoporosis
323(1)
17.4.4 Endocrine Disturbances and Dysplasias
324(1)
17.5 Tumors
325(1)
17.6 Arthritis
325(3)
17.6.1 Osteoarthritis
325(2)
17.6.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis
327(1)
17.6.3 Ankylosing Spondylitis
328(1)
17.7 Dental Pathology
328(3)
17.7.1 Caries
329(1)
17.7.2 Dental Hypoplasia
329(1)
17.7.3 Periodontal Disease
330(1)
17.7.4 Dental Calculus
330(1)
17.7.5 Artificial Dental Modification
331(1)
17.8 Occupation
331(2)
Chapter 18 Laboratory Procedures & Reporting 333(27)
18.1 Setting
333(1)
18.2 Preservation
334(1)
18.3 Preparation
335(3)
18.4 Restoration
338(1)
18.5 Sorting
339(1)
18.6 Metric Acquisition and Analysis
340(4)
18.7 Molecular Osteology
344(4)
18.7.1 Sampling
345(1)
18.7.2 DNA and PCR
346(1)
18.7.3 Contamination
347(1)
18.7.4 Taphonomy of DNA
347(1)
18.8 Molding and Casting
348(1)
18.9 Photography
348(5)
18.9.1 Equipment
349(1)
18.9.2 Exposure and Film (or other recording media)
350(1)
18.9.3 Lighting and Setup
351(1)
18.9.4 Legal Considerations
352(1)
18.10 Radiography
353(1)
18.11 Microscopy
353(1)
18.12 Computing
354(1)
18.13 Reporting
355(3)
18.14 Curation
358(2)
Chapter 19 The Skeletal Biology of Individuals & Populations
19.1 Accuracy and Precision of Estimation
360(2)
19.2 From Known to Unknown
362(1)
19.3 Estimation of Age
363(22)
19.3.1 Estimating Subadult Age from Dentition
364(1)
19.3.2 Estimating Adult Age from Dentition
365(4)
19.3.3 Estimating Adult Age from Cranial Suture Closure
369(4)
19.3.4 Estimating Subadult Age from Long-Bone Length
373(1)
19.3.5 Estimating Subadult Age from Epiphyseal Closure
373(1)
19.3.6 Estimating Adult Age from the Pubic Symphysis Surface
374(6)
19.3.7 Parturition Changes at the Pubic Symphysis
380(1)
19.3.8 Estimating Adult Age from the Auricular Surface of the Ilium
380(1)
19.3.9 Estimating Adult Age from the Sternal Rib End
381(1)
19.3.10 Estimating Adult Age by Radiographic Analysis
381(1)
19.3.11 Estimating Adult Age from Bone Microstructure
381(3)
19.3.12 Multifactorial Age Estimation
384(1)
19.4 Determination of Sex
385(13)
19.4.1 Sexing the Skull and Dentition
386(1)
19.4.2 Sexing the Postcranial Skeleton
387(11)
19.5 Estimation of Stature
398(2)
19.6 Estimation of Ancestry
400(4)
19.7 Identifying the Individual
404(2)
19.8 Discrete Traits
406(4)
19.8.1 Dental Nonmetric Variation
407(1)
19.8.2 Cranial Nonmetric Variation
407(3)
19.8.3 Postcranial Nonmetric Variation
410(1)
19.9 Estimating Biological Distance
410(1)
19.10 Diet
411(3)
19.11 Disease and Demography
414(5)
Glossary 419(8)
Appendix Web Review 427(2)
Bibliography 429(24)
Index 453

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